Index

A

ABLE, Shot, 17

Absorption, through the skin or open wound, 107

Activation products, 361

neutron-induced, 180–181

Activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD), 102–104, 107, 169–173, 175–176, 178–179, 187, 212–214, 224, 250, 289, 320, 361

Ainsworth, USS, 284–285

Al-Nabulsi, Isaf

Otchin’s letter to, 333–334

Schaeffer’s letters to, 315–329, 331–332

Alamogordo bombing range, 16

Allen M. Sumner, USS, 161

Alpha particles, 32, 105, 185, 362

Alpha radiation, 54, 362

AMAD. See Activity median aerodynamic diameter

APPLE-I, Shot, 194, 201

APPLE-II, Shot, 130–131, 137, 201

ARGUS, Operation, 17

Assumptions

about random locations, 150

about shielding factors, 126

inconsistent application of, 128

with substantial uncertainty or tending to underestimate inhalation dose, 182–210

tending to overestimate inhalation dose, 101, 169–182

used in internal dose screen, 241–242

Atmospheric nuclear-weapons detonations exposing military personnel, 26

locations of, 19

Atmospheric testing, 51–52, 55, 362

Atomic bomb, 179, 362

“Atomic veterans,” x, 362

an underutilized resource, 3

compensation program for, 22

concerns expressed by, 42–43

data solicited from, 23

dose reconstructions for, 38–41, 335–348

frustration of, 236–237

giving the benefit of the doubt, 3, 25, 38–40

interaction with, 47–48

need to better inform, 3–4, 238–239, 260

Average doses, 2

on USS Salt Lake City, 79

B

Backscatter, 84

Badged dose

See also Film badges



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Index A ABLE, Shot, 17 Absorption, through the skin or open wound, 107 Activation products, 361 neutron-induced, 180–181 Activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD), 102–104, 107, 169–173, 175–176, 178–179, 187, 212–214, 224, 250, 289, 320, 361 Ainsworth, USS, 284–285 Al-Nabulsi, Isaf Otchin’s letter to, 333–334 Schaeffer’s letters to, 315–329, 331–332 Alamogordo bombing range, 16 Allen M. Sumner, USS, 161 Alpha particles, 32, 105, 185, 362 Alpha radiation, 54, 362 AMAD. See Activity median aerodynamic diameter APPLE-I, Shot, 194, 201 APPLE-II, Shot, 130–131, 137, 201 ARGUS, Operation, 17 Assumptions about random locations, 150 about shielding factors, 126 inconsistent application of, 128 with substantial uncertainty or tending to underestimate inhalation dose, 182–210 tending to overestimate inhalation dose, 101, 169–182 used in internal dose screen, 241–242 Atmospheric nuclear-weapons detonations exposing military personnel, 26 locations of, 19 Atmospheric testing, 51–52, 55, 362 Atomic bomb, 179, 362 “Atomic veterans,” x, 362 an underutilized resource, 3 compensation program for, 22 concerns expressed by, 42–43 data solicited from, 23 dose reconstructions for, 38–41, 335–348 frustration of, 236–237 giving the benefit of the doubt, 3, 25, 38–40 interaction with, 47–48 need to better inform, 3–4, 238–239, 260 Average doses, 2 on USS Salt Lake City, 79 B Backscatter, 84 Badged dose See also Film badges

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BADGER, Shot, 149 BAKER, Shot, 17, 78 BANEBERRY, Shot, 356–357 Barss report, 80, 82–85, 116–118, 160, 164–165 Basal cell carcinomas, 63, 362 Basal cells, 81, 362 Battalion Combat Teams (BCTs), 113–114, 139 Bechtel Nevada, 309, 317, 323 Becquerel (Bq), 362 BEIR V. See Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation Benefit of the doubt denied to atomic veterans, 128, 137, 140, 143–145 given to atomic veterans, 3, 25, 38–40 importance of, 39–40, 230, 265 Beta particles, 32, 34, 363 skin and eye doses from exposure to, 3, 66, 80–81 Beta radiation, 21, 54, 63, 80, 140, 363 adjusting, 82 Beta skin and eye dose estimates, 160–166 Beta-to-gamma dose ratios, 81–84, 116–117, 363 for contaminated surfaces used at Pacific tests, 83 Bias, 68, 363 correction of, 72 See also Accuracy; Precision Bias factors, 315, 363 introduced into film-badge data reporting, 72 Bikini Atoll, nuclear testing in, 17, 73, 78, 218, 283 Bile duct cancer, 24 Bingham, New Mexico, 17 Bioassay program to assess internal exposures to plutonium, 247–248 Biokinetic model, 101, 170, 187, 363 Biological effectiveness, 363 of alpha particles, 105, 185 of neutrons, 159 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR V), 165 Biological responses, 105, 363 “Black rain,” 107 Blast-wave effects, 21 analysis of potential inhalation doses due to, 335–348 discussion of dose reconstructions for participant groups, 345–347 discussion of example analysis and importance of inhalation doses, 342–344 effects of neglected, 3, 204–205 implications for dose reconstructions for atomic veterans, 335–348 implications of, 344–345 at Operation PLUMBBOB, Shot HOOD, 339–342 radiation environment in forward areas at Shot HOOD, 335–338 Boarding parties, 73, 78 BOLTZMANN, Shot, 201 Bone cancer, 25, 178 Bq. See Becquerel Brain cancer, 25 BRAVO, Shot, 106–107, 184, 218, 283–285, 328 Breast cancer, 24 BRER. See Board on Radiation Effects Research Bronchiolo-alveolar cancer, 25 Burden of proof, 66 Bushey, Frank, 165 BUSTER-JANGLE, Operation, 17, 139, 194, 196 C C. See Coulomb C and P. See Compensation and Pension Service Calculations, problem with illegible, 4 Calibration errors, 71, 363 Camp Desert Rock (CDR), 22, 137 Camp Mercury, 136 Cancers, 177–179, 255, 363 listed as radiogenic, 24–25, 363 Case #22, 125, 128, 144, 180, 212, 282–285 dose summary report, 282 external dose assessment, 284 internal dose assessment, 285 total dose summary, 285 unit and personal activities, 283 Case #60, 212, 234, 238, 286–290 dose summary report, 286 external dose assessment, 288 internal dose assessment, 289 total dose summary, 285 unit and personal activities, 287

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Cases #1-99, 141, 158, 291–299 #1, 208, 234 #2, 160 #3, 212, 215n, 234 #4, 160, 234 #5, 212 #6, 146, 209, 234 #7, 180, 207 #8, 180, 212, 234, 245 #9, 144, 146, 160–163, 165, 234 #10, 143–144 #11, 143–144 #12, 160–163 #15, 125, 146, 238 #16, 144, 194, 212 #17, 144, 160 #18, 160, 234, 245 #19, 160, 234 #20, 160 #21, 144, 180, 194, 234, 245 #23, 180, 194, 245 #24, 145, 209 #25, 145, 160, 162–163, 209 #26, 146, 165, 234 #27, 125, 144, 180, 194, 245 #28, 126, 160, 208 #29, 160, 207 #30, 208 #31, 180, 194 #32, 125, 143–144, 212, 245 #33, 125, 144 #34, 208 #35, 142–143, 145, 160 #36, 144, 180, 245 #37, 125, 137, 201, 234 #38, 144–145, 160, 180, 212, 234, 245 #39, 146, 160–163 #40, 125, 136–137, 144, 160–163, 234 #41, 245 #42, 142 #43, 180, 212, 234 #44, 142, 144, 209 #45, 128, 154 #47, 125, 135–136, 143–144, 180, 212, 234, 245 #48, 154 #49, 128, 154, 208, 234, 238 #52, 208 #53, 125, 128, 154, 234–235 #54, 142–144, 160, 208 #55, 136, 142, 160, 208, 250n #56, 208 #57, 234–235 #58, 145, 180, 193, 212, 215n, 238 #59, 144, 234, 245 #63, 180, 193, 212, 239, 245 #64, 160–163 #65, 160, 234 #66, 160–163 #67, 160 #68, 145–146, 234, 245 #69, 145 #70, 160 #71, 160–161 #73, 125, 135, 234, 245 #74, 143 #76, 245 #77, 125, 129–132, 201, 234–235 #78, 180, 194, 212, 234–235, 245 #80, 194 #81, 125, 144, 245 #82, 142, 234 #83, 125, 201 #84, 125, 138–139 #85, 234 #87, 125, 137, 144, 160, 194 #88, 125, 160 #89, 125, 207 #90, 201 #91, 249n #92, 144 #93, 125, 139, 144, 160 #94, 144, 180, 193, 245 #96, 160–164, 180, 212 #97, 125, 143–145, 160–163 #98, 125, 144, 180, 234, 245 #99, 125, 138, 144, 207–208, 248 See also Contributed case CASTLE, Operation, 17, 106–107, 126–127, 135, 148, 152, 156, 184, 210, 218, 283–284, 315–316, 328 CBR Defense Team Training, 131 CDR. See Camp Desert Rock Central estimates, 111, 114, 142–147, 157–159, 214, 364 CEPXS radiation transport code, 80, 329 CFR. See Code of Federal Regulations; Legislation CHARLESTON, Shot, 194, 201 Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 24, 364 Ci. See Curie

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CIC. See Coordination and Information Center CIRRPC. See Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination Claims appealing, 54, 133–134 communications with veterans, 56–57 filed under nonpresumptive regulation, 52–54 filed under presumptive regulation, 54–56 granted for nonpresumptive diseases, 252–253 medical opinions and probability of causation, 57–64 need for veterans to request re-evaluation of prior, 3 process of submitting and deciding, 51–64 VA adjudication of, 45 Clothing modification factors, 84 Clothing Test Project, 131 Cloud-sampling aircraft, 130 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 25, 51–52, 54, 364 See also Legislation Coefficient of variation (CV), 114–115, 150, 156, 364 “Cohort” film badges, 71, 79, 146, 364 Colon cancer, 25, 58–59 Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC), 58–62, 250, 333–334 Communication, with atomic veterans, 56–57, 236–239 Compensation, 24 decisions about, 36, 253–256 defining appropriate, 24 fixed rate, 323 re-evaluations of prior decisions about, 248–251 Compensation and Pension (C and P) Service, 50, 54, 57 Composite beta dose coefficient, for immersion in fallout-contaminated air, 85 Concentrations, 81–82, 340 Concentrations of radionuclides in air in an atmospheric cloud, 99–100 in descending fallout, 97–99 fractionation of radionuclides, 92–94 inhalation of suspended neutron activation products in soil, 96–97 methods of estimating, 88–101 methods of estimating concentrations of radionuclides in air, 100–101 in resuspended fallout, 89–92 resuspension of radionuclides in deposited fallout, 94–96 shots at Nevada Test Site taking inhalation of resuspended fallout from previous shots into account, 92 Concerns of veterans, 41–43 Confidence interval, 36n, 66n, 364 Congress, 23–24 questions raised by, 28 See also Legislation; Senate Contaminated areas at NTS bulldozer clearing path through, 138 resuspension factors normally assumed for various activities of atomic veterans in, 95 Contaminated food and water, 215n Contaminated ships in the Pacific, resuspension factors normally assumed for various activities of participants on, 96 Contributed case, 132–135 Coordination and Information Center (CIC), 152, 154 Coulomb (C), 367 Credibility limit, 58 doses (rad) to the affected organ or tissue based on 95%, 60 doses (rad) to the affected organ or tissue based on 99%, 61 of estimated upper bounds of inhalation dose, 224–226 CROSSROADS, Operation, 17, 27, 76–77, 128, 135, 153, 155–156, 191, 208, 232 Crystal Ball® 2000 software, 214 Curie (Ci), 365 Curtis, USS, 152 CV. See Coefficient of variation D Daily dose tables, 73 Decisioneering, Inc., 214n Decontamination techniques, 116, 125, 152 Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), 5, 23, 237, 310 See also Defense Threat Reduction Agency

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Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), 1–2, 4–6, 8, 11–13, 16, 22–25, 27, 44–45, 47, 49, 51–57, 73, 119, 122–123, 141, 143n, 245–246, 321 Committee to Review the Dose Reconstruction Program, ix, 306 Demarcation line, 125 Department of Veterans Affairs. See U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Depletion, 81 Deposition velocity, 98, 365 Desert Rock Radiological Safety (Rad-Safe) Section, 129, 131 DF. See Dose conversion factor Diaries, 26, 69 Dispersion, 82, 365 DNA. See Defense Nuclear Agency Documentation of dose calculations, 121–122, 234–235 case #3, 234 case #6, 234 case #18, 234 case #53, 235 case #57, 235 case #77, 235 case #78, 235 DOD. See U.S. Department of Defense DOE. See U.S. Department of Energy DOG, Shot, 139, 289 DOMINIC-I, Operation, 17, 71, 308 DOMINIC-II, Operation, 17, 71, 308 Dose assessments, 365 need for veterans to request updated, 3 Dose coefficients biological effectiveness of alpha particles, 105 chemical form of inhaled radionuclides, 104–105 inhalation dose coefficients used in dose reconstructions, 106 for inhalation of radionuclides, 101–106 size of inhaled particles, 102–104 Dose conversion factor (DF), 88n See also Dose coefficients Dose equivalent, 35 See also Equivalent dose Dose reconstruction conduct of over time, 40–41 deficiency in, 223 definition of exposure scenarios, 30–32 development and implementation of methods of estimating dose, 34–35 elements of, 30–38 evaluation of uncertainties in estimates of dose, 36–37 exposure scenario assumed in, 354–355 focus on specific persons, 38–39 identification of exposure pathways, 32–34 importance of benefit of the doubt, 39–40 for occupation forces in Japan, 107–110, 226–227 presentation and interpretation of results, 37 principles of, 28–41 process of, 30–38 quality assurance and quality control, 37–38 review of selected, 44, 50 reviewed by committee, 291–301 “scientific,” 69 special aspects of, 38–41 Dose reconstruction memoranda case #22, 282–285 case #60, 286–290 from sample cases reviewed by committee, 281–290 Dose reconstruction program, 366 beginning efforts in, 1 historical vs. retrospective, 29 need for independent oversight of, 4 need for quality control in, 4 “Dose screen,” 307, 333 Dose summary reports for case #22, 282 for case #60, 286 Dosimetric models, 101, 170, 177, 366 Dosimetry, 366 based on film badges, 21 history of, 307–308 DTRA. See Defense Threat Reduction Agency E EASY, Shot, 139, 201, 289 Effective resuspension factor, 192, 366 Effective shielding factor, 115 Electrons, 32, 366 ENCORE, Shot, 136, 198 Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), 23 See also U.S. Department of Energy Enewetak Atoll, 73, 126, 133, 217–218, 283–285, 287–288

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Environmental Policy Institute, 28 EPA. See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Epidemiology, 30n, 367 Equivalent dose, 35, 90, 229n, 364, 366–367 ERDA. See Energy Research and Development Administration Errors, 22, 71, 367 Esophageal cancer, 24 Estes, USS, 152, 283–284 Estimates, 367 allowing for uncertainty in, 68 assumptions involved in, 3 development and implementation of methods for making, 34–35 plausibility of, 37 of skin doses, 164–166 of total dose and uncertainty for individual participants, 119–121 Estimation of beta dose to skin and lens of the eye, 80–86 from immersion in contaminated air or water, 83–84 skin contamination, 84–86 from standing on contaminated surface, 81–83 Estimation of external dose, 69–86 estimation of neutron doses, 79–80 external dose estimation from film-badge data, 70–72 external gamma-dose estimation based on dose reconstruction, 72–79 Estimation of internal dose, 86–107 absorption through the skin or open wound, 107 methods of estimating ingestion dose, 106–107 methods of estimating inhalation dose, 87–106 Evaluation of approach to dose reconstruction, 358–359 of ingestion doses, 219 of methods of estimating internal dose, 166–226 of uncertainties in estimates of dose, 36–37 Evaluation of methods of estimating inhalation dose, 169–215 assumptions tending to overestimate inhalation dose, 169–182 assumptions with substantial uncertainty or tending to underestimate inhalation dose, 182–210 Evaluation of potential inhalation doses, 215–219 evaluation of ingestion doses, 219 example analysis of potential ingestion doses at the NTS, 216–217 example analysis of potential ingestion doses in the Pacific, 217–219 Example analysis of potential ingestion doses at the NTS, 216–217 of potential ingestion doses in the Pacific, 217–219 Explanations, to atomic veterans regarding implications of committee’s findings, 263–264 Exposure, 363, 367 to contaminated ground, 116–117 diseases caused by, 1 Exposure pathways, 367 of external exposure, 33–34 identification of, 32–34 of internal exposure, 33–34 Exposure scenarios, 66–69, 367 adequacy of scenario determinations, 139–140 bulldozer clearing path through a contaminated area, 138 definition of, 30–32 determination of, 124–140 discussion of selected cases illustrating scenario determination problems, 127–139 F-84G cloud-sampling aircraft, 130, 133 implications of example analysis for, 344–345 individualized dose reconstructions, 68–69 individualized reconstruction of scenarios, 69 inhalation in an atmospheric cloud, 99–100 inhalation of descending fallout, 97–99 inhalation of resuspended fallout, 89–92 inhalation of suspended neutron activation products in soil, 96–97 problems developing, 3 sailors sweeping deck of ship, 128 tents on Parry Island at Operation CASTLE, 127 typical metal buildings used at Enewetak, 126

