The principles of the 3 Rs are also reflected in the Guide, which says that the following topics should be considered in the development and review of animal protocols (p. 10):
Justification of the species and number of animals requested.
Availability or appropriateness of the use of less-invasive procedures, other species, isolated organ preparation, cell or tissue culture, or computer simulation.
Appropriate sedation, analgesia, and anesthesia.
Unnecessary duplication of experiments.
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1 Regulatory and Ethical Considerations ."
Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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As of 2013, the National Science Education Standards have been replaced by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), available as a print book, free PDF download, and online with our OpenBook platform.
The NGSS offer a detailed description of the key scientific ideas and practices that all students should learn by the time they graduate from high school. The standards are based largely on the 2011 National Research Council report A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas.