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Allan, R. P., V. Ramaswamy, and A. Slingo. 2002. Diagnostic analysis of atmospheric moisture and clear-sky radiative feedback in the Hadley Centre and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) climate models. J. Geophys. Res. 107(D17):4329.

Andronova, N. and M. E. Schlesinger. 2000. Causes of global temperature changes during the 19th and 20th centuries. Geophysical Research Letters 27(14):2137-2140.

Andronova, N., and M. E. Schlesinger. 2001. Objective estimation of the probability distribution for climate sensitivity. J. Geophys. Res. 106(D19):22605-22612.


Boyle, J. S. 1998. Intercomparison of interannual variability of the global 200-hPa circulation for AMIP simulations. Journal of Climate 11:2505-2529.

Brasseur, G. P., D. A. Hauglustaine, S. Walters, P. J. Rasch, J.-F. Müller, C. Granier, and X. X. Tie. 1998. MOZART, a global chemical transport model for ozone and related chemical tracers: 1. Model description. J. Geophys. Res. 103:28265-28289.


Colman, R. A. and B. J. McAvaney. 1997. A study of GCM climate feedbacks from perturbed SST experiments. J. Geophys Res. 102:19383-19402.

Cooke, W. F., C. Liousse, H. Cachier, and J. Feichter. 1999. Construction of a 1€ * 1€ degree fossil fuel emission data set for carbonaceous aerosol and implementation and radiative impact in the ECHAM4 model. J. Geophys. Res. 104:22,137-22,162.

Covey, C., K. M. AchutaRao, U. Cubasch, P. Jones, S. J. Lambert, M. E. Mann, T. J. Phillips and K. E. Taylor. 2003. An overview of results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Global and Planetary Change 37:103-133.

Crowley, T. J. 2000. Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years. Science 289:270-277.


Esper, J., E. R. Cook, and F. H. Schweingruber. 2002. Low-frequency signals in long tree-ring chronologies for reconstructing past temperature variability. Science 295:2250-2253.


Folland, C. K., N. A. Rayner, S. J. Brown, T. M. Smith, S. S. Shen, D. E. Parker, I. Macadam, P. D. Jones, R. N. Jones, N. Nichols, and D. M. H. Sexton. 2001. Global temperature change and its uncertainties since 1861. Geophys. Res. Let. 28:2621-2624.

Forest C. E., P. H. Stone, A. P. Sokolov, M. R. Allen, and M. D. Webster. 2002. Quantifying uncertainties in the climate system properties with the use of recent climate observations. Science 295:113-117.

Fuglestvedt, J. S., and J. E. Jonson. 1995. Climate change and its effect on tropospheric ozone. In W. C. Wang and I. S. A. Isaksen, eds. Atmospheric Ozone as a Climate Gas. NATO ASI Series 132:145-162. Berlin, Springer-Verlag.


Gregory, J. M., R. J. Stouffer, S. C. B. Raper, P. A. Stott, N. A. Rayner. 2002. An observationally based estimate of the climate sensitivity. J. Climate 15(22):3117-3121.


Harvey, L. D. D., and R. K. Kaufman. 2002. Simultaneously constraining climate sensitivity and aerosol radiative forcing. J. Climate 15(20):2837.

Hoffert, M. I., and C. Covey. 1992. Deriving global climate sensitivity from paleoclimate reconstructions. Nature 360:573-576.


IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) First Assessment Report. 1990. Geneva, Switzerland, Cambridge University Press.

IPCC. 1995. Second Assessment Report: Climate Change 1995. Geneva, Switzerland, Cambridge University Press.

IPCC. 2001. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Third Assessment . Geneva, Switzerland, Cambridge University Press.


Jones, P. D. and A. Moberg. 2003. Hemispheric and large-scale surface air temperature variations: An extensive revision and an update to 2001. J. Climate 16:206-223.



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REFERENCES Allan, R. P., V. Ramaswamy, and A. Slingo. 2002. Diagnostic analysis of atmospheric moisture and clear-sky radiative feedback in the Hadley Centre and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) climate models. J. Geophys. Res. 107(D17):4329. Andronova, N. and M. E. Schlesinger. 2000. Causes of global temperature changes during the 19th and 20th centuries. Geophysical Research Letters 27(14):2137-2140. Andronova, N., and M. E. Schlesinger. 2001. Objective estimation of the probability distribution for climate sensitivity. J. Geophys. Res. 106(D19):22605-22612. Boyle, J. S. 1998. Intercomparison of interannual variability of the global 200-hPa circulation for AMIP simulations. Journal of Climate 11:2505-2529. Brasseur, G. P., D. A. Hauglustaine, S. Walters, P. J. Rasch, J.-F. Müller, C. Granier, and X. X. Tie. 1998. MOZART, a global chemical transport model for ozone and related chemical tracers: 1. Model description. J. Geophys. Res. 103:28265-28289. Colman, R. A. and B. J. McAvaney. 1997. A study of GCM climate feedbacks from perturbed SST experiments. J. Geophys Res. 102:19383-19402. Cooke, W. F., C. Liousse, H. Cachier, and J. Feichter. 1999. Construction of a 1€ * 1€ degree fossil fuel emission data set for carbonaceous aerosol and implementation and radiative impact in the ECHAM4 model. J. Geophys. Res. 104:22,137-22,162. Covey, C., K. M. AchutaRao, U. Cubasch, P. Jones, S. J. Lambert, M. E. Mann, T. J. Phillips and K. E. Taylor. 2003. An overview of results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Global and Planetary Change 37:103-133. Crowley, T. J. 2000. Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years. Science 289:270-277. Esper, J., E. R. Cook, and F. H. Schweingruber. 2002. Low-frequency signals in long tree-ring chronologies for reconstructing past temperature variability. Science 295:2250-2253. Folland, C. K., N. A. Rayner, S. J. Brown, T. M. Smith, S. S. Shen, D. E. Parker, I. Macadam, P. D. Jones, R. N. Jones, N. Nichols, and D. M. H. Sexton. 2001. Global temperature change and its uncertainties since 1861. Geophys. Res. Let. 28:2621-2624. Forest C. E., P. H. Stone, A. P. Sokolov, M. R. Allen, and M. D. Webster. 2002. Quantifying uncertainties in the climate system properties with the use of recent climate observations. Science 295:113-117. Fuglestvedt, J. S., and J. E. Jonson. 1995. Climate change and its effect on tropospheric ozone. In W. C. Wang and I. S. A. Isaksen, eds. Atmospheric Ozone as a Climate Gas. NATO ASI Series 132:145-162. Berlin, Springer-Verlag. Gregory, J. M., R. J. Stouffer, S. C. B. Raper, P. A. Stott, N. A. Rayner. 2002. An observationally based estimate of the climate sensitivity. J. Climate 15(22):3117-3121. Harvey, L. D. D., and R. K. Kaufman. 2002. Simultaneously constraining climate sensitivity and aerosol radiative forcing. J. Climate 15(20):2837. Hoffert, M. I., and C. Covey. 1992. Deriving global climate sensitivity from paleoclimate reconstructions. Nature 360:573-576. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) First Assessment Report. 1990. Geneva, Switzerland, Cambridge University Press. IPCC. 1995. Second Assessment Report: Climate Change 1995. Geneva, Switzerland, Cambridge University Press. IPCC. 2001. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Third Assessment . Geneva, Switzerland, Cambridge University Press. Jones, P. D. and A. Moberg. 2003. Hemispheric and large-scale surface air temperature variations: An extensive revision and an update to 2001. J. Climate 16:206-223.

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