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PAN-ORGANIZATIONAL ON THE UeSe SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING WORKFORCE i MEETING SUMMARY Ma rye Anne Fox Government-lnclustry-University Research Rouncltable NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, DC www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. N00014-01-1-0903 between the National Academy of Sciences and DOD, Contract/Grant No. NASW-99037, TO109 between the National Academy of Sciences and NASA, Contract/Grant No. DE-FG02-OOER30309/99-558-05 between the National Academy of Sciences and DOE, Contract/Grant No. N01-oD-4-2139, TO29/00-150-02 between the Na- tional Academy of Sciences and NIH, Contract/Grant No. 5B1341-02W-1510 be- tween the National Academy of Sciences and NIST, and Contract/Grant No.2002- 38840-01973 between the National Academy of Sciences and USDA. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publi- cation are those of the authoress and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08960-3 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-52530-6 (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 62-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www. nationa l-academies.org

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tic ~v:r ~ we ~ now ~ Each of the 32 nonprofit organizations that contributed a presentation to the Pan-Organizational Summit on the Science and Engineering Workforce (November 11-12, 2002; The National Academies, Washing- ton, DC) was invited to issue a corresponding position paper to be repro- duced in this volume. The bulk of this document comprises these papers. In addition, Shirley lackson and Joseph Toole, two of the keynote speak- ers, have included their remarks. The most remarkable aspect of the summit was the spontaneous self- assembly of the contributing organizations into working groups. Groups focused on gathering a critical mass with which to drive the issues voiced at the meeting. This is both a credit to the passion of the community, and recognition of the gravitas of the issues at hand. PRESENTERS' SUGGESTIONS FOR POLICY ACTIONS This paper documents areas in which multiple organizations' inter- ests and directions coincide. Each topical area is listed with its most fre- quently suggested policy solutions, followed by the names of the organi- zations that support those solutions. Many of the suggestions are taken directly from the position papers while others took shape from the dia- logue that ensued at the summit itself. The views expressed do not represent an official policy statement of the Gov- ernment-University-Industry Research Roundlable nor of its sponsoring organi- zations nor the National Academies. Findings from reports of the National

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Academies are not included here but may be found in a number of docu- ments listed in Appendix D. National Leadership: Develop a coordinated, multiorganizational, multisectored effort to address why there is a lack of development of U.S.- born S&E talent and ensure that effort has national leadership. Key focus areas would include some or all of the issues below. K-12 Teacher Training: Examine the reasons why domestic K-12 stu- dents are turning away from science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)2 and use those findings to develop novel approaches to attract students to STEM.3 As a part of that effort, support pre-service training and in-service STEM teacher development to meet content knowledge needs of teachers.4 Work with governmental science agencies and indus- try to provide professional development opportunities for teachers through summer fellowship programs5 and long-term support relation- ships between federal agencies' (DOE, NASA, etc.) scientists, mathemati- cians, and engineers, and pre-college math and science educators.6 Financial Aid: Target financial aid for those wishing to major in S&E.7 For financially disadvantaged S&E students, make financial aid readily available in the form of grants or loan forgiveness, rather than loans.8 If a comprehensive national plan cannot be developed readily, some first steps might be taken e.g., develop a plan for all federal agencies and National Laboratories to incorporate undergraduate and graduate loan forgiveness as part of their postdoctoral appointments.9 Undergraduate Curriculum and Pedagogy Reforms: Continue the efforts to transform the S&E undergraduate learning experience, expand- ing and building on what has been learned over the past decade about how to engage students with content/pedagogical approaches so that they are motivated to pursue careers in STEM fields.~ Effort/Reward Ratio: Address the poor effort/reward ratio of careers in science and engineering, for both practitioners and K-12 teachers in the U.S.~2 Key issues are time to degree,~3 time to start of career,~4 lack of positions commensurate with training (for certain subfields),~5 impact of the global S&E labor force on U.S. salaries (for practitioners, and lost earnings relative to other career paths and professions.~7 Agility in S&E Education: Conceptualize and implement an infra- structure of interconnecting career pathways and educational re- sources that allows S&E students to readily migrate to and along the S&E pipeline. As an example, more articulation agreements between universities and community colleges would address the needs of those who do not start their careers in four-year, baccalaureate-granting in- stitutions.~9

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~ c Agility in the S&E Workforce: To give S&E workers the exceptional agility their careers demand, ensure that there is national support of life- long learning.20 As a first and necessary step, retool H-1B visa fees to sup- port the retraining of highly skilled S&E workers rather than only the initial training of lower-skilled workers. Minority/Women Participation: Increase participation by women and minorities in S&E disciplines and careers.22 As a part of that effort, inves- tigate cultural differeces (e.g., in Asian families) that seem to encourage involvement in S&E.23* A Systems Approach to Understanding the Problem: Develop a more comprehensive national database,24 more extensive education research,25 and the beginnings of a workable system model26 of S&E education and workforce pathways. These resources are necessary to understand the fac- tors that lead to changes in both supply and demand of S&E workers; i.e., to guide intelligent policymaking.27 The National Academies has conducted numerous studies on the state of the science and engineering workforce, and the educational pipeline that supplies that workforce (see Appendix D). In contrast, this volume is a snapshot in time of the deeply held policy opinions of various commu- nity groups, professional societies, and other not-for-profit organizations that work on the issue area of S&E education and workforce. We have reproduced those opinions faithfully, so that policy leaders and the orga- nizations themselves can use this volume to assess the boundaries of a potential political consensus on this critical issue. Marye Anne Fox, Chancellor North Carolina State University NOTES iSupported by BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, Commission on Professionals in Science & Technology (CPST), GEM Consortium, Industrial Research Institute (IRI), In- formation Technology Association of America (ITAA), National Society of Black Physicists, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN 2Supported by ASEE, BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, IRI, ITAA, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN 3Supported by ASEE, BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, GEM Consortium, IRI, ITAA, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN 4Supported by BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, IRI, ITAA, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN 5Supported by BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, IRI, ITAA, National Society of Black Physicists, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN

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WEPAN 6Supported by BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, CPST, IRI, ITAA, SACNAS, RAND, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN 7Supported by BEST, ITAA, NACME, National Society of Black Physicists, RAND, SACNAS, and Sigma Xi Supported by BEST, ITAA, NACME, National Society of Black Physicists, RAND, SACNAS, and Sigma Xi 9Supported by BEST, ITAA, NACME, GEM Consortium, National Society of Black Physicists, RAND, SACNAS, and Sigma Xi22Supported by ASEE, BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, CPST, GEM Consortium, ITAA, NACME, National Society of Black Physi- cists, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN iSupported by ASEE, BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, ITAA, NACME, Project Kaleidoscope, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN iiSupported by BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, ITAA, NACME, National Society of Black Physicists, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN i2Supported by BEST, ITAA, NACME, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN i3Supported by BEST, GEM Consortium, ITAA, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and i4Supported by BEST, GEM Consortium, ITAA, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN i5Supported by BEST, GEM Consortium, ITAA, National Society of Black Physicists, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN i6Supported by BEST, GEM Consortium, ITAA, NACME, National Society of Black Physicists, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN i7Supported by BEST, ITAA, NACME, National Society of Black Physicists, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN i8Supported by BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, ITAA, GEM Consortium, NACME, National Society of Black Physicists, RAND, SACNAS, and Sigma Xi i9Supported by BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, ITAA, NACME, National Society of Black Physicists, RAND, SACNAS, and Sigma Xi 20Supported by BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, CPST, ITAA, National Soci- ety of Black Physicists, RAND, and Sigma Xi 2iSupported by BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, ITAA, National Society of Black Physicists, RAND, and Sigma Xi 22Supported by ASEE, BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, CPST, GEM Consor- tium, ITAA, NACME, National Society of Black Physicists, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN 23Supported by ASEE, BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, ITAA, GEM Consor- tium, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN 24Supported by BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, CPST, GEM Consortium, ITAA, NACME, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN 25Supported by BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, ITAA, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN 26Supported by BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, CPST, ITAA, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN 27Supported by BEST, Business-Higher Education Forum, CPST, GEM Consortium, ITAA, NACME, RAND, SACNAS, Sigma Xi, and WEPAN ~Note: While addressed here as a separate concern, the issues concerning women and underrepresented minorities should also be incorporated into the other groups to provide adequate focus and ensure integration.

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Alfred P. Sloan Foundation The U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce: An Unconventional Portrait 1 Alliance for Science and Technology Research in America (ASTRA) Position Paper on the U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce 8 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Position Paper on the U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce 18 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Statement on Workforce Issues American Institute of Physics (AIP) The Physics-Educated Workforce American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) Foreign Scientists Seen Essential to U.S. Biotechnology American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 23 29 35 Academic Prerequisites for Licensure and Professional Practice 37 American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Engineering Education and the Science ~ Engineering Workforce 40

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American Society of Mechanical Engineers International (ASME) Strengthening Pre-College Science, Math, Engineering and Technology Education: The Technological Literacy and Workforce Imperative 47 Building Engineering and Science Talent (BEST) A National Strategy to Face Vulnerability in Science Engineering and Technology Business-Higher Education Forum (BHEF) Position Paper on U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce Coalition of the Concerned for the Vitality of the Science and Engineering Workforce Position Statement Council on Competitiveness Building a Pipeline for American Scientists and Engineers Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology (CPST) Position on the U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce Educational Testing Service (ETS) Increasing the Supply of Underrepresented Persons of Color in Science and Engineering Occupations 52 58 68 71 79 84 Global Alliance Position Paper on the U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce 91 Industrial Research Institute (IRI) Initiative on Precollege Science, Math, and Technology Education in Support of the U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce 97 Information Technology Association of America (ITAA) Effects of the Current Economic Downturn on the U.S. Science and Technology Workforce: Long-Term Implications Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE-USA) Trying Times for U.S. Engineers MentorNet The Underrepresentation of Women in Engineering and Related Science: Pursuing Two Complementary Paths to Parity 105 109 119

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National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering (NACME) NACME, Engineering, and "Generation Next" National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) c 127 Skills for a 21st Century Workforce: Can We Meet the Challenge? 134 National Consortium for Graduate Degrees for Minorities in Science and Engineering (GEM) Transforming the Academic Workplace: Socializing Underrepresented Minorities into Faculty Life National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Mathematics As a Foundation for a Productive Science and Engineering Workforce National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) Utilization of African-American Physicists in the Science and Engineering Workforce Partnership for Public Service (PPS) Building a Federal Civil Servicefor the 21st Century: The Challenge of Attracting Great Talent to Government Service Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) 138 145 149 156 Position Statement on the U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce 161 RAND Is There a Shortage of Scientists and Engineers? How Would We Know? 167 Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society Position of the Board of Directors on the U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce 180 Society for Advancement of Chicanos & Native Americans in Science (SACNAS) U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce: Equity and Participation 188 Women in Engineering Programs and Advocates Network (WEPAN ) WEPAN Position Statement Concluding Remarks Marye Anne Fox 195 201

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Appendix A Keynote Speaker Addresses Shirley Ann Jackson, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Joseph Toole, Department of Transportation Appendix B Nonprofit Organizations Participating in the Pan-Organizational Summit on the U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce Appendix C Summit Agenda Appendix D National Academies Publications on the Science & Engineering Workforce (Bibliography) 203 218 220 224