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References Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2001. A Primer on Health Risk Communication Principles and Practices. Online. Available at Accessed September 16,2003. Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (CHPPM). 2003a. Technical Guide 230: Chemical Exposure Guidelines for Deployed Military Personnel, Version 1.3. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: U.S. Army. CHPPM. 2003b. Reference Document (RD) 230: Chemical Exposure Guidelines for Deployed Military Personnel, Version 1.3. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: U.S. Army. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2002. Community Culture and the Environment: A Guide to Understanding a Sense of Place. EPA 842-B-01-003. Washington, D.C.: EPA Office of Water. EPA. 2003a. Water Security Research and Technical Support Action Plan. Cincinnati, OH: EPA Office of Water, EPA Office of Research and Development. 2003b. Preliminary Working Draft: Water Security Research And Technical Support Implementation Plan. Cincinnati, OH: EPA Office of Water, EPA Office of Research and Development. 2003c. Draft Concept Paper: Water Security Information Sharing. Cincinnati, OH: EPA Office of Water, EPA Office of Research and Development. EPA. 20031. Consideration in Risk Communication: A Digest of Risk Communication as a Risk Management Tool. EPA/625/R-02/004. Washington, D.C.: EPA Office of Research and Development. Hance, B.J., C. Chess, and P.M. Sandman. 1988. Improving Dialogue with Communities: A Risk Communication Manual for Government. New Brunswick, NJ: Environmental Communication Research Program, Rutgers University. INFORM,Inc. 1995. Toxics Watch. New York,NY:INFORM,Inc. International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI). 2000. Revised Framework for Microbial Risk Assessment. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press. 102

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References 103 Layne, S.P., T.J. Beugelsdijk, and C.K.N. Patel, eds. 2001. Firepower in the Lab: Automation in the Fight Against Infectious Diseases and Bioterrorism. Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press. National Research Council (NRC). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2000. Watershed Management for Potable Water Supply: The New York City Strategy. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2003a. Alerting America: Effective Risk Communication. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. NRC. 2003b. Testing and Evaluation of Standoff Chemical Agent Detectors. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. Office of Homeland Security. 2002. The National Strategy for Homeland Security. Washington, D.C.: Office of Homeland Security. Pflugh, K.K., J. Shaw, and B. Johnson. 1992. Establishing Dialogue: Planning for Successful Environmental Management, A Guide to Effective Communication Planning. Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management (PCC). 1997. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management: Final Report, Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: PCC. United States Department of Health and Human Services (USHHS). 2002. Communicating in a Crisis: Risk Communication Guidelines for Public Officials. Rockville, MD: USHHS Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). 2002. Initiation and Conduct of a Major Risk Assessments within a Risk Analysis Framework: A Report by the CFSAN Risk Analysis Working Group. College Park, MD: USFDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

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Review of Projects Ident.ifi edt in the Action Plan time of travel, dilution, and the characteristics of the particular agent all of which can be modeled. The Ohio River Monitoring and Notification Network is an example of an existing system designed to detect sewage and chemical spills in the river and provide rapid warnings to downstream water systems. EPA may wish to examine examples of these types of networks to assess their capabilities and applicability with regard to terrorism incidents. With regard to hazardous materials used in wastewater plants (4. b), the wastewater industry could benefit from the knowledge and experience of other industries (e.g., the paper and chemical industries) that are facing similar security concerns. The remaining projects were not reviewed since more detailed wastewater security discussions and further project development is ongoing at EPA. Additional Projects Management and disposal of contaminated waste and sludges (including materials generated in the course of a cleanup or response action) is an area where additional research and technical support projects may be needed. There is considerable experience with managing wastes from hazardous waste sites that may provide sufficient background. As a first order of business, existing procedures should be assembled and examined for adequacy in the context of a municipal waste contamination incident. The adequacy of plant worker protection to prevent harm during potential water security attacks should also be considered. However, since sewage is routinely laden with pathogens and chemicals, current practices may be sufficiently protective. 43