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This summary is funded in part by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Task order 56-DKNA-0-95111); Federal Emergency Management Agency (EMW-2001-SA-0051); by Pacific, Gas, and Electric; and the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (W-24245). The views expressed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of NOAA or any of its subagencies, NASA, or FEMA.

Supported by the U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, under assistance award No. 00HQAG0205. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the author and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Government.

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMS-0226189. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in the material are those of the authors and do not reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

This forum was supported by the National Academies’ Committee on Global Change Research with funding from the U.S. Global Change Research Program via the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (contract # NASW-01008).

Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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