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unit-based dose reconstructions, 67–68 US Army observers examining dummies set up near ground zero, 130 External beta dose from immersion in contaminated air or water, 83–84 from standing on contaminated surface, 81–83 External dose assessment for case #22, 284 for case #60, 288 External dose estimation, 140–166 beta skin and eye dose estimates, 160–166 external gamma doses based on film-badge data, 142–146 from film-badge data, 70–72 findings on estimates of external gamma dose, 156–158 neutron dose estimates, 158–160 reconstructed external gamma doses, 146–156 External doses, 19, 29, 367 External exposure, 32 External gamma doses based on film-badge data, 142–146 central estimates, 142–145 estimation based on dose reconstruction, 72–79, 155 unit dose reconstructions at the NTS, 73–75 unit dose reconstructions for Pacific test sites, 76–79 upper bounds, 145–146 F F-84G cloud-sampling aircraft, 130, 133–134 “Fact Sheets,” 57 Fall velocities, 205 “Fallout,” 20, 83, 93–94, 367 Fallout field, 201 FAT MAN bomb, 17 FBE. See Film-badge equivalent dose factor Federal Register, 307, 364 50th Chemical Platoon, 129, 132 FIIDOS computer code, 87, 89n, 104–107, 250, 289, 307, 319 Film Badge Dosimetry in Atmospheric Nuclear Tests, 27, 315 Film-badge equivalent (FBE) dose factor, 151 Film-badge records, 26, 142–146, 368 dosimetry based on, 21, 68, 70 gaps in, 70–71 Film badges, 111 “permanent” vs. “mission,” 68, 72 upper-bound estimates, 112 as worn by participants at atomic tests, 71 Findings on the bioassay program to assess internal exposures to plutonium, 247–248 on communication with atomic veterans, 236–239 on documentation of dose calculations, 234–235 on estimates of external gamma dose, 156–158 on estimation of internal dose, 219–224 implications of, 251–256 on the low-level internal dose screen, 240–247 presentation and interpretation of, 37 of previous NRC review, 167–169 on quality assurance, 233–234 on retroactive recalculations of doses and re-evaluations of prior compensation decisions, 248–251 Fireball, 20, 357, 368 Fission byproducts, 328, 368 Fission yield. See Yield 573rd Ordnance Company, 132 Fixed rate compensation, 323 Flight logs, 26 Flohr, Bradley letter to John Till, 313–314 Schaeffer’s letters to, 312, 330 FOIA. See Freedom of Information Act FOX, Shot, 201 Fractionation, 214, 368 of radionuclides, 92–94, 190, 202 Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 310 Future compensation decisions, implications of findings for, 255–256 G Gall bladder cancer, 24 Gamma radiation, 21, 54, 70, 140, 368 See also Photons; X radiation Gamma radiation field, 113 Gamma rays, 19, 32, 368 GANYMEDE, Shot, 336 GAO. See General Accounting Office Gastrointestinal (GI) tract, 102, 105, 170, 187–188, 368

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Geiger counter readings, 133, 368 General Accounting Office (GAO), ix, 1, 6, 15, 49 reports on NTPR program, 28 Generic assessments, 73, 368–369 Geometric standard deviation (GSD), 112, 151, 369 GEORGE, Shot, 194, 201 GI. See Gastrointestinal tract GRABLE, Shot, 95, 113, 136, 198 Gray (Gy), 369 GREENHOUSE, Operation, 17, 148, 152, 156, 235, 287–288 Ground roughness, 90, 97, 191 Ground zero (GZ), 83, 108, 337–338, 346, 369 GSD. See Geometric standard deviation Gy. See Gray GZ. See Ground zero H Half-life, 369 of noble gases, 93 HARDTACK-I, Operation, 17 HARDTACK-II, Operation, 17, 336, 339 HARRY, Shot, 194, 217 “High-siding” doses, 81, 83, 100–101, 106, 108, 111, 113, 116–119, 138, 230, 251 Hiroshima, Japan, 298–301 atomic bombings in, 1, 17, 44, 51–52, 55 military personnel stationed in, 28, 66, 107–110 Historical dose reconstruction, 29 History, 16–28 of dosimetry process, 307–308 of the NTPR program, 22–28 of previous NRC studies on military personnel exposed to radiation in atmospheric nuclear-weapons tests, 26–28 of radiation exposures of military personnel, 18–22 of the US nuclear-weapons testing program, 16–18 Hodgkin’s disease, 24, 369 HOOD, Shot, 17, 201–202, 208, 246n, 335–341, 343, 345–347 dose reconstructions for participant groups at, 345–347 radiation environment in forward areas at, 335–338 I ICRP. See International Commission on Radiological Protection ICRU. See International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Idealization, tendency toward, 126 Immersion dose, 33 in contaminated air or water, 117 Individual doses, uncertainties about, 2 Individualized reconstructions dose, 68–69 of scenarios, 69 Infinite source region, 192 Information gathering, 48–50 Ingestion doses, 32 ignored in dose reconstruction, 3 methods of estimating, 106–107 Inhalation doses coefficients used in dose reconstructions, 106 dose coefficients for inhalation of radionuclides, 101–106 estimating, 91, 169–215 example analysis and importance of, 342–344 large underestimates of, 3 methods of estimating, 87–106 Inhaled radionuclides, chemical form of, 104–105 Institute of Medicine (IOM), 27 Interactive RadioEpidemiological Program (IREP), 60–64 Internal dose assessment for case #22, 285 for case #60, 289 Internal dose estimation, 166–226 credibility of estimated upper bounds of inhalation dose, 224–226 evaluation of methods of estimating inhalation dose, 169–215 evaluation of potential inhalation doses, 215–219 findings of previous NRC review, 167–169 findings related to estimation of internal dose, 219–224 Internal dose screen assumptions used in, 241–242 low-level, 240–247 Internal exposure, 32

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International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), 159 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), 35, 84n, 102, 107, 166, 169–180, 183–188, 342, 366, 367, 373, 376 International System of Units (SI), 369 Intestinal cancer, 24 IOM. See Institute of Medicine IREP. See Interactive RadioEpidemiological Program Isopleths, 149, 369 Isotropic sources, semi-infinite plane, 81 ITEM, Shot, 289 IVY, Operation, 17, 128, 133, 135, 156 J J. See Joule Japan atomic-bomb survivors from, 58 occupation forces in, 65 JAYCOR Corp., 1, 6, 23, 46, 49, 52–53, 66, 123, 125, 137, 233, 246n, 306, 310, 320–321 Joule (J), 361, 370 Journada del Muerto Desert, 16 JUNO, Shot, 336 K Kita-Kogo area (Hiroshima), 108 Krypton, isotopes of, 89, 93 KT. See Kiloton Kwajalein Atoll, 133–134, 287 Kyushu Island, 108 L LAN. See Local area network Large-particle inhalation dose coefficients, 173–174 LASSEN, Shot, 194, 201 Latency period, 369 Latent periods, 369 for radiogenic diseases, 24 Legislation 32 CFR Part 218, 65, 319 32 CFR 218.3, 125 38 CFR Part 3, 25 38 CFR 3.102, 7, 39, 125 38 CFR 3.309, 2, 7, 12, 25, 52, 54, 56, 66, 159n, 186n, 248, 252 38 CFR 3.311, 2, 7, 12, 25, 51–52, 66, 125, 252, 319, 321 governing the NTPR program, 24–25 PL 97-72, 24 PL 97-414, 57 PL 98-542, 24, 57, 319 PL 100-321, 24, 56, 314, 322 PL 106-419, Section 305, 15 See also Senate LET. See Linear energy transfer Leukemia, 22, 24, 58, 62, 370 doses corresponding to different credibility limits of PC for, 63 induction of, 159n Linear energy transfer (LET), 234n, 370 LITTLE BOY bomb, 17 Liver cancer, 178 primary, 24 Local area network (LAN), 325 Lognormal distribution, 214, 370 Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, 17 Low-level internal dose screen, 240–247 assumptions used in, 241–242 general requirements of screening methods, 241 use in dose reconstructions for participant groups, 242–243 Lung cancers, 25, 179–180 from smoking, 57–58 Lung clearance, 104 Lymphoma, 24, 370 M Manhattan Engineering District, 106 Marshall Islands, 106, 184, 217–218 MC. See Monte Carlo analysis Medical opinions and probability of causation, 57–64 comparison of CIRRPC screening doses (rem) with values based on IREP methodology, 62 doses corresponding to different credibility limits of PC for leukemia, 63 doses corresponding to different credibility limits of PC for skin cancer, 63

