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B Committee and Panel Members Biographies COMMITTEE FOR THE REVIEW OF NASA'S PIONEERING REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY (PRT) PROGRAM RAYMOND S. COLLADAY, Chair, is a senior indus- try executive with extensive experience and demon- strated success in exploiting technology leverage, structuring international alliances, fostering creativity and innovation, and motivating organizations to achieve goals. Dr. Colladay is a retired corporate of- ficer of Lockheed Martin Corporation and formerly held positions as president of Lockheed Martin Astro- nautics, agency director of DARPA, and associate ad- ministrator for aeronautics and space technology at NASA. Currently he serves as president and CEO of RC Space Enterprises, Inc., in Colorado and as a senior associate of Burdeshaw & Associates, Ltd., in the Washington, D.C., area, providing management sup- port, business strategy, and technical services to client organizations. Dr. Colladay is a fellow of the Ameri- can Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and of the American Astronautical Society. He has also served in various capacities on several NRC panels and boards, including chair of the Committee on Advanced Space Technology and member of the Committee on the Space Station, the Aeronautics and Space Engineer- ing Board, and, most recently, the Committee on the Future of the U.S. Aerospace Infrastructure and Aero- space Engineering Disciplines to Meet the Needs of the Air Force and Department of Defense. 104 BENJAMIN BUCHBINDER has more than 40 years of experience in the development and application of risk assessment methods, in the use of quantitative methods to support management decision making re- lated to safety and programmatic risk, and in the com- munication of risk assessment results. While working in reliability analysis for the General Electric Company on the Apollo program at Daytona Beach in the 1960s, he served as an adjunct assistant professor at the Uni- versity of Florida, teaching graduate-level courses in probability and statistical methods. At the National Bureau of Standards (now NIST) Center for Fire Research, he applied decision analysis and risk assess- ment methods to the analysis of fire risk and the devel- opment of fire safety standards. He was chief, Method- ology and Data Branch, in the Office of Research of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC developed the modern approach to the probabilistic assessment of risk in the operation of engineered sys- tems. As manager of the Risk Management Program, Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, NASA Head- quarters, he pioneered NASA's probabilistic approach to risk assessment in the post-Challenger era. He di- rected the initial probabilistic risk assessments for the space shuttle and presented workshops on risk assess- ment processes and consulted on risk assessment meth- ods for NASA programs at most of the field centers. In 1994, he joined the Futron Corporation, where he was responsible for business development and project man- agement in probabilistic risk assessment and program- matic risk management until 1997.

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APPENDIX B LEONARD H. CAVENY, an aerospace consultant, retired in 1997 from the Ballistic Missile Defense Or- ganization (BMDO), Science and Technology Direc- torate, where he had served as director since August 1995. While in the Strategic Defense Initiative Organi- zation (SDIO, which later became BMDO) from 1985 to 1997, Dr. Caveny initiated and managed fundamen- tal research and development of high-risk technology. He was the program manger for four space flight ex- periments on solar power, electric propulsion, and UV signatures. In 1984 and 1985, Dr. Caveny was a staff specialist in the Office of the Deputy Undersecretary for Research and Advanced Technology, at the Penta- gon. Between 1980 and 1984, he was program man- ager for energy conversion in the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), Aerospace Sciences Di- rectorate, Washington, D.C., where he managed the basic research programs on space propulsion, rocketry, and reacting flow diagnostics. Between 1969 and 1980, he was a senior member of the professional staff in the Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Sciences, Princeton University. Dr. Caveny's areas of expertise include space propulsion and power, high-temperature materials, sensors, and space systems. Dr. Caveny served as chair of the National Research Council Panel to Review Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) Proposals in Propulsion in 2003. As an aero- space consultant, his present involvements include ad- vanced solid rocket propulsion systems, electric pro- pulsion, energetic materials, combustion, and ignition in high-speed flows. He has authored over 50 refereed technical articles and received 11 U.S. patents. He is a fellow of AIAA and recipient of the AIAA Wyld Pro- pulsion Medal. SERGIO GUARRO is the director of the Risk Plan- ning and Assessment Office at the Aerospace Corpora- tion. The office provides technical expertise and assis- tance to a broad spectrum of Air Force and NASA launch vehicle and spacecraft programs in the areas of probabilistic risk assessment, risk management, and reliability engineering. Dr. Guarro has 30 years of pro- fessional engineering experience, with more than 20 years spent on both the research and application sides of risk assessment, systems logic modeling, fault diag- nosis, and reliability engineering. Before joining the Aerospace Corporation, Dr. Guarro was a project leader with the Nuclear Systems Safety Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. During his 105 career, he has had appointments and recognition in academia, as an international Fulbright scholar at the University of California, Berkeley, and a research as- sociate and lecturer at the University of California, Los Angeles, and also in government institutions, as a fel- low of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In the last 13 years he has been specifically working in space sys- tems risk management and mission assurance, making key contributions to major programs and missions such as the NASA Cassini mission and the U.S. Air Force Titan launch vehicle and Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) programs. DAVID J. KASIK is a Boeing technical fellow. He is the geometry and visualization architect for Boeing Commercial Airlines. His responsibility extends throughout the commercial airplane design, build, and maintenance processes. He is currently bringing to the factory applications based on wireless connectivity. Recently, he acted as the technical architect for the Single Glass project. Single Glass is a unified system that makes over 1,000 applications available to 6,000 workstations in the Puget Sound area. The project re- quired carefully designed system architecture to ensure scalability and extensibility. As the geometry and visu- alization architect, he routinely capitalizes on his user interface and graphics background. He has been a key developer