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Numerous interventions have been designed to reduce underage access to alcohol. Some have not yet been extensively evaluated and could be further improved by continued research. States and the federal government should study the effect of a range of access-oriented interventions on underage drinking and drinking problems:

  • dram shop liability laws;

  • shoulder tap and similar programs;

  • keg registration laws;

  • social host liability laws;

  • conditional use permits; and

  • sobriety checkpoints.

Youth-Oriented Interventions

Further research and evaluation is necessary to identify successful approaches for reaching populations generally not included in school-based education approaches and refine assessments of interventions on college campuses.

Recommendation 12-9: States and the federal government—particularly the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Education—should fund the development and evaluation of programs to cover all underage populations.

Such programs should consider a wide range of issues:

  • preschool, early elementary, and high school strategies for preventing alcohol use, and, for high school, additional emphasis on programs targeted at individuals with apparent drinking problems;

  • characteristics of colleges and universities that may be associated with intervention effectiveness, including the size of student enrollment, type of institution (e.g., 2- or 4-year college, residential or commuter campus, single gender), and urban versus rural setting;

  • effectiveness of social norms approaches, parental notification, and other college-based interventions;

  • continuing care approaches for treatment;

  • interventions implemented within healthcare settings (including campus-based health care) and whether and how training for health professionals can enhance effectiveness of screening and referral for underage populations;

  • faith-based approaches to prevention and treatment;



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