operates much like the former Napster in facilitating the illegal sharing of articles among scientists. Furthermore, as required by the DMCA, systems such as CiteSeer must remove articles in a responsible manner when requested to do so by a copyright holder [Section 512(b)(c)(d)].
One of the most promising options for addressing the legal clarity issue in the long run is to encourage and facilitate the ability of scientists to grant rights to the public to use their works prior to submission of those works to publishers that do not already allow open-access archiving of scientific works. By example, the Creative Commons is working to facilitate the free availability of information, scientific data, art, and cultural materials by developing innovative, machine-readable licenses that individuals and institutions can attach to their work. 10
10For additional information, see http://www.creativecommons.org and Chapter 23 of these Proceedings, “New Legal Approaches in the Private Sector,” by Jonathan Zittrain.
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25. Emerging Models for Maintaining Scientific Data in the Public Domain ."
The Role of Scientific and Technical Data and Information in the Public Domain: Proceedings of a Symposium . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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As of 2013, the National Science Education Standards have been replaced by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), available as a print book, free PDF download, and online with our OpenBook platform.
The NGSS offer a detailed description of the key scientific ideas and practices that all students should learn by the time they graduate from high school. The standards are based largely on the 2011 National Research Council report A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas.