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Burning Plasma: Bringing a Star to Earth G Biographies of Committee Members JOHN F. AHEARNE, Co-chair, is the director of the Ethics Program for Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society; a lecturer in public policy at Duke University; and an adjunct scholar at Resources for the Future. His professional interests are reactor safety, energy issues, resource allocation, and public policy management. He has served as commissioner and chair of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, system analyst for the White House Energy Office, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy, and Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Defense. Dr. Ahearne currently serves on the Department of Energy’s Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee and chairs the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Board on Radioactive Waste Management. In addition, Dr. Ahearne has been active in several NRC committees examining issues in risk assessment. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society, Society for Risk Analysis, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a member the American Nuclear Society and the National Academy of Engineering. Dr. Ahearne received his Ph.D. in physics from Princeton University. RAYMOND FONCK, Co-chair, is a professor in the Department of Engineering Physics at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. He received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Wisconsin in 1978. He was at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) from 1978 through 1989; there he was deputy head of the Princeton Beta Experiment Modification Tokamak project and head of the spectroscopy group on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor experimental team. He
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Burning Plasma: Bringing a Star to Earth joined the Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics at Wisconsin in 1989. At the present time, he heads the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment and directs collaborative experiments on the DIII-D National Fusion Facility. Professor Fonck is a fellow of the American Physical Society and served as president of the University Fusion Association for the 1999-2000 term. He is a member of several program advisory committees for large fusion science experiments, and served on the DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee subpanel for U.S. participation in ITER. He also served as a member on the NRC’s Fusion Science Assessment Committee. Currently, he is chair of the Organizing Committee for the American Physical Society’s (APS’s) Topical Conference on High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics. His research is in experimental studies of high-beta plasmas in toroidal geometries, plasma turbulence, and high-temperature plasma diagnostic development. He was awarded the 1999 APS Award for Excellence in Plasma Physics Research for his work on measurements of turbulence in high-temperature plasmas. Professor Fonck is a principal investigator on grants from the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy. JOHN N. BAHCALL is a professor at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. He graduated from Harvard University with a Ph.D. in physics in 1961. He then had the following appointments: at Indiana University, he was a research fellow in physics (1960-1962); at the California Institute of Technology, he served as a research fellow, assistant professor, and associate professor of physics (1962-1970); at the Institute for Advanced Study, he has been a member (1968-1969 [term II], 1969-1970), professor of natural sciences (1971-1997), and Richard Black Professor of Natural Sciences (1997 to the present). In addition, Dr. Bahcall has held the following positions: at-large member, interdisciplinary scientist, Hubble Telescope Working Group (1973-1992); councilor, president, American Astronomical Society (1978-1981, 1990-1992, respectively); chair, National Academy of Sciences, Section on Astronomy (1980-1983); chair, NRC, Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee (1989-1991); chair, NRC Panel on Neutrino Astrophysics (1994-1995); chair, U.S. National Committee of the International Astronomical Union (1996-1998); chair, National Underground Science Laboratory Committee (2001). Among the awards and honors that Dr. Bahcall has received are the Warner Prize, American Astronomical Society (1970); Sloan Foundation Fellow (1968-1971); membership in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; James Arthur Prize Lecturer, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (May 1988); NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal (1992); National Medal of Science (1998); and in 2003, the Russell Prize of the American Astronomical Society, the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Physics, the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, and the Dan David Prize. Dr. Bahcall’s research interests include astro-
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Burning Plasma: Bringing a Star to Earth physics, space astronomy, and weak interactions. He is an expert in solar fusion processes. Dr. Bahcall is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. GORDON A. BAYM has been a faculty member of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign since 1963. He obtained his Ph.D. in 1960 from Harvard University and did postdoctoral work at the Institute for Theoretical Physics (now the Niels Bohr Institute) in Denmark and at the University of California at Berkeley. He has had a long and distinguished research career in the theory of many-body systems, with interests ranging from low-temperature and condensed-matter physics, quantum fluids, and, most recently, Bose-Einstein condensates; to astrophysics and in particular neutron stars; to nuclear physics, including ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. His work, multidisciplinary in character, melds basic theoretical physics concepts from condensed matter to nuclear to elementary particle physics. He has served on numerous advisory panels for research agencies and for various international organizations. He received the Alexander von Humboldt Senior Scientist Award in 1983 and the Hans A. Bethe Prize of the American Physical Society in 2002. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (former chair of the Physics Section) and the American Philosophical Society and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. IRA B. BERNSTEIN, a theoretical plasma physicist, is professor emeritus in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Physics at Yale University. He received his bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from City University of New York and his Ph.D. from New York University. He was a research scientist at the Westinghouse Research Laboratories (1950-1954), a senior research scientist at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (1954-1964), and has been a professor at Yale since 1964. He has been a consultant to RCA Laboratories, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Naval Research Laboratory, and the United Technologies Research Laboratory. He is a recipient of the Maxwell Prize of the American Physical Society and a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He has served on the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee and Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee of the Department of Energy, and on the NRC’s Plasma Physics Committee and Board on Physics and Astronomy. STEPHEN C. COWLEY earned his Ph.D. from the Department of Astrophysical Sciences at Princeton University in 1985. Following his graduation he served as a lecturer at Corpus Christi College at Oxford University and as a senior scientific officer at the U.K. Atomic Energy Authority (Culham Laboratory). He then returned to the United States to work at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and later accepted a position as professor at the University of California at Los