of the underlying technology needed for 3D graphics and to improve human-computer dialogue se- quences through User Interface Management Systems. In his role as exposition chair for advanced technology exhibits for the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and the Special Interest Group in Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH), he has become familiar with a broad range of innovative computing technology. He is the chair of the Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratories Information Technology Peer Review Committee and a member of the Technical Advisory Board of the Fraunhofer Center for Research in Com- puter Graphics. He received a bachelor's degree in quantitative studies from Johns Hopkins University and a master's degree in computer science from the Uni- versity of Colorado. DIMITRI MAVRIS is Boeing Associate Professor for Advanced Aerospace Systems Analysis, codirector of NASA's University Research Engineering Technology Institute (URETI) in Aeropropulsion and Power and director of General Electric Aircraft Engine's Univer-

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106 AN ASSESSMENT OF NASA 'S PIONEERING REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM sity Strategic Alliance (USA) Center for Robust De- sign Methods and Optimization. He received his doc- torate from Georgia Institute of Technology in 1988 in the field of aerospace engineering, joining the faculty of the School of Aerospace Engineering in 1995. Dr. Mavris pioneered the Robust Design Simulation meth- odology as well as a method for technology impact forecasting (TIF), which led to the development of the technology identification, evaluation, and selection (TIES) methodology. All of these methodologies sup- port decision making for complex system design. In 1998, Dr. Mavris worked with Boeing under the Boeing A.D. Welliver Faculty Fellowship. He has 228 refer- eed and conference publications and serves on many national boards and committees, including as deputy director for AIAA's Aircraft Technology, Integration and Operations Group, chair of the AIAA's Aircraft Design Technical Committee, editor of the Interna- tional Society of Parametric Analysts' Journal of Parametrics, and member of AIAA's Air Transporta- tion and Operation Technology Committee and its Mis- sile Systems Technical Committee. Dr. Mavris has sev- eral significant accomplishments in the area of multidisciplinary design, particularly in advanced probabilistic design methodology. The bulk of this work is focused on finding ways to account for uncer- tainty in the design process and to produce robust de- signs that are insensitive to changes in the design and/ or operational environment. Dr. Mavris is currently a principal or coprincipal investigator of 24 grants worth approximately $13.52 million. DENNIS K. McBRIDE is president of the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, a Washington think tank specializing in science and technology policy. Cur- rently serving also as vice president for research (act- ing), Dr. McBride continues to lead nationally focused technical programs, including significant support to DARPA, the Office of Naval Research, the National Science Foundation, the National Academy of Sci- ences, and private industry. Dr. McBride is also an ad- junct research professor at the Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study, George Mason University. He served previously as executive director, Institute for Simula- tion and Training, University of Central Florida, and professor (with dual appointments in the Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Systems, College of Engineering and Computer Science, and in the Department of Psychology, College of Arts and Sciences). Dr. McBride completed a 20-year career at the grade of captain, Medical Service Corps, as a naval aerospace experimental psychologist and flight test engineer. Captain McBride served at six Navy labora- tories, as program officer for biomedical S&T at the Office of Naval Research, and as program manager (simulation technology) at the Defense Advanced Projects Research Agency. Dr. McBride's formal edu- cation includes enrollment at the University of Geor- gia, University of Southern California, and the London School of Economics. He earned a Ph.D., three master of science degrees, and an MPA. Dr. McBride was a summer scholar at the Santa Fe Institute. He holds professional credentials from the Board of Certifica- tion in Professional Ergonomics and in Professional Modeling and Simulation. Dr. McBride is vice presi- dent of the Policy Studies Organization, editor of the Review of Policy Research, and is a member of edito- rial boards, including the International Journal for Human Computer Interaction and Human Nature Re- view, as associate editor. Dr. McBride has received numerous awards and military decorations, including the Defense Superior Service Medal and the Legion of Merit. Among his civilian awards is the L.P. Coombes Medal, presented by the Australian Institution of Engi- neers. He has published and presented more than 125 scientific papers, technical reports, and book chapters in the fields of psychobiology, experimental psychol- ogy, medical and pharmacological research, engineer- ing science, operations research, complexity science, political science, economics, and public policy. TODD J. MOSHER is an assistant professor at Utah State University (USU) in the mechanical and aero- space engineering department. His research is in small satellites and payloads, advanced space system con- cepts, and new design methodologies. He teaches courses in astrodynamics, propulsion, and space sys- tem design. He joined USU in 2002 after serving as the associate director of the Space Architecture Depart- ment at the Aerospace Corporation. He has 14 years of experience in space systems analysis, especially NASA science missions and space transportation. Dr. Mosher originated and led the development of a lunar Discov- ery proposal, where he was responsible for both the mission architecture and the organization of the gov- ernment, industry, and academia team. He has partici- pated in evaluation of many of NASA' s programs, in- cluding Mars Scout, Mars Sample Return, Discovery, New Millennium, Medium Explorers (MIDEX), Europa Orbiter, Pluto Kuiper Belt mission, Earth Sci-

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APPENDIX B ence System Pathfinder (ESSP), and Small Explorers (SMEX). Dr. Mosher has also supported launch pro- grams such as the Advanced Launch System, Atlas, National Launch System, Space Shuttle, and Titan. He also led many of Aerospace's efforts in small space- craft design and was instrumental in creating new de- sign and cost models reflecting the latest changes in technology and management in the design of these spacecraft. He also served as an instructor at UCLA, teaching the courses Introduction to Space Technol- ogy, Spacecraft Design, and Space Hardware Design. JAMES ODOM recently retired as deputy group man- ager and senior vice president of the Science Applica- tions International Corporation (SAIC), Inc., Huntsville Group. He currently works part-time with SAIC as a consulting employee. Before coming to SAIC in 1994, he was president and CEO of Applied Research for 5 years, immediately after retiring from NASA. Mr. Odom served at NASA for 33 years and was directly involved in several of NASA's major projects, includ- ing the Hubble Space Telescope, the space shuttle, the Apollo program, and the space station Freedom. Mr. Odom's work with NASA began in an engineering position with the U.S. Army' s rocket research and de- velopment team at Redstone Arsenal; he was later transferred to Marshall Space Flight Center. At Marshall, Mr. Odom was actively involved in the de- velopment of early satellites, unmanned space probes, launch vehicles, and propulsion systems. He was then assigned to lead the engineering design and testing for the second stage of the Saturn V/Apollo lunar launch vehicle. Thereafter he was selected to direct the devel- opment of the space shuttle's external tank during its initial design phase and saw it through its first six launches. Mr. Odom also played a major role in the development of the Hubble Space Telescope. He capped his NASA career as associate administrator for the space station Freedom. LEE D. PETERSON is associate professor of aerospace engineering sciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder. He has been an associate professor or assis- tant professor at the University of Colorado since 1991. Dr. Peterson is also director of the McDonnell-Dou- glas Aerospace Structural Dynamics and Control Labo- ratory and is a member of the Center for Aerospace Structures. From 1989 to 1991 Dr. Peterson was assis- tant professor of aeronautics and astronautics at Purdue University. Prior to his work at Purdue, Dr. Peterson 107 was a member of the technical staff at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. He obtained his S.B. (1982), S.M. (1983), and Ph.D. (1987) in aero- nautics and astronautics from the Massachusetts Insti- tute of Technology. He has authored or coauthored over 100 publications in space structure mechanics, dynam- ics, control, and design. His research interests are in the development of large, lightweight precision space structures for optical telescopes and interferometers. This includes experimental and theoretical research in the stability of structures and structural components at nanometer scales of deformation. JOSEPH B. REAGAN (NAE), an independent consult- ant, is retired vice president and general manager of research and development at Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space and was a corporate officer of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Dr. Reagan, a member of the NAE, has a strong background in defense technology devel- opment, particularly in optics, electro-optics, informa- tion software, guidance and control, electronics, and materials. Dr. Reagan joined Lockheed as a scientist, where he led the Space Instrumentation Group for 10 years and was responsible for the development and on- orbit deployment of over 20 scientific payloads for NASA and the DOD. His research interests included space sensors, radiation belt and solar particles, nuclear weapon effects, and the effects of radiation particles on spacecraft systems. As general manager of the R&D Division, he led over 750 scientists and engineers in the development of advanced technologies in optics, electro-optics, information software, cryogenics, guid- ance and controls, electronics, and materials. Today, Dr. Reagan is chairman of the board of Southwall Tech- nologies, Incorporated, a high-technology company specializing in the manufacturing of thin-film coatings for high-performance residential, industrial, and auto- motive windows. He is also a director on the board of the Tech Museum of Innovation, where he is the chair- man of the Exhibits Committee. He is involved in nu- merous activities that foster the improvement of sci- ence and mathematics education. Dr. Reagan is currently vice chair of the Naval Studies Board. CYNTHIA R. SAMUELSON is a senior fellow and program manager at the Logistics Management Insti- tute. In this role, she serves as researcher and technical advisor for Information Technology studies and analy- ses for federal organizations. She came to LMI follow- ing retirement as principal director for information

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108 AN ASSESSMENT OF NASA 'S PIONEERING REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM management at the Department of Defense and 3 years in private industry. In total, she has more than 20 years of experience in leading and managing complex public and private organizations responsible for providing in- formation technology services. In recognition of her work, she has received numerous awards, including the Secretary of Defense Medals for Meritorious Civilian Service and Exceptional Civilian Service and the De- partment of Transportation's Bronze Medal. MARC SNIR has been the Michael Faiman and Saburo Muroga Professor of Computer Science and head of the Computer Science Department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign since the fall of 2001. Until August 2001 he was a senior manager at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, where he initiated and led the IBM Blue Gene project. Previously, he led the Scalable Parallel Systems research group and was re- sponsible for major contributions to the IBM SP scal- able parallel system: architecture, parallel operating environment, message-passing libraries, tools, parallel file system, parallel algorithms, and applications. Dr. Snir is an ACM fellow and IEEE fellow. He is on the editorial board of Parallel Processing Letters and A CM Computing Surveys and serves as co-chair of the NRC' s Committee to Study the Future of Supercomputing. MICHAEL J. ZYDA is the director of the Modeling, Virtual Environments and Simulation (MOVES) Insti- tute, located at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), Monterey, California. He is also a professor in the De- partment of Computer Science at NPS. Professor Zyda's research interests include computer graphics, large-scale, networked 3D virtual environments, agent- based simulation, modeling human and organizational behavior, interactive computer-generated story, com- puter-generated characters, video production, entertain- ment/defense collaboration, and modeling and simula- tion. He is the principal investigator of the America's Army PC game funded by the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Manpower and Reserve Affairs. Profes- sor Zyda was a member of the National Research Council's Committee on Virtual Reality Scientific and Technological Challenges and was the chair of the National Research Council's Computer Science and Telecommunications Board Committee on Modeling and Simulation: Linking Entertainment and Defense. From that report for the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology, Professor Zeta drafted the operating plan and research agenda for the USC Institute for Creative Technologies (ICT). Professor Zyda began his career in computer graphics in 1973 as part of an undergraduate research group, the Senses Bureau, at the University of California, San Diego. Professor Zyda received a B.A. in bioengineer- ing from the University of California, San Diego, in La Jolla in 1976, an M.S. in computer science from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, in 1978, and a D.Sc. in computer science from Washington Univer- sity, St. Louis, in 1984. PANEL ON COMPUTING, INFORMATION, AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY MICHAEL J. ZYDA, Panel Chair (see biography above) WILLIAM COHEN was a senior research scientist with the Center for Automated Learning and Discov- ery at Carnegie Mellon University. He received his bachelor's degree in computer science from Duke Uni- versity in 1984 and a Ph.D. in computer science from Rutgers University in 1990. From 1990 to 2000 Dr. Cohen worked at AT&T Bell Labs and AT&T Labs- Research. Dr. Cohen is currently an associate editor for the journal Machine Learning, has served as the action editor for the Journal of Artificial Intelligence Re- search, co-organized the 1994 International Machine Learning Conference, and has served on more than 20 program committees or advisory committees. Dr. Cohen' s research interests include information integra- tion and machine learning, particularly text categoriza- tion and learning from large data sets. He holds four patents in these areas and is the author of more than 50 refereed publications. DELORES M. ETTER (NAE) joined the electrical en- gineering faculty at the United States Naval Academy on August 1, 2001, as the first recipient of the Office of Naval Research Distinguished Chair in Science and Technology. From June 1998 through July 2001, Dr. Etter served as the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Science and Technology. In that position she was responsible for the Defense Science and Technology strategic planning, budget allocation, and program ex- ecution and evaluation for the $9 billion per year DOD science and technology program. She was also respon- sible for the Defense Modeling and Simulation Orga- nization, the DOD High Performance Computing Mod- ernization Office, and for technical oversight of the

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APPENDIX B Software Engineering Institute, a federally funded re- search and development center (FFRDC). Prior to that she was a tenured professor in electrical/computer en- gineering at the University of Colorado for 9 years and at the University of New Mexico for 10 years. She also spent a year at Stanford University as a visiting professor in the Information Systems Laboratory of the Electrical Engineering Department. Her academic background includes experience as associate vice presi- dent for academic affairs at the University of New Mexico. She received a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of New Mexico in 1979 and M.S. and B.S. degrees in mathematics from Wright State University in 1972 and 1970, respectively. MARY JEAN HARROLD is the NSF ADVANCE Pro- fessor of Computing in the College of Computing at Georgia Institute of Technology, where she is a mem- ber of the Center for Experimental Research in Com- puter Systems (CERCS). Her research to date has in- volved program-analysis-based software engineering, with an emphasis on regression testing, analysis and testing of imperative and object-oriented software, and development of software tools. Her research is funded by the National Science Foundation, under several of its programs, and by industry, with which she has worked extensively to improve the processes by which software is developed and maintained. She received the National Science Foundation's National Young Inves- tigator Award for her work in testing and analysis of object-oriented software and the 1998 College of Engi- neering Annual Research Award while at Ohio State University. She serves on editorial boards for IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering and ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Sys- tems. She served as program co-chair for the 23rd In- ternational Conference on Software Engineering 2001 and as program chair for the ACM SIGS OFT Interna- tional Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis 2000 and for the IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance 1997. Dr. Harrold currently serves as vice chair of ACM SIGSOFT and co-chair of the Computing Research Association's Committee on the Status of Women in Computing (CRA-W). CHANDRIKA KAMATH is a computer scientist at the Center for Applied Scientific Computing at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, where she has led the Sapphire project in large-scale scientific data mining 109 since 1998. Specifically, her research investigates the practical applications of large-scale data mining and pattern recognition, image processing, feature extrac- tion, dimension reduction, and classification and clus- tering algorithms. Prior to joining LLNL in 1997, Dr. Kamath was a consulting software engineer at Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), developing high-per- formance mathematical software for DEC Alpha sys- tems. She was responsible for the design, implementa- tion, optimization, and parallelization of the sparse linear system solvers in the Digital Extended Math Li- brary (DXML). Dr. Kamath earned her Ph.D. in 1986 and her M.S. in 1984, both in computer science, from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She has filed six patents in data mining and co-edited the book Data Mining for Scientific and Engineering Ap- plications, which was published in 2001. DAVID J. KASIK (see biography above) ALFRED U. MacRAE (NAE) is president of MacRae Technologies. He is a consultant on communications satellite technology and systems and telecommunica- tions equipment for customers that include satellite manufacturers, satellite system operators, communica- tions equipment developers, and investment bankers. Before this, he was director of AT&T Skynet Satellite Communications Laboratory, with responsibility for AT&T satellite technology, including satellite service development, satellite ground equipment development, satellite design and development, and oversight of sat- ellite manufacture, test, launch, and operations. Prior to the satellite responsibility, he was director of the Advanced Integrated Circuit Laboratory at Bell Labs, with responsibility for the development of SIC fabrica- tion technology and circuit design and their transfer into manufacturing. Honors include election as mem- ber of the National Academy of Engineering; fellow, American Physical Society; fellow, Institute of Electri- cal and Electronic Engineers; Scientific Member, Bohmische Physicalische Society; 1994 IEEE J.J. Ebers Award for contributions to integrated circuit technology; over 50 papers published in refereed tech- nical journals; over 100 talks at professional society meetings and universities; and 18 patents, including a high-revenue-generating patent that was singled out for special AT&T recognition. He serves on several IEEE committees as well as on the Executive Committee of the Electron Devices Society.

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110 AN ASSESSMENT OF NASA 'S PIONEERING REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM DUANE T. McRUER (NAE) is concurrently an inde- Richard M. White to found the Berkeley Sensor and pendent consultant and chairman of Systems Technol- Actuator Center (BSAC). Dr. Muller has been awarded ogy, Inc. (STI). He received his undergraduate and graduate education at the California Institute of Tech- nology. Since 1950, his research has focused on aero- space and ground vehicle and human pilot dynamics, automatic and manual vehicular control, and vehicle flying/handling qualities. He has published more than 125 technical papers and seven books, including Analy- sis of Nonlinear Control Systems (Wiley, 1961; Dover, 1971) and Aircraft Dynamics and Automatic Control (Princeton, 1973~. He has also been involved with ap- plications of these topics in more than 50 aerospace and land vehicles, and he has five patents on flight con- trol and stability augmentation systems. Besides a ca- reer as president and technical director of STI (until 1993), he has been Regent's Lecturer at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and was the 1992-1993 Hunsaker Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). His past service for various gov- ernmental and professional societies includes terms as president of the American Automatic Control Council and chairman of the National Research Council Aero- nautics and Space Engineering Board, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Technical Committee on Guidance and Control, and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Aerospace Control and Guidance Systems Committee. He was a long-time member of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advisory Council. He is an honorary fellow of the AIAA and a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), SAE, and the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society and a member of the National Academy of Engineer- ing. Other honors include the Caltech Distinguished Alumni Award, the NASA Distinguished Public Ser- vice Medal, the AIAA Mechanics and Control of Flight Award, the Franklin Institute's Levy Medal, and the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society's Alexander Williams Award. RICHARD MULLER (NAE) joined the EECS faculty at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1962. His initial research and teaching on the physics of inte- grated-circuit devices led to collaboration with T.I. Kamins of Hewlett-Packard Laboratories in writing Device Electronics for Integrated Circuits. Dr. Muller changed his research focus in the late 1970s to the gen- eral area now known as microelectromechanical sys- tems (MEMS) and he joined in 1986 with colleague NATO and Fulbright research fellowships; an Alexander von Humboldt Senior-Scientist Award; the University of California Berkeley Citation (1994~; Stevens Institute of Technology Renaissance Award (1995~; the Transducers Research Conference Career Achievement Award (1997), the IEEE Cledo Brunetti Award (with Roger T. Howe, 1998) and an IEEE Mil- lennium Medal (2000~. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a life fellow of the IEEE, an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer, IEEE/ASME Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems editor in chief (since 1998), a trustee of the Stevens Institute of Technology, past member of the NRC National Materials Advisory Board, and on the board of the Transducers Research Foundation. He is the author or coauthor of more than 200 technical papers and of 16 patents. CYNTHIA R. SAMUELSON (see biography above) JUDE SHAVLIK is a professor in the Department of Computer Science and the Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics at the University of Wiscon- sin-Madison. His research centers on developing ma- chine learning systems within the artificial intelligence field, with a primary focus on applications in computa- tional biology. Dr. Shavlik has organized or partici- pated as a panel member at numerous artificial intelli- gence conferences and is widely published in the field. He is a member of the board of directors of the Interna- tional Machine Learning Society. He received his Ph.D. in computer science from the University of Illinois in 1988 and his master's in molecular biophysics and bio- chemistry from Yale University in 1980. He has held positions at either the University of Illinois or the Uni- versity of Wisconsin since 1983. He served as a mem- ber of the technical staff of MITRE Corporation from 1980 to 1982. Dr. Shavlik's current funding is from the National Library of Medicine, to investigate adaptive information monitoring and extraction, and from DARPA, to study pattern discovery in richly intercon- nected data sources. SANDEEP SINGHAL, CTO, chief architect and co- founder of ReefEdge, Inc., is a recognized expert in the mobile intranet and internet, handheld computing, and distributed systems. Currently, Dr. Singhal serves as chief product architect, responsible for the company's technical strategy. Prior to cofounding ReefEdge, he

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APPENDIX B 111 was chief architect for IBM's Pervasive Computing Santa Monica, 1999~; Teams and Technology (Harvard Division, with responsibility for IBM's suite of mobile Business School Press, Boston, 1996~; Universal Ac- connectivity, middleware, server, and applicationprod- cess to E-mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications ucts for enterprise and carrier customers. He previously (RAND, Santa Monica, 1995~; and Preserving the served as a researcher in IBM's T.J. Watson Research Present (Sdu Publishers, The Hague, 1993~. She holds Center and as a software engineer at NASA. Dr. Ph.D. degrees in philosophy (University of Missouri) Singhal's credits include 27 issued patents and dozens and psychology (UCLA). She has chaired RAND's In- of publications, including two books and a featured stitutional Review Board since 1986. Dr. Bikson has contribution to the recently published book Wireless also served on special task forces, panels, and planning Local Area Networks The New Wireless Revolution. committees concerned with digital information and He is active in various standards organizations, includ- communication media for the National Academy of ing the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), IEEE, Engineering, the National Academy of Sciences, the and World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). He holds National Academy of Public Administration, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in computer science from Social Science Research Council. Stanford University, as well as B.S. degrees in com- puter science and mathematical sciences and a B.A. in mathematics from Johns Hopkins University. He is an adjunct professor at North Carolina State University. MARC SNIR (see biography above) PANEL ON ENGINEERING FOR COMPLEX SYSTEMS DENNIS K. McBRIDE, Panel Chair (see biography above) TORA K. BIKSON, a senior behavioral scientist at RAND Corporation since 1976, is recognized for her research on the introduction of advanced communica- tion and information technologies and their effects in varied contexts of use. She recently completed a project to define organizational needs and identify best prac- tices for creating, managing, and distributing digital documents (including compound, multimedia, and in- teractive documents) among United Nations organiza- tions based in Europe, North America, and South America. In previous projects for clients, including the National Science Foundation, the World Bank, the Or- ganization for Economic Cooperation and Develop- ment, the Markle Foundation, and others, she addressed such issues as the factors that affect the successful transfer and implementation of new technologies in ongoing communities of practice, how innovations in- fluence intra- and interorganizational structures and processes, their impact on task performance and social outcomes, and their policy implications. Dr. Bikson has coauthored four recent books addressing such issues: Sending Your Government a Message: E-mail Com- munication Between Citizens and Government (RAND, BENJAMIN BUCHBINDER (see biography above) PHILIP R. COHEN is professor and codirector of the Center for Human-Computer Communication at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Oregon Health and Science University and the Oregon Graduate Institute's School of Science and Engineer- ing. Dr. Cohen specializes in multimodal human-ma- chine interfaces and multiagent systems. His recent projects include multimodal interaction for the com- mand post of the future and robust agent-based sys- tems incorporating teams of communicating agents, both sponsored by DARPA, and multimodal interac- tion for virtual environments and augmented reality, sponsored by ONR. He recently served on the DARPA ISAT study panel on RAP teams (teams of robots, agents, and people). He received his Ph.D. in computer science from the University of Toronto in 1978 and has been a staff research scientist at Bolt Bernanek and Newman, the Fairchild Laboratory for Artificial Intel- ligence, and SRI International. Dr. Cohen is a fellow of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence and is a past president of the Association for Computa- tional Linguistics. SERGIO GUARRO (see biography above) MYRON HECHT is cofounder and president of SoHaR, a research, development, and consulting firm specializing in computer dependability. He has experi- ence in software and systems reliability and in soft- ware fault tolerance. His activities in basic research and development at SoHaR have resulted in new ar- chitectures for real-time distributed systems, method- ologies for the development and verification of fault-

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112 AN ASSESSMENT OF NASA 'S PIONEERING REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM tolerant software, and designs for fault-tolerant distrib- uted systems. Mr. Hecht recently headed efforts for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on programming guidelines for high-level languages in safety-critical systems and requirements for safety-critical systems. Mr. Hecht currently manages SoHaR's support of the Federal Aviation Administration Office of Air Traffic Maintenance in the analysis of reliability and outage data. He holds a B.S in chemistry, an M.S. in engineer- ing, an M.B.A with a specialty in information systems, and a J.D. degree, all from the University of Califor- nia, Los Angeles. JAMES LARUS, a senior researcher at Microsoft Re- search, leads the Software Productivity Tools research group. His previous research applied programming lan- guage and compiler technology to a wide range of prob- lems, most notably efficient program measurement, parallel programming, and fine-grain distributed shared memory. He is now working on applying these tech- nologies to improve software development. His group's research goal is to develop and demonstrate new tools for program design, coding, debugging, and testing that fundamentally improve software development. Prior to joining Microsoft, Dr. Larus was an associate profes- sor in the Computer Sciences Department at the Uni- versity of Wisconsin-Madison. There, he co-led the NSF and DARPA-funded Wisconsin Wind Tunnel re- search project, which investigated the design and pro- gramming of shared-memory parallel computers. Dr. Larus's master's and Ph.D. were from the University of California, Berkeley. DIMITRI MAVRIS (see biography above) RONALD WESTRUM is a professor at Eastern Michi- gan University with a dual appointment in sociology and interdisciplinary technology. Dr. Westrum special- izes in organizational dynamics, technological acci- dents, and safety, with an emphasis on sociology of science and technology, creativity and invention, and anomalous events. He has been an invited speaker in- ternationally on organizational dynamics in the avia- tion field and related topics at the Sorbonne in Paris, the U.S. Naval War College, NATO Advanced Re- search Institutes, FAA- and