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Land Use and Water Management The Klamath River watershed covers 12,000 mi2 Of northern Califor- nia ancT southwestern Oregon ancT extends more than 350 river mi from its Backwaters to its estuary at the Pacific Ocean. The watershed derives its unique character largely from its geology ancT climate (Mount 1995), which are cTiscussecT in the first quarter of this chapter. The rest of the chapter describes lancT uses ancT resulting changes in the basin since 1848, the begin- ning of the goicT-mining era. The topography, hycTrology, ecosystems, ancT unusual plant ancT animal communities of the watershed reflect cTiverse dynamic processes in the lancTscape of today ancT in the past. These features of the watershed are tick to the natural resource economies of the water- shecT, which inclucle logging, grazing, agriculture, mining, ancT fisheries. The diversity of lancT uses ancT lancTscape features poses a significant challenge to lancT managers ancT those seeking to restore the watershecT's aquatic communities. As this chapter shows, simple or uniform approaches to res- toration of impaired ecosystems are unlikely to succeed in a watershed as cTiverse as that of the Klamath River. DESCRIPTION OF THE KLAMATH RIVER WATERSHED Geologic Setting The physiography of the Klamath watershed records the oblique con- vergence between the North American tectonic plate ancT the plates that unclerlie the Pacific Ocean. The luan cle Fuca ancT Gorcia Plates, which lie 46

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LAND USE AND WATER MANAGEMENT 47 off the shore of Washington, Oregon, anti northern California, are being subcluctecI in a northeasterly direction beneath western North America, forming the Cascaclia subduction zone (Figure 2-11. A consequence of the subduction is the formation of an extensive north-south oriented chain of volcanoes known as the Cascaclia volcanic arc or Cascade Range. The arc inclucles two of the more prominent volcanoes in the upper I(lamath water- shecI: Mount Shasta anti Mount Mazama (the site of Crater Lake). The volcanic arc bisects the I(lamath watershed, clivicling the upper basin from the lower basin (Figure 2-11. The upper basin, inclucling the large natural lakes ancI their tributaries, lies in the back-arc of the Cascaclia margin. The lower basin which inclucles the mountainous, steeper portions of the main- stem I(lamath ancI the Scott, Salmon, ancI Trinity rivers lies in the cly- namic fore-arc area of the margin. The Shasta River stracicIles the tectonic boundary between the back-arc ancI the fore-arc (Figure 2-11; its confluence with the main-stem I(lamath occurs in the fore-arc region. Geophysical ancI geodetic surveys couplecI with geologic mapping ef- forts have shown that portions of the fore-arc ancI back-arc regions of the Cascaclia margin form discrete crustal blocks, each with its own motion (Welis et al. 1998, McCaffrey et al. 20001. The motion of these blocks ancI their interactions with each other have clictatecI the dynamic topography of the region. Tectonic Setting of Klamath Watershed motion with Plate 1> ~~ ~ OREGON / ~ North America ~ ) - ~ r ~ ~ ~ ~ O large voIcano ~ ~ ~ :~' ~ - _| 7/- 1—-- ~ = — ~ ~ E$~NE~V~ FIGURE 2-1 General tectonic setting for northern California and southern Oregon illustrating the Cascadia subduction zone, the Cascade volcanic arc, the Basin and Range Province, and the Oregon fore-arc and Sierra Nevada blocks. Note that the I(lamath watershed occurs at the intersection of these tectonic blocks. Source: Mod- ified from Wells and Simpson 2001.

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48 FISHES IN THE KLAMATH RIVER BASIN Within the I(lamath watershed region, the back-arc portion of the Cascaclia margin is part of the crustal block known as the Basin anti Range Province. Although attached to North America, the province is undergoing east-west extension of as much as 1 cm/yr (Bennett et al.1998, Magill et al. 19821. Right-lateral shear oriented north northwest-south southeast occurs along the western ecige of the province anti is superimposed on the east- west extension (Bennett et al. 1998, 19991. This shear has formecI the distinctive grabens showing north-northwest south-southwest orientation, which appear topographically as fault-bouncI troughs anti valleys of the I(lamath Lake area. The crustal extension of the northwestern basin anti range in southern Oregon anti northern California has been accompanied by wiclespreacI Neogene volcanism that has formecI the distinctive volcanic tablelancis anti broacI valleys anti marshes of the upper tributaries within the I(lamath watershed. Unlike most watersheds, the I(lamath watershed has its greatest relief anti topographic complexity in its lower half rather than in its heac~waters. This unusual physiography stems from the location of the fore-arc region, which encompasses the lower half of the watershed. The Cascaclia fore-arc of northern California is arguably the most dynamic lanciscape in the region (Mount 19951. The regional compression associated with subduction of the Gorcia Plate immecliately off shore has proclucecI some of the fastest rates of uplift recorclecI in California. Aciclitionally, the fore-arc occurs at the poorly clefinecI intersection between two large crustal blocks (Figure 2-11: the Sierra Nevada block anti the Oregon fore-arc block (Welis et al.1998, McCaffrey et al. 20001. The Sierra Nevada block inclucles the Sierra Nevacia-Great Valley of central California anti the I(lamath Mountains anti Coast Ranges of Northern California. The block is bounclecI on the east by the Basin anti Range Province anti on the west by the San Ancireas-Coast Range Fault system (Welis et al. 19981. Geodetic surveys indicate that the block is moving northwest relative to North America anti is rotating in a counter- clockwise manner (Argus anti Gordon 19901. The Oregon fore-arc block extends from the Cascaclia subduction zone on the west to the Basin anti Range on the east. Its southern boundary occurs at the transition to the Si- erra Nevada block, roughly in the vicinity of the California-Oregon border. The Oregon fore-arc block is rotating clockwise relative to North America (Welis et al. 19981. The lower I(lamath River watershed, which extends from Iron Gate Dam to the I(lamath estuary, traverses the northern portions of the Sierra Nevada block along its transition to the Oregon fore-arc block (Figure 2-1). The steep, rugged watersheds of the lower I(lamath, couplecI with the becI- rock-controllecI main stem, reflect the rapicI uplift in the region anti the constant adjustment of the river to its dynamic lanciscape (Mount 19951. The patterns of uplift anti faulting also control the orientation of most

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LAND USE AND WATER MANAGEMENT 49 tributaries. Because the main tributaries of the lower I(lamath River the Shasta, Scott, Salmon, anti Trinity rivers are important for salmonicis, their incliviclual geologic features are of interest. The Shasta River watershed is at the junction between the Basin anti Range Province, in the Sierra Nevada block within the Cascaclia volcanic arc. Its watershed, which originates at Mount Ecicly, encompasses about 800 mi2. Like the Scott River watershed to the west, the Shasta has a large central ai~uv~ai valley, steep Breakwaters on the west, anti a steep gorge in the lowermost portion of the watershed. The eastern portions of the water- shecI are clominatecI by Tertiary ancI Quaternary volcanic flows ancI by clebris flows associated with Cascade volcanism. The lower gorge anti westernmost ecige of the basin are uncleriain by Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of the Sierra Nevada block. The most conspicuous topographic fea- ture of the Shasta Valley is a large Pleistocene volcanic clebris avalanche clerivecI from nearby Mount Shasta that creates the unusual hummocky topography in the upper reaches of the valley (Cranciall 19891. The north- south orientation of the valley is associated with large basin anti range .. . . .. . . . faults similar to those controlling the formation of the upper basin. The hycirology of the Shasta River watershed, unlike that of the other tributary watersheds of the lower basin, is clominatecI by discharge from numerous springs. The Shasta subbasin lies within the extensive rain shaclow of the Salmon anti Marble mountains. Precipitation averages 12-18 in/yr anti is as low as 5 in/yr in the vicinity of Big Springs (Mack 19601. The bulk of this precipi- tation occurs from October to March as snow. Like the upper I(lamath basin, the Shasta subbasin has warm summers (mean ciaily temperatures commonly exceeding 30°C) ancI coo! winters (mean ciaily temperatures of 5°C). The average length of the growing season in the basin is about 180 clays (Mack 19601. As cliscussecI in Chapter 8, climate may change over the coming clecacles. The Scott River watershed lies at the transition between the Cascaclia volcanic arc ancI the fore-arc basin (Figure 2-11. The watershed, which is about 820 mi2, has heac~waters nearly 8,000 ft above sea level in the Salmon Mountains along the west sicle of the watershed. The Scott joins the I(la- math River at river mile 142. The physiography of the watershed shows elements of its neighboring watersheds. Like the Salmon watershed, the heac~waters of the Scott are heavily forested ancI have annual precipitation of 50 in or more, high water yielcis, ancI extensive snowpack more than 4,000 ft above sea level. Like the Shasta watershed, the Scott has a large, fault-bouncI alluvial valley in the micicIle portions of the watershed that supports extensive agriculture ancI grazing. This valley, like the eastern portion of the Scott watershed, lies in the rain shaclow of the Salmon ancI Marble mountains; mean annual precipitation is about 20 in. The Scott

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so FISHES IN THE KLAMATH RIVER BASIN River, like the Shasta River, has a steep bedrock gorge downstream of the alluvial valley ancI above its confluence with the I(lamath River. Mean ciaily temperatures in the valley exceed 32°C cluring late luly or early August (peaks, above 40°C); mean ciaily temperatures reach 10°C in winter (Rantz 1972, CDWR 2002). The tributaries of the Scott River strongly affect the hycirology (Mack 1958) ancI aquatic habitat of the basin. The fourth-orcler tributaries of the west sicle of the watershed inclucling Scott, French, Sugar, Etna, Patterson, I(i cicler , an cI Shacklefor cI creeks are steep -gradient, perennial be cirock tri- butaries. Several of these tributaries have built coarse-grainecI alluvial fans where their gradients decrease as they meet the valley floor. In contrast, the East ancI South Forks of the Scott ancI the third- ancI fourth-orcler creeks of the Scott River Canyon, a tributary of the Scott, enter the river in steep reaches ancI have no alluvial fans. The relatively ciry east sicle of the water- shecI has several low-graclient ephemeral tributaries; Moffett Creek is the largest ancI most important of these. In its upper reaches ancI within the canyon, the Scott River is primarily a bedrock river characterized by alternating step-pool ancI cascade reaches with discontinuous riffle-pool reaches containing narrow alluvial floocI- plains. Within the Scott Valley, the river has various forms that are con- trollecI principally by grain size, slope, tributary contributions, ancI channel modifications. In coarse-grainecI, steep-graclient reaches of the river, the channel appears to be actively braiding. In low-graclient, fine-grainecI reaches with cohesive banks, the channel alternates between a single-channel meandering river ancI a multichannel, anastomosing river, albeit with nu- merous modifications for floocI management ancI irrigation diversions. Some incision within the channelizecI reach has lowerecI the channel becI by sev- eral feet (G. Black, Siskiyou Resource Conservation District, Etna, Califor- nia, personal communication, 20021. Sloughs, which indicate historical channel avuision ancI cutoff events, apparently were numerous before agri- cultural clevelopment of the valley. Several large sloughs remain in the valley along the west sicle ancI receive flow from tributaries ancI from the main stem cluring large flow events. At 750 mi2 the Salmon River is the smallest of the four major tributar- ies to the lower I(lamath basin (Figure 2-11. The Salