. "V. Committee's Findings Related to NTPR Dose Reconstruction Program." A Review of the Dose Reconstruction Program of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2003.
aEstimates given by Bouville et al. (1994) and NCRP (1998). Effective dose is weighted average of equivalent doses to different organs and tissues (ICRP, 1991a).
bInhaled materials are assumed to be attached to respirable particles (AMAD, 1 μm), except that 3H (HTO) and 14C (CO2) are assumed to be in vapor and gaseous form, respectively.
cRatio of the upper limit of a 90% confidence interval of a subjective probability distribution of the effective dose per unit activity intake by healthy adult males to the effective dose coefficient recommended by ICRP; that is, the 95th percentile of an assumed probability distribution exceeds ICRP’s recommended value by the uncertainty factor (see Section V.C.3.2, comment ).
 Dose coefficients for inhalation of alpha-emitting radionuclides, such as plutonium, used in dose reconstructions incorporate an assumption that the biological effectiveness of alpha particles is 20 times that of photons and electrons, without uncertainty. However, a credible upper-bound estimate of the biological effectiveness of alpha particles is substantially higher than the assumed value.
Dose coefficients for inhalation of alpha-emitting radionuclides used in dose reconstructions incorporate a standard assumption recommended by ICRP (1977;