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Burning Plasma: Bringing a Star to Earth Angeles (UCLA). Since 2001, Dr. Cowley has been a professor at Imperial College London at the Blackett Laboratory. His research interests at Imperial include fusion theory, plasma and atomic theory associated with x-ray laser development, space and astrophysical plasmas, and multiphoton processes. Dr. Cowley served in 1997 on the FESAC International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) physics review panel. He has served as a member of the organizing committee for the annual Sherwood Fusion Theory meeting and as chair of the NRC’s Plasma Science Committee (1999-2001). Dr. Cowley was also a member of the NRC’s Physics Survey Overview Committee, which produced the overview volume for the Physics in a New Era decadal physics survey. He is currently serving on the review committee for Physical Review Letters. Dr. Cowley is a fellow of the APS, the recipient of a number of awards for excellence in teaching at UCLA, and the recipient of a number of fellowships, including the Harkness Fellowship and the Charlotte Elizabeth Proctor Fellowship. EDWARD A. FRIEMAN is an emeritus member of the board of directors of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), research professor at the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, and director emeritus of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. He previously served as vice chancellor for marine sciences at the University of California at San Diego. Earlier he was deputy director of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and director of energy research for the U.S. Department of Energy. His current research interests are science and public policy related to sustainability and fusion development, the global environment, and energy research and development. In the past he has carried out research on theoretical plasma physics, hydromagnetics, hydrodynamic stability, and astrophysics. Dr. Frieman graduated in 1951 with a Ph.D. from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. He has served as chair of the NRC Board on Sustainable Development and the NRC Board on Global Change. Dr. Frieman is a fellow of the American Physical Society, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, and a member of the American Philosophical Society. He received the Distinguished Service Medal from the Department of Energy, the Department of the Navy Superior Public Service Award, and the James Clerk Maxwell Prize from the Division of Plasma Physics (DPP) of the APS. WALTER GEKELMAN is a professor of physics at the University of California at Los Angeles. He received his Ph.D. in physics from the Stevens Institute of Technology in 1972. His research interests include exploring under controlled laboratory conditions fundamental plasma processes that play a major role in the behavior of naturally occurring plasmas. These phenomena are manifest in the auroral ionosphere, the magnetosphere, the solar wind, the solar corona, and the inter-
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Burning Plasma: Bringing a Star to Earth stellar medium. Other topics that Professor Gekelman has studied are magnetic field-line reconnection and linear and nonlinear plasma waves, including recent studies of Alfvén waves caused by rapidly expanding plasma. He was responsible for the construction of and now operates the Large Plasma Device at UCLA, a unique user facility dedicated to the experimental study of a broad range of plasma phenomena. He is a current member of the NRC Plasma Science Committee. Professor Gekelman is an APS-DPP fellow and has been on the DPP executive committee and education outreach and nominating committees. He has won numerous UCLA awards for excellence in teaching and was an APS-DPP distinguished lecturer. JOSEPH HEZIR is the cofounder and managing partner of the EOP Group, Inc., a consulting company that specializes in regulatory strategy development and problem solving and in identifying newly created government business opportunities formed from mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures, and new markets. Mr. Hezir served for 18 years in the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB), working as a budget examiner in the Environment Branch and later becoming a senior budget examiner for energy technology programs. In 1982, he joined the Corporate Planning Department of Exxon Research and Engineering Company, specializing in the development of technology forecasts. He returned to OMB in 1983 as chief of the Non-Nuclear Energy Branch. From 1986 to 1992 he served as the OMB deputy associate director for energy and science, with oversight responsibility for the budgetary, regulatory, legislative, and policy development activities of the Department of Energy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, Tennessee Valley Authority, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Smithsonian Institution. Currently a member of the Critical Technologies Sub-Council of the Competitiveness Policy Council, Mr. Hezir is also a former member of the NASA Advisory Council and the board of directors of the National Capital Area Chapter of the American Red Cross. He continues to serve as a member of the Red Cross Personnel Advisory Committee. Mr. Hezir completed undergraduate studies in chemical engineering at Carnegie Mellon University. He worked as a research engineer for St. Joe Minerals Corporation and for Carnegie Mellon and as a consultant on environmental and energy issues. He then completed graduate studies at Carnegie Mellon in urban and public affairs, specializing in environmental and energy policy. He also served as an adviser to Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and as an intern with the New York City Environmental Protection Administration. He has served on a number of NRC panels: the Committee on Cost of and Payment for Animal Research, the Committee on Developing a Federal Materials Facilities Strategy, and the Committee on the Formation of the National Biological Survey.