NTSB-sponsored seminars, and the World Bank seminar on Systems Safety. In the past, he was invited to be one of two keynote speakers at the United Nations International Civil Aviation Or- ganization Regional Seminar in Addis Ababa, Ethio- pia. Ron Westrum is also the author of a book on the Sidewinder development team and the creative culture of the China Lake Naval Air Weapons Center. F. GORDON WILLIS is the founder and president of Vulcan Works, LLC, which specializes in the imple- mentation of high-performance software systems that dramatically reduce time and cost of product develop- ment. Prior to founding Vulcan Works, he worked at Ford Motor Company from 1976 until 1999. During his time at Ford, he served as chief engineer for a num- ber of different departments within Ford Motor Com- pany, including automatic transmission engineering, vehicle engineering at the Small and Medium Vehicle Center, and automotive chassis engineering, and as the director for Product and Manufacturing Systems for car product development. Mr. Willis served on the NRC Advanced Engineering Environments committee that evaluated NASA programs in computing and collabo- ration. PANEL ON ENABLING CONCEPTS AND TECHNOLOGIES LEE D. PETERSON, Panel Chair (see biography above) CLINTON A. (ANDY) BOYE is the deputy director of national space programs for Sandia National Laborato- ries, in the Center for Monitoring Systems and Tech- nology. As the program manager, he is responsible to customers in the national space community. For the past 18 years, he has been involved in the development of space-based electro-optical and radio-frequency sys- tems for remote sensing and communications, systems research in the remote detection and characterization of laser systems, and research on the optical spectra of terrestrial lightning. Prior to joining Sandia, Mr. Boye enjoyed a 10-year career in the U.S. Air Force, work- ing in the areas of electronic countermeasures (ECM) and high-energy laser beam propagation, adaptive op- tics, and laser antisatellite (ASAT) systems. Mr. Boye is a member of the Optical Society of America, the Society for Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), and the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS). LEONARD H. CAVENY (see biography above)

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APPENDIX B STANLEY V. GUNN capped an almost 40-year career at Rocket~yne as program manager for advanced pro- grams in both nuclear thermal rocket propulsion and free electron lasers. Dr. Gunn began his career at Rocket~yne in the aerophysics laboratory and worked through positions of increasing responsibility, serving as program manger for high-energy lasers, gas dynamic lasers, and nuclear propulsion projects. During this pe- riod he also evaluated potential applications for ad- vanced launch and space propulsion systems, includ- ing advanced chemical rocket propulsion, nuclear rocket propulsion, electric propulsion, and photon pro- pulsion. Lt. Gunn served in the U.S. Army before re- ceiving his B.S. in mechanical engineering from Michi- gan State University in 1947. Dr. Gunn also received M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical engineering from Purdue University in 1949 and 1953, respectively. He worked for General Electric in guided missiles before joining North American Aviation (now Rocket- dyne) in 1953. Dr. Gunn has been awarded various na- tional awards for his work in nuclear thermal propul- sion and his role in the Saturn/Apollo rocket system. ANTHONY K. HYDER is associate vice president for graduate studies and research and professor of physics at the University of Notre Dame. From 1991 to 1993, he served as associate vice president for research while he continued his teaching responsibilities as a profes- sor of aerospace engineering at Notre Dame. His re- sponsibilities included development and administra- tion of the research activities of the university; strategic planning and formulation of university policy related to research, industrial activities, and research compli- ance issues; the evaluation of research quality and in- frastructure; decisions related to the commitment of university resources to research activities; and repre- senting the university on research and associated graduate-studies matters. From 1991 to 1995, Dr. Hyder also worked as a research fellow for the Space Power Institute at Auburn University. During this pe- riod, he completed several research-related activities under way at the time of accepting the appointment at Notre Dame, including editing a book on the nature of the space environment; advising graduate students; and investigating space applications of advanced batteries and fuel cells, radioisotope thermoelectric generators, and high-power microwave tubes. Dr. Hyder also served as associate vice president for research from 1984 to 1991 and was founding director of both the Center for Advanced Technologies and the Space 113 Power Institute while a professor at Auburn Univer- sity. Since arriving at Notre Dame, he has authored a text on spacecraft power technologies and has edited books on defense conversion strategies and multi- sensor fusion. Dr. Hyder will also be able to provide expertise in the area of space environments, sensors, and spacecraft power systems. DIMITRIS C. LAGOUDAS is the Ford Professor of Aerospace Engineering at Texas A&M University, College Station. He is currently serving as director for the Texas Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nano Materials and Structures for Aerospace Vehicles (TiiMS), chair of the Executive Committee of the Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, and as an associate vice presi- dent for research. Lagoudas's educational background includes his diploma in mechanical engineering in 1982 from Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, and his Ph.D. in applied mathematics in 1986 from Lehigh University. Lagoudas's research interests include ac- tive materials and smart structures, theories of defects in solids, micromechanics of composite materials, dam- age mechanics, and constitutive modeling and applica- tions of shape memory alloys (SMAs). He has pub- lished more than 200 papers (more than 90 in archival journals). Lagoudas is the recipient of the Lockheed Excellence in Engineering Teaching Award, the Neely '52 Dow Chemical Faculty Fellow Award, TEES Se- nior Research Fellow, and the most prestigious Texas A&M Faculty Fellow Award. He is in Who's Who in America and Who's Who in Science and Engineering. He was selected as the inaugural recipient of one of the two Ford Motor Company professorships and is an as- sociate fellow of AIAA and fellow of ASME. TODD J. MOSHER (see biography above) JAY S. PEARLMAN is chief of science and applica- tions for the Advanced Network Centric Operations Systems in the Phantom Works organization of Boeing. His background includes basic research, program man- agement, and program development in sensors and sys- tems. He has played an important role in the develop- ment and implementation of new concepts and capabilities for both the military and the civil sectors of the U.S. government. At Boeing, he is working on the Advanced Landsat System as chief scientist and is also developing network-centric applications for govern- ment applications. Dr. Pearlman remains active in hyperspectral imaging and analysis as a continuation

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114 AN ASSESSMENT OF NASA 'S PIONEERING REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM of his work at TRW and his role as scientist for the NASA EO-1 Hyperion program. Prior to his employ- ment at TRW, Dr. Pearlman was manager of advanced technology commercial applications at Maxwell Labo- ratories and spent several years at the Department of Energy and S. andia National Laboratories. Dr. Pearlman earned his Ph.D. in aeronautics from the University of Washington. JOSEPH B. REAGAN (NAE) (see biography above) NANCY R. SOTTOS is a professor in the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics and Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her re- search interests include mechanics of complex hetero- geneous materials (advanced composites, thin-film de- vices, smart materials); mesoscale characterization; and autonomic materials systems. Her work at the Beckman Institute addresses issues in the development of auto- nomic materials systems that have the ability to achieve adaptation and response in an independent and auto- matic fashion. Dr. Sottos's research group is investi- gating new experimental methods to quantify auto- nomic response (e.g., the healing efficiency of a self-healing polymer) and understand this response in terms of the material's chemistry, processing, and mi- crostructure. Dr. Sottos began her career at the Univer- sity of Illinois in 1991, serving as an assistant profes- sor. In 1997 she became an associate professor, in 1998 she served a 1-year rotating term as assistant dean of engineering, and in 2002 she was promoted to full pro- fessor. She received an ONR Young Investigator Award in 1992, Outstanding Engineering Advisor Award in 1992, 1998, 1999, and 2002, the Robert E. Miller award for Excellence in Teaching in 1999, and was designated a University Scholar in 2002. She serves as the senior technical editor for the journal Ex- perimental Mechanics, as an editorial board member for the journal Composites Science and Technology, and a technical reviewer for multiple technical jour- nals. Dr. Sottos received her B.S. and Ph.D. in me- chanical engineering from the University of Delaware. She also serves as the faculty advisor for the Student Chapter of the Society of Women Engineers and as National Student Chapter Coordinator for the Society of Engineering Science. GREGORY G. SPANJERS has been program manager for the PowerSail Program at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Space Vehicles Directorate, at Kirtland Air Force Base since October 2002. He was previously the deputy chief of the Spacecraft Propul- sion Branch and Group Leader of the Electric Propul- sion Laboratory of the Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate, at Edwards Air Force Base in California, where he directed advanced engineering development for two flight payloads: a propulsive atti- tude control flight demo on FalconSat3 and the micropropulsion flight demo on TechSat21. Prior to this he was a research scientist with HY-Tech Research Corporation, where he focused on pulse-power simula- tors for nuclear effects testing, MHD, and plasma pro- cessing. Dr. Spanjers holds a B.S. in mathematics and a B.S. in physics from the University of Minnesota, an M.S. in nuclear engineering from the University of Washington, and a Ph.D. in plasma physics from the University of Washington. Dr. Spanjers is an associate editor for the AIAA Journal of Propulsion and Power and serves on the AIAA Electric Propulsion Technical Committee. In 2002 he was a member of the National Space Capability Protection Study. MICHAEL J. STALLARD is senior project engineer in the Space Technology Division at the Aerospace Corporation. He provides strategic planning and tech- nical support to the Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory for advanced space technology, including formation flying and microsatellite research. He also provides support to the MILSATCOM Joint Program Office on advanced sat- ellite communications technologies. Dr. Stallard joined the Aerospace Corporation in 1989 and has been in- volved with numerous Air Force space missions and flight experiments, providing structural and multidisciplinary analyses, systems engineering, and technology integration. Stallard has several recent pub- lications on low-cost microsatellites, distributed satel- lite missions, and virtual satellite technologies. He was also awarded a patent for smart docking surfaces for nano- and microsatellites. Dr. Stallard earned his Ph.D. in continuum mechanics from the University of Cali- fornia in 1990 and his M.S. and B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of California, Berke- ley, and California State Polytechnic University.