Implementation of the recommendations will also require additional resources. Although these resources are not insignificant, they should not be overwhelming. Even a doubling of the current EPA commitment to air pollution monitoring and research would be only about 1% of the costs incurred annually to comply with the CAA. Such resources are even smaller when compared with the costs imposed by the deleterious effects of air pollution on human health and welfare (see discussion in Chapter 1).

Fundamental changes will also be needed in aspects of the nation’s AQM system to shift the focus to tracking progress. Such a transition will be difficult, but as noted above, it is imperative that actions to further reduce emissions continue even as this transition takes place.

Finally, implementation of these recommendations and meeting the challenges of AQM in the decades to come will require a major commitment from the research and development and scientific communities to provide the human resources and technologies needed to underpin an enhanced AQM system and to achieve clean air in the most expeditious and effective way possible. The committee believes that these communities are ready to respond.

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