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doses (rad) to the affected organ or tissue based on 95% credibility limit, 60 doses (rad) to the affected organ or tissue based on 99% credibility limit, 61 organ or tissue doses (rad) based on NIH radioepidemiological tables, 59 Megaton (MT), 17–18, 370, 378 MET, Shot, 129–130 Metal buildings, used at Enewetak during Operation CASTLE, typical, 126 MIKE, Shot, 133 Military personnel exposed to radiation in atmospheric nuclear-weapons tests, 19, 26–28 leaving trench shortly after a detonation, 75 “Mission” badges, 68, 72, 370 Moalem, USS, 161 Monte Carlo (MC) analysis, 150–152, 228, 371 MORGAN, Shot, 194, 201 Morning reports, 26, 69, 371 Mortality of Nuclear Weapons Test Participants, 26 Mortality of Veteran Participants in the CROSSROADS Nuclear Test, 27 MT. See Megaton Multiple myeloma, 24, 371 Multiple test series, 119 Muster rolls, 26 N NAAV. See National Association of Atomic Veterans Nagasaki, Japan, 298–301 atomic bombings in, 1, 17, 44, 51–52, 55 military personnel stationed in, 28, 66, 107–110 NANCY, Shot, 113–114, 139, 201 National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 16, 312 Board on Radiation Effects Research, 16 policies of, 49 National Association of Atomic Veterans (NAAV), 41–43, 48–50 National Cancer Institute (NCI), 60, 62 National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), 18–19, 159 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 60–64 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 54 National Research Council (NRC), 2, 6, 21, 44, 68, 71–72, 111–112, 142, 145, 147, 165, 189, 221, 224, 247 public-access file of, 50 National-security oaths, 69 Naval Medical Research Institute, 106 NCI. See National Cancer Institute NCRP. See National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Neutron dose estimates, 140, 158–160 central estimates, 158–159 upper bounds, 159–160 Neutron radiation, 54, 159 Neutrons, 19–20, 32, 371 Nevada Proving Ground (NPG), 17 Nevada Test Site (NTS), 3, 17, 82–83, 188, 194–207 nuclear testing at, 5–6, 9, 28, 30, 33–35, 66, 86, 113–114, 137–138, 147–148, 158, 220–223 observer and maneuver programs at, 22, 67, 73, 216–217 unit dose reconstructions at, 73–75, 148–149 News Nob, 22 NIH. See National Institutes of Health NIOSH. See National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Nishiyama Reservoir, 108 Noble gases, 89, 93–94, 222, 371 half-lives of, 93 Nonmelanoma skin cancer, 63 basal cell carcinoma, 63 squamous cell carcinoma, 63 Nonpresumptive diseases, 51, 252, 371 number of claims granted for, 252–253 NPG. See Nevada Proving Ground NRC. See National Research Council NTPR. See Nuclear Test Personnel Review NTS. See Nevada Test Site Nuclear detonation, army personnel examining equipment damaged during, 75 Nuclear Health and Safety: Radiation Exposures for Some Cloud-Sampling Personnel Need to be Reexamined, 28 Nuclear Test Personnel Review (NTPR) program, 6–11, 35, 45, 51, 124–230 determination of exposure scenarios, 124–140 development of, 22–24 dose reconstruction for occupation forces in Japan, 226–227

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dose reconstruction program of, 124–230 evaluation of method of estimating uncertainty in dose and upper bounds, 227–229 evaluation of methods of estimating internal dose, 166–226 external dose estimation, 140–166 GAO reports on, 28 history of, 22–28 key laws and regulations governing, 24–25 name of, 23n objectives of, 25–26 summary of committee findings regarding, 229–230 website of, 26 Nuclear Test Review Information System (NuTRIS), 309 O Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), 102, 105–106, 170n Office of Public Health and Environmental Hazards (OPHEH), 54, 57 Operation PLUMBBOB, Shot HOOD, analysis of potential inhalation doses due to blast-wave effects at, 335–348 Operations. See Series; individual Operations OPHEH. See Office of Public Health and Environmental Hazards Organ or tissue doses (rad) based on NIH radioepidemiological tables, 59 ORNL. See Oak Ridge National Laboratory Otchin, Neil S., letter to Isaf Al-Nabulsi, 333–334 OTERO, Shot, 336 Ovarian cancer, 25 OWENS, Shot, 194, 201 P Pacific Proving Ground (PPG), 283 Pacific test site unit dose reconstructions, 76–79, 126 damaged quarterdeck on USS Pensacola, 155 exposure on contaminated target ships, 153–155 exposure to fallout, 149–153 radiation levels on selected target ships, 154 Pacific test sites, 82–83 film badge damage at, 71 nuclear weapons tests at, 1, 17, 20–21, 27–28, 33–34, 66, 73, 220–223 See also individual Operations and Shots; individual test sites Pancreatic cancer, 24 Papers, availability of, 26 Parry Island, 127, 152, 287 Participant groups conducting radiation survey on deck of a ship, 77 use of internal dose screen in dose reconstructions for, 242–243 Participation status, 52 Particles, size of inhaled, 102–104 Past compensation decisions, implications of findings for, 253–255 Pathways. See Exposure pathways PC. See Probability of causation Pensacola, USS, damaged quarterdeck on, 155 “Permanent” badges, 68, 72, 136, 372 Personal accounts, 26 Persons, focus on specific, 38–39 Pharynx cancer, 24 Phillip, USS, 165 Photon dose, 54 Photon exposure, 66, 96 Photons, 32, 372 See also Gamma rays; X rays PLOWSHARE program, 18 PLUMBBOB, Operation, 17, 22, 70, 137, 193–195, 200–201, 204, 208, 246n, 335–338, 346 Plume travel, 194 Plutonium, 16, 19, 32, 86, 176–177, 187, 202, 222 bioassay program, 247–248 Pocket-dosimeter logs, 26 Potential inhalation doses, analysis of, 339–342 POW. See Prisoners of war PPG. See Pacific Proving Ground Presumptive diseases, 24, 52, 252, 372 Primary liver cancer, 24 Prinz Eugen, USS, 135 Prior claims, need for veterans to request re-evaluation of, 3 PRISCILLA, Shot, 204 Prisoners of war (POW), 51, 107–108 Privacy Act, 121, 313 Probability of causation (PC), 57–64, 372–373 See also Risk

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Processing of a radiation-related claim from a veteran for a nonpresumptive disease, 53 for a presumptive disease, 55 Public Health Service, 57 Publication 30, 102, 104n, 105–106, 170, 213 Publication 56, 170n Publication 59, 166 Publication 60, 184 Q Quality assurance (QA), 37–38, 122–123, 233–236, 324, 373 Quality control (QC), 37–38, 235–236, 373 Quality factor (QF), 35n, 80, 158–159, 363, 373 Quartzsite Ridge, 351–355, 357–358 Questions from the Committee, responses to, 305–334 Questions to the Committee, responses to, 258–261 R R. See Roentgen Rad, 373 Rad-safe. See Radiological safety Radiation effectiveness factors (REFs), 158–160, 186, 187n, 363, 373 Radiation environment, in forward areas at Shot HOOD, 335–338 Radiation-Exposed Veterans Compensation Act (1988), 24 Radiation exposures of military personnel, 18–22 history of, 18–22 locations of, 19 Radiation therapy, 58 Radiation-transport models, 79 Radioactive debris, 20, 373 Radioactive decay, 32, 373 Radioactivity, 215n, 374 Radiogenic diseases, 24, 66, 313, 374 Radiological cancers, 60, 374 Radiological conditions in maneuver area, 351–352 Radiological safety (Rad-safe), 113, 125–126, 140 Radionuclides, 374 airborne, 31 resuspension of large amounts of, 3 retention in the body, 101 RANGER, Operation, 326 Rare-earth elements, isotopes of, 176, 190 RBE. See Relative biological effectiveness Re-evaluations of prior claims, need for veterans to request, 3 Re-evaluations of prior compensation decisions, 248–251 Recommendations, 265–266 regarding a system for permanent review of the dose reconstruction program, 262 Reconstruction, 374 of external gamma doses, 146–156 of the veteran’s experiences, 69 See also Dose reconstruction program REDWING, Operation, 68n, 70–71, 136, 142–144, 308, 316–317, 323 REECo. See Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company Reference Man, 183, 374 Refractory elements, 93, 176–177, 190, 374 REFs. See Radiation effectiveness factors Regulations governing the NTPR program, 24–25 See also Legislation Relative biological effectiveness (RBE), 159, 186, 363, 373–374 Rem, vii, 72, 112, 374 Renormalization, 89 Residence islands, 209 Respirable particles, 205, 374 Respiratory tract, 170, 374 Respiratory-tract model, 173, 176, 179–180, 374 Responses to questions from the Committee, 305–334 Flohr’s letter to John Till, 313–314 Otchin’s letter to Isaf Al-Nabulsi, 333–334 Schaeffer’s letter to John Till, 306–311 Schaeffer’s letters to Bradley Flohr, 312, 330 Schaeffer’s letters to Isaf Al-Nabulsi, 315–329, 331–332 Responses to questions to the Committee, 258–261 Resuspension, 375 of large amounts of radionuclides, 3, 37, 94–96, 180–181 neglected, 223

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Resuspension factors, 90, 207, 366, 375 for atomic veterans in contaminated areas at NTS, 95 for participants on contaminated ships in the Pacific, 96 Retention, 170, 375 Retroactive recalculations of doses, 248–251 Retrospective dose reconstruction, 29 Review of the Methods Used to Assign Radiation Doses to Service Personnel at Nuclear Weapons Tests, 26–27 Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company (REECo), 309, 317, 323 Roentgen (R), 72, 112, 375 ROMEO, Shot, 284–285 Rongelap Atoll, 218 Rongerik Atoll, 86, 106, 184, 218 S Sailors sweeping deck of ship, 128 St. George, Utah, 217 Salivary gland cancer, 24–25 Salt Lake City, USS, 79, 153 Sampled case files of dose reconstructions, 291–301 cases #1-99, 292–299 Hiroshima and Nagasaki cases A-L, 298–301 SANDSTONE, Operation, 17 Scenario determination problems, 127–139 case #22, 128 case #37, 137 case #40, 136–137 case #47, 135–136 case #53, 128 case #55, 136 case #73, 135 case #77, 129–132 case #84, 138–139 case #87, 137 case #93, 139 case #99, 138 contributed case, 132–135 Scenario determinations adequacy of, 139–140 See also Exposure scenarios Schaeffer, D. Michael, 232n letter to John Till, 306–311 letters to Bradley Flohr, 312, 330 letters to Isaf Al-Nabulsi, 315–329, 331–332 Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), 1, 6, 23–24, 46–50, 52–53, 123, 132, 137, 141, 152, 233, 245, 246n, 306–307, 321, 332 “Scientific” dose reconstructions, 69 Screening doses (rem), comparison of CIRRPC values with values based on IREP methodology, 62 Screening methods, general requirements of, 241 Secrecy oaths, 69 Semi-infinite plane isotropic sources, 81 Senate Committee on Veterans Affairs, 1, 6, 15, 28 Service connection, 64 proving, 24 Service records, 26 SHASTA, Shot, 194–195 Shielding factor (SF), 126, 150, 191, 376 Ship logs, 26, 69 Shock wave. See Blast wave Shots, 376 See also individual Shots SI units. See International System of Units Sievert (Sv), 376 SIMON, Shot, 114, 148, 201 Skate, USS, 154 Skin cancer, 63, 250 doses corresponding to different credibility limits of PC for, 63 nonmelanoma, 63 Skin contamination, 84–86, 117–118 composite beta dose coefficient for immersion in fallout-contaminated air, 85 Skin dose, 85 Small intestine cancer, 24 Smoking, lung cancer from, 57–58 SMOKY, Shot, 22, 193–195, 336 Solid tumors, induction of, 159 SOP. See Standard operating procedure Special orders, 26 Special Weapons Command, 138 Spectrum-weighted quality factor, 80, 376 Squamous cell carcinoma, 63 Standard operating procedures (SOPs), 104n, 121–122, 231–232, 234–235, 265, 308–309, 324 Stochastic effects, 158, 376 Stomach cancer, 24 Strontium, isotopes of, 105

