bred for use in research—except birds, rats of the genus Rattus, mice of the genus Mus, and farm animals used in production agriculture. The AWA, AWRs, and the APHIS/AC Policies are available online at


The Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (PHS Policy) was introduced in 1973 and revised in 1979 and 1986. The PHS Policy (NIH, 1986) applies to all institutions that use live vertebrates in research supported by any component of PHS: the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Food and Drug Administration, the Health Resources and Services Administration, the Indian Health Service, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Bolstered by the statutory mandate of the US Health Research Extension Act of 1985 (HREA), the PHS Policy requires institutions to establish and maintain proper measures to ensure the appropriate care and use of animals involved in research, research training, and biologic testing activities. The PHS Policy mandates compliance with the AWA and the AWRs and requires institutions to base their programs of animal care and use on the National Research Council’s Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NRC, 1996). General administration and coordination of the PHS Policy are the responsibility of the NIH Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW). The PHS Policy describes the Animal Welfare Assurance statement, which all covered institutions must submit to OLAW, assuring the office of their compliance with the policy. It also defines the functions of the IACUC, mandates IACUC review of all PHS-conducted or -supported research projects, lists the information required in PHS applications and proposals for awards, and stipulates recordkeeping and reporting requirements. The PHS Policy is available online at


The National Research Council’s Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (the Guide) traces its origin to a 1963 publication by the Animal Care Panel, a group of professionals with an interest in research-animal care that evolved into the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS, 2000). The second and all subsequent editions were drafted by committees of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research and published by the National Research Council. The seventh and most recent edition of the Guide was published in 1996 (NRC, 1996). The Guide is designed to promote the humane care of animals used in biomedical and behavioral research, teaching and testing; the

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