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Burning Plasma: Bringing a Star to Earth WILLIAM M. NEVINS received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of California at Berkeley in 1979 and did postdoctoral research at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory before moving to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), where he is now a senior scientist in the Fusion Energy Program. His research interests include microturbulence, both kinetic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in mirror machines (the major experiment at LLNL in the early 1980s), and the absorption of intense microwave pulses by plasmas (a key issue for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment at LLNL in the late 1980s). Dr. Nevins spent most of the 1988-1992 period working on the ITER conceptual design activities (CDA). He is currently principal investigator for the Plasma Microturbulence Project—a collaboration between LLNL, PPPL, the University of Maryland, University of Colorado, UCLA, and General Atomics devoted to the study of plasma microturbulence by direct numerical simulation. Dr. Nevins is a fellow of the APS, an associate editor of The Physics of Plasmas, and a member of the editorial board of Nuclear Fusion. He has served on several panels of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee—including the 1995 FESAC panel, which recommended a science-based fusion energy program, and the 2001 and 2002 FESAC panels, which recommended that the U.S. program proceed with a burning plasma experiment. RONALD R. PARKER is a professor of nuclear engineering and electrical engineering and computer science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He obtained his Ph.D. in electrical engineering at MIT in 1967. The honors that Professor Parker has received include the Energy Research and Development Administration Distinguished Associate Award; fellow, American Physical Society; APS Award for Excellence in Plasma Physics; and membership in the National Academy of Engineering. From 1992 to 1998, he was on leave from MIT to serve as ITER deputy director and as head of the ITER Co-Center in Garching, Germany, where he was responsible for the design of the ITER in-vessel systems. After resuming academic duties at MIT in 1998, Professor Parker returned to experimental work on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, with lead responsibility for a major new initiative aimed at developing steady-state modes of operation based on the combination of radio frequencies and bootstrap current drive. In addition, he has recently initiated a new look at fusion-fission hybrids, including the use of fusion reactors to transmute fission-produced actinides and to burn new fission fuels (thorium) with minimal actinide production. CLAUDIO PELLEGRINI received the Laurea in Fisica cum laude in 1958 and the Libera Docenza in 1965 from the University of Rome. From 1958 to 1978 he worked at the Frascati National Laboratory of the Italian Nuclear Physics Institute.
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Burning Plasma: Bringing a Star to Earth In 1965 he was appointed group leader of the Accelerator Physics Theory Group, and in 1976, division head. In 1978 he joined the Brookhaven National Laboratory, where he was head of the Accelerator Physics Section of the National Synchrotron Light Source. At Brookhaven he also served as associate chair of the National Synchrotron Light Source and co-chair of the newly formed Center for Accelerator Physics. In 1989 Professor Pellegrini joined the faculty of the UCLA Department of Physics. He has been a member of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel of the Department of Energy, the Scientific Policy Committee of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the Cornell University Nuclear Physics Laboratory, and the Free Electron Laser Center at Vanderbilt University. Professor Pellegrini is a fellow of the American Physical Society and in 1996 he was elected chair of the APS Division of Physics of Beams. He has also been the chair of the Panel on Advanced Accelerators of the International Committee for Future Accelerators. He is currently a member of the NRC Plasma Science Committee. Professor Pellegrini was awarded the International Free Electron Laser Prize in 2000, and the Wilson Prize of the American Physical Society in 2001. At the present time, he is chair of the UCLA Department of Physics and Astronomy. BURTON RICHTER is the Paul Pigott Professor of Physical Sciences at Stanford University and the director emeritus of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). He received his Ph.D. from MIT in 1956. He has produced more than 300 publications in high-energy physics, accelerators, and colliding beam systems, and won the 1976 Nobel Prize for his pioneering particle physics work at SLAC. Dr. Richter has received many other awards, including Loeb Lecturer, Harvard University (1974); DeShalit Lecturer, Weizmann Institute (1975); and the E.O. Lawrence Medal (DOE) (1976). He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, APS, and American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Richter was president of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (1999-2002) and the American Physical Society (1995). He is a member of the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board, as well as holding a number of other board directorships and advisory committee memberships. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. CLIFFORD M. SURKO is a professor of physics at the University of California at San Diego. He received his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1968. He was a member of the technical staff and a department head at AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey (1970-1988). His research interests include experimental studies of plasma physics, fluid and nonlinear dynamics, and condensed-matter physics. His current research involves the creation of positron plasmas and beams, studies of plasma physics with positrons, and positron-matter
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Burning Plasma: Bringing a Star to Earth interactions. He is a fellow of the APS and the AAAS and is currently a member of the executive committee of the APS Plasma Physics Division. In 1995 he co-chaired the NRC plasma science study. TONY S. TAYLOR is the director of the Experimental Science Division and deputy program director for the DIII-D tokamak experiment at General Atomics. His research interests include MHD stability and performance optimization in tokamak plasmas. He received the 1994 APS award for excellence in plasma physics research, and he is an APS fellow. Dr. Taylor has been a member of FESAC and served on the FESAC Burning Plasma Panel. MICHAEL A. ULRICKSON received his Ph.D. in nuclear physics at Rutgers University in 1975. Dr. Ulrickson began investigating the properties of graphites for use as plasma-facing components (PFCs) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in 1975. He was a member of the Deuterium-Tritium Materials Physics Group that successfully predicted the tritium retention during D-T experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). In 1988, he received the Fusion Power Associates Excellence in Fusion Engineering Award for “very important contributions to fusion engineering and in recognition of impressive leadership qualities.” After 18 years at PPPL, he joined Sandia National Laboratories to manage the Fusion Technology Department. From 1993 to 1998, he coordinated the U.S. PFC research supporting ITER and was the task area coordinator for the international research and development effort on PFCs for ITER. In 1995, he received a certificate of merit from the Office of Fusion Energy at the Department of Energy and the ITER Home Team for his “outstanding performance on behalf of the U.S. ITER Home Team in the field of divertor development and coordination of the four-party R&D effort.” Since 1999, he has been project manager for liquid surface PFC research in the United States and directed the design of PFCs for the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) burning plasma device. MICHAEL C. ZARNSTORFF is the head of the physics team for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment. He received his Ph.D. in physics in 1984 from the University of Wisconsin at Madison with the thesis “Experimental Observation of Neoclassical Currents” on the first experimental observation of the bootstrap current. During his graduate work, he also worked in the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and was co-owner of a small company doing contract computer systems development. After receiving his Ph.D., he joined the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, where he became one of the leaders of the experimental program on TFTR. Dr. Zarnstorff’s research included the first observation of the bootstrap current in a tokamak, tests of a number of
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Burning Plasma: Bringing a Star to Earth transport theories, the effect of the current profile on tokamak confinement, fine-scale structure of the temperature profile, and methods to control and suppress anomalous transport. In addition, he clarified the general interpretation of the motional Stark effect and vertical charge-exchange-recombination diagnostics. He has collaborated on other experiments in the United Kingdom, Japan, and Germany, as well as in the United States. Dr. Zarnstorff was a co-discoverer of the Supershot and Enhanced-Reversed-Shear regimes of enhanced confinement in TFTR. In 1995, he was named a distinguished research fellow of PPPL. He teaches in the Astrophysical Sciences Department at Princeton University. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and served as a DPP/APS distinguished lecturer. He has served on numerous review and advisory committees within the fusion program. His current research focus is on understanding how three-dimensional shaping of magnetic fields and equilibria affects plasma MHD stability and transport. ELLEN G. ZWEIBEL is professor of astronomy and physics at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, where she moved in January 2003. Previously she was a professor of astrophysics and a fellow of the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics at the University of Colorado at Boulder. She chaired her department from 1989 to 1992 and chaired JILA from 2000 to 2002. Her research interests are theoretical astrophysics and plasma science. Dr. Zweibel was a member of the NRC’s Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Committee on Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and Mathematics, the Plasma Science Committee, the Panel on Opportunities in Plasma Science and Technology, and the Theoretical Astrophysics and Solar Astrophysics panels of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee in 1991 and 2001. She is a fellow of the American Physical Society. She received a Ph.D. in astrophysical sciences from Princeton University in 1977.
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