TABLE 6-1 Animal Welfare Considerations Associated with Disease Modelsa

Type of Disease

Potential Problems


Occupational Health Issues

Degenerative (Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal dementia)

Adipsia, aphagia, tremor, incoordination, disorientation

Nursing care


Trauma (head and spinal cord injury, peripheral nerve repair and regeneration)

Paralysis, distress, self-mutilation, seizures

Nursing care, local anesthetics, analgesia, sedatives, antibiotics, anti-convulsants


Infectious disease (HIV, prions, meningitis, encephalitis)

Seizures, debility, paralysis, disorientation

Monitoring, antibiotics, anti-convulsants

Microbial pathogens

Brain and spinal cord tumors

Pain, paralysis, disorientation, seizures

Analgesia, nursing care, anti-convulsants

Human cell lines


Surgery complications, paralysis, disorientation, visual deficits

Monitoring, nursing care


Seizures (genetic, audiogenic, drug- or lesion-induced)

Kindling, status epilepticus, secondary injury

Monitoring, anti-convulsants

Noise exposure (free field)

Immune-mediated (multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, polymyositis)

Muscle weakness, paralysis

Nursing care


Secondary medical conditions (diabetic neuropathy, renal or hepatic encephalopathy)

Self-mutilation, disorientation

Nursing care


Pain (peripheral nerve damage, tissue damage, central nervous system damage)

Self-mutilation, guarding, changes in locomotor activity, aggression

Local anesthetics, analgesics, sedatives, environmental management


Psychiatric diseases (depression, schizophrenia)

Learned helplessness, social withdrawal

Monitoring, environmental enrichment


a These lists are intended to be representative, not all-inclusive.

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