Shot BRAVO (Goetz et al., 1987). In the dose reconstruction for that group, ingestion of radionuclides that had deposited on food eaten during the period of fallout was considered to be the most important intake pathway.15

It also should be noted that ingestion dose coefficients are used in estimating doses due to inhalation of large particles (AMAD, 20 μm). When inhalation of large particles is assumed, ingestion dose coefficients are applied to the large fraction of inhaled activity that is assumed to be transferred from the nose and throat to the GI tract by swallowing.

IV.C.4 Absorption Through the Skin or Open Wound

Intakes of radionuclides due to absorption through the skin or an open wound are rarely considered in any dose assessment. The one exception is in cases of exposure to an atmospheric cloud of 3H in the form of tritiated water vapor, when intakes by skin absorption usually are assumed to be half the estimated intakes by inhalation (ICRP, 1979a).

Documentation of the FIIDOS computer code (Egbert et al., 1985) does not include consideration of intakes of radionuclides by absorption through the skin or an open wound. Therefore, the NTPR program presumably has not considered those intake pathways in dose reconstructions for atomic veterans. Absorption through intact skin is unlikely to be important, but absorption through an open wound or cut could have occurred when a veteran had such a condition and radioactive materials were deposited on the affected part of the body surface. That situation could occur, for example, while a person was digging a trench or crawling in a contaminated area.16


After Japan surrendered on September 2, 1945, US military forces occupied Hiroshima and Nagasaki and therefore may have been exposed to residual radioactive contamination from the August 6 and 9 atomic bombings. In addition, some prisoners of war (POWs) were exposed before arrival of occupation forces. This section describes methods used in the NTPR program to estimate doses to service personnel in Japan.

The Manhattan Engineering District conducted radiological surveys in Nagasaki from September 20 to October 6 and in Hiroshima from October 3 to 7. The Naval Medical Research Institute conducted surveys in Nagasaki from October 15


The committee found one other case of a dose reconstruction for a participant in which the possibility of ingestion exposure was mentioned, but an ingestion dose was not estimated.


In its review of dose reconstructions, the committee encountered very few cases in which the existence of an open wound was mentioned by a veteran.

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