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Subjective judgment, 32 SUGAR, Shot, 139, 201 Support ships, 73 Survival City Shot, 130–131 Sv. See Sievert T Target ships, 73, 78, 153–155 radiation levels on selected, 154, 191 Task Force WARRIOR activities at Shot SMOKY, 349–351 alternative exposure scenario for, 355–357 dose reconstruction for, 352–354 unit dose reconstruction for, 318, 349–359 Task Group on Lung Dynamics (TGLD), 88 Task unit (TU), 287 TEAPOT, Operation, 17, 129–131, 137, 194, 199, 201, 316 Temporary duty (TDY), 283 Tents, on Parry Island at Operation CASTLE, 127 TGLD. See Task Group on Lung Dynamics Thyroid cancer of, 24 radiation of, 32, 103 Till, John E. Flohr’s letter to, 313–314 Schaeffer’s letter to, 306–311 Time, conduct of dose reconstruction over, 40–41 Time-dependent calculations, 99 Total dose summary for case #22, 285 for case #60, 285 Translocation, 81, 170n, 376 TRINITY, Shot, 16–17 Trinity site, nuclear testing at, 5, 28 Tritiated water vapor, 34, 107 Troops. See Military personnel True dose, 65 TU. See Task unit TUMBLER-SNAPPER, Operation, 17, 138, 194, 197, 201 Tumors, 166 induction of solid, 159 U U.K. National Radiological Protection Board, 159, 186 Uncertainty, 377 in dose and upper bounds, 227–229 in estimates of doses, 36–37, 147–148 in estimates of external beta dose, 116–118 in estimates of external gamma and neutron doses, 111–115 in estimates of internal dose, 118–119 in exposure scenarios, 110–111 exposure to contaminated ground, 116–117 film-badge upper-bound estimates, 112 immersion in contaminated air or water, 117 methods of estimating or accounting for, 110–119 need to re-evaluate, 3 skin contamination, 117–118 upper-bound estimates in unit dose reconstructions, 112–115 upper-bound estimates of neutron dose, 115 Uncertainty factors, 184, 315, 377 allowances made for, 67 UNCLE, Shot, 139 Uniform distribution, 58, 377 Unit and personal activities for case #22, 283 for case #60, 287 Unit dose reconstructions, 67–68 Unit dose reconstructions at the NTS, 73–75 army personnel examining equipment damaged during a nuclear detonation, 75 for maneuver troops at Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE, 74 troops leaving trench shortly after a detonation, 75 Unit dose reconstructions for Pacific test sites, 76–79 average daily doses on USS Salt Lake City at Operation CROSSROADS, Shot BAKER, 79 participants conducting radiation survey on deck of a ship, 77 underwater Shot BAKER in Bikini Lagoon, 78 Unit dose reconstructions for Task Force WARRIOR at Operation PLUMBBOB, Shot SMOKY, 318, 349–359 activities of Task Force WARRIOR at Shot SMOKY, 349–351 alternative exposure scenario for Task Force WARRIOR, 355–357

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discussion of exposure scenario assumed in dose reconstruction, 354–355 dose reconstruction for Task Force WARRIOR, 352–354 evaluation of approach to dose reconstruction, 358–359 radiological conditions in maneuver area, 351–352 Unit-dose reports, 73 Unit memoranda, 26 Units of measurement, vii Upper bound (UB) doses, 54, 64, 141, 145–160 estimates in unit dose reconstructions, 112–115 estimates of dose to occupiers of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 109 estimates of neutron dose, 115 in NTS unit dose reconstructions, 113–114, 148–149 in Pacific test site unit dose reconstructions, 114–115, 153–155 underestimation of, 3, 36n, 202 See also Uncertainty factor; Upper confidence limit UPSHOT-KNOTHILL, Operation, 17, 71, 73–74, 95, 113, 136–138, 148–149, 194, 198, 201, 217 Uranium-235, 17, 19 Urinary tract cancer, 25 U.S. Army, observers examining dummies set up near ground zero at Operation TEAPOT Shot MET, 130 U.S. atmospheric nuclear-weapons test series, history of, 18 U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), ix, 1, 5, 15, 25, 35, 313 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 71, 154, 186, 245, 309 U.S. Department of Justice, 26 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), 1, 3, 6, 10–12, 22, 26, 45–57, 59, 260 Regional Offices (VAROs), 51–57, 236–237 See also Compensation and Pension Service U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 187, 235 U.S. nuclear-weapons testing program, history of, 16–18 U.S. population, exposures of, 219 USS. See individual U.S. ships Utirik Atoll, 218 V VA. See U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs VAROs. See U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Regional Offices VARSKIN code, 85, 118 Ventilation systems, 208, 210 VESTA, Shot, 336 Veterans. See “Atomic veterans” Veterans Administration, 22n See also U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Veteran’s Benefits: Independent Review Could Improve Credibility of Radiation Exposure Estimates, 28 Veterans Benefits Administration, 237 Veterans’ Dioxin and Radiation Exposure Compensation Standards Act (1984), 24 Veterans Health Administration, 54 Veterans’ Health Care, Training, and Small Business Loan Act (1981), 24 Veterans Issue Tracking Adjudication Log (VITAL), 314 Volatile elements, 93, 190, 377 W Washdowns, 116 Weathering, 152, 377 WHEELER, Shot, 194, 201 Whole-body equivalent dose, 80, 378 WIGWAM, Operation, 17 WILSON, Shot, 194, 201 World War II, end of, 17 “Worst-case” scenarios, 108 Wounds, 106n, 107 X X rays, 32, 378 Xenon, isotopes of, 89, 93 Y Yields, 17–18, 378 Yttrium, isotopes of, 176, 190 Z Zirconium, isotopes of, 176, 190