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GIS for Housing and Urban Development Committee on Review of Geographic Information Systems Research and Applications at HUD: Current Programs and Future Prospects Committee on Geography Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. O-OPC-21952 Task Order One between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08874-7 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624-6242 (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) Internet, http://www.nap.edu Cover: Background: Share of home mortgage applications in Atlanta, Georgia without race-ethnicity information, 1999. Pattern confirms that nondisclosure rates are highest in predominantly African-American neighborhoods. SOURCE: Wyly, E. K., and S. R. Holloway. 2002. The Disappearance of Race in Mortgage Lending. Economic Geography 78(2):129-163 Top left: Urban rowhouse in Washington, D.C. SOURCE: Monica Lipscomb, Washington, D.C. Center left: GIS made available via community data centers can engage citizens in urban and regional planning as demonstrated by this photograph. SOURCE: Photodisc stock photos, Technology at Work. Copyright 1999 CORBIS. Bottom right: Examples of data layer overlays including (from top to bottom) land ownership, demographics, transportation and aerial imagery. SOURCE: National States Geographic Information Council and Federal Geographic Data Committee. nd. Using Geography to Advance the Business of Government: The Power of Place to Support Decision Making. CD-ROM. Washington, D.C.: NSGIC. Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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COMMITTEE ON REVIEW OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS AT HUD: CURRENT PROGRAMS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS ERIC A. ANDERSON, Chair, City of Des Moines, Iowa NINA S-N. LAM, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Baton Rouge KATHE A. NEWMAN, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey TIMOTHY L. NYERGES, University of Washington, Seattle NANCY J. OBERMEYER, Indiana State University, Terre Haute MYRON ORFIELD, Ameregis, Minneapolis, Minnesota JOHN PICKLES, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill DANIEL Z. SUI, Texas A&M University, College Station PAUL A. WADDELL, University of Washington, Seattle National Research Council Staff LISA M.VANDEMARK, Study Director MONICA R. LIPSCOMB, Research Assistant VERNA J. BOWEN, Administrative Associate
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COMMITTEE ON GEOGRAPHY BILLIE L. TURNER II, Chair, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts BERNARD O. BAUER, University of Southern California, Los Angeles RUTH S. DEFRIES, University of Maryland, College Park ROGER M. DOWNS, Pennsylvania State University, University Park MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD, University of California, Santa Barbara SUSAN HANSON, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts SARA L. McLAFFERTY, University of Illinois, Urbana ELLEN S. MOSLEY-THOMPSON, Ohio State University, Columbus ERIC S. SHEPPARD, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis National Research Council Staff KRISTEN L. KRAPF, Program Officer MONICA R. LIPSCOMB, Research Assistant VERNA J. BOWEN, Administrative Associate
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BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville JILL BANFIELD, University of California, Berkeley STEVEN R. BOHLEN, Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Washington, D.C. VICKI J. COWART, Colorado Geological Survey, Denver DAVID L. DILCHER, University of Florida, Gainesville ADAM M. DZIEWONSKI, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts WILLIAM L. GRAF, University of South Carolina, Columbia RHEA GRAHAM, New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, Albuquerque V. RAMA MURTHY, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis DIANNE R. NIELSON, Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Salt Lake City RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen’s University, Ontario, Canada MARK SCHAEFER, NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia BILLIE L. TURNER II, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts THOMAS J. WILBANKS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee National Research Council Staff ANTHONY R. DE SOUZA, Director TAMARA L. DICKINSON, Senior Program Officer DAVID A. FEARY, Senior Program Officer ANNE M. LINN, Senior Program Officer PAUL M. CUTLER, Program Officer KRISTEN L. KRAPF, Program Officer KERI H. MOORE, Program Officer LISA M. VANDEMARK, Program Officer YVONNE P. FORSBERGH, Research Assistant MONICA R. LIPSCOMB, Research Assistant VERNA J. BOWEN, Administrative Associate JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Administrative Associate RADHIKA S. CHARI, Senior Project Assistant KAREN L. IMHOF, Senior Project Assistant TERESIA K. WILMORE, Project Assistant WINFIELD SWANSON, Editor
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Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making their published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Libby Clapp, Office of the Chief Technology Officer, Government of the District of Columbia, Washington, D.C. Joseph Ferreira, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Edward G. Goetz, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Sharon Krefetz, Clark University, Worchester, Massachusetts Harold Wolman, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. Although the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John S. Adams, Department of Geography, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Appointed by the National
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Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the NRC.
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Preface Rapid development of technology has become matter of fact in our daily lives. With the increasing speed of computers, reduction in their cost, and regular development of new software, computers are becoming more accessible and useful to everyday Americans. We begin to see computers as a regular and unremarkable part of our daily lives, however; the pace of integration of new technologies into our organizational structures, public and private, is much slower than the development of those technologies. Nowhere is this clearer than in the development and utilization of geographic information systems (GIS). The potential of GIS to inform housing and urban research and applications is the subject of this report. GIS is software that uses geographic (spatial) location as the organizing principle for collection, storage, analysis, and presentation of information in digital form. It began as a tool for planning, moved forward into engineering through CAD (computer aided drafting), and has rapidly developed into the best enterprise software available for management and decision support. In the past 20 years, GIS has developed rapidly, increasing its potential for effective use in both public and private organizations. However, development of effective enterprise uses of GIS and creation of a national infrastructure supporting its use have been slow. With the work of the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) and all the federal, state, and local participants in their work, the concept of the national spatial data infrastructure (NSDI) has begun to move from an idea to reality. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
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has a role to play in the FGDC, specifically in the development of data about urban areas. HUD’s mission is to promote adequate and affordable housing, economic opportunity, and a suitable living environment free from discrimination for all Americans (HUD, 2002). The daily work of the department fosters the use of GIS and the development of locational data in the housing agencies throughout the country. HUD’s Office of Policy Development and Research is central to this effort. HUD asked the Committee on Geography of the National Research Council to review its work and that of its local housing agencies in the development and use of GIS. The agency asked for recommendations to maximize the quality and use of its information, and that of the local housing agencies with which it works. To address this charge, the Committee to Review Research and Applications of GIS at HUD: Current and Future Programs held three meetings between February 2002 and July 2002. These meetings included testimony from HUD staff and other experts in GIS applications in areas of neighborhood change and discrimination, housing, and metropolitan research and technical tools needed for effective dissemination and data accuracy. As background, the committee reviewed relevant HUD documents, pertinent National Research Council reports, and other literature and technical reports, and engaged in discussion with other federal agencies whose responsibilities include urban and community issues. This report is written for multiple audiences. The network of people who use HUD’s data for policy and research purposes is a broad community: professors and students at colleges and universities, policy makers and analysts working for local governments, HUD program managers and research scientists, and neighborhood leaders and residents employed by community-based organizations. The committee heard presentations from and interviewed representatives from the U.S. Bureau of the Census, the U.S. Department of Transportation, the Federal Geographic Data Committee, and public, non-profit, and private sector groups at the national, state, and local levels. I would like to thank all the members of the ad hoc committee, the workshop contributors and presenters, and the National Research Council staff for their efforts in creating this report. In addition, I thank the Committee on Geography for the opportunity to serve and be involved in this effort. Eric A. Anderson Chair
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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 17 History and Role of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, 17 HUD’s Office of Policy Development and Research, 19 Geographic Data for Policy and Research at HUD, 19 GIS and a Changing America, 23 HUD and the Evolution of Urban Issues, 24 Study and Report, 27 2 ENSURING THE AVAILABILITY, ACCURACY, AND RELEVANCE OF URBAN AND HOUSING DATA 29 The Spatial Data Challenge, 29 Ensuring Data Accuracy and Relevance, 38 The Need for an Urban Data Infrastructure, 45 Summary, 49 3 DATA DISSEMINATION AND SOFTWARE TOOLS 51 HUD Data Users, 51 Data Dissemination, 58 HUD GIS Support Tools, 63 Summary, 67
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4 RESEARCH AND POLICY DEVELOPMENT 69 The Spatial Dimensions of Urban Poverty, 70 Monitoring Housing Market Conditions and Trends, 81 Priorities for Geographic Analysis of Urban and Housing Issues, 87 Summary, 92 5 THE ROLE OF PARTNERSHIPS 93 Building Interagency Partnerships to Share Data, 94 HUD’s Partners and Relationships, 95 Summary, 104 REFERENCES 107 APPENDIXES A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 115 B Other Contributors 119 C Workshop Agenda 123 D Acronym List 127