1. Will depend on whether pair (1 female to 1 male), trio (2 female to 1 male) or harem mating is used.

  2. N equals number of pseudopregnant females to receive manipulated embryos. Estimate as follows:

    number of viable embryos = number of blastocysts injected × expected % of blastocysts viable after injection

  3. N equals estimated ratio of nontransgenic to transgenic animals to be weaned from original number of blastocysts. Estimate as follows:

  4. N equals number of animals to be mated to transgenic animals. Estimate as follows:

    N = desired number of transgenic founder × number of animals to be mated to each transgenic animal to reach breeding age

    The desired number of potential founders may be predetermined by the investigator. A common number is 6-10 potential founders for a single cDNA construct.

  5. N equals number of offspring to be genotyped. Estimate as follows:

    N = number of offspring per transgenic animal × expected number of transgenic animals actually bred


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Hogan, B, F Constantini and L Lacey. 1986. Manipulating the Mouse Embryo: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory Press. Cold Springs Harbor, NY.

Kovacs, M.S., L Lowe and M.R. Kuehn. 1993. Use of superovulated mice as embryo donors for ES cell injected chimeras . Lab Anim Sci 43:91-93

Mobraaten, L.E.. 1981. The Jackson Laboratory Genetics Stocks Resource Repository. In Frozen Storage of Laboratory Animals. Zeilmaker, GD (ed). Gustav, Fisher, Verlag. New York. Pp. 165-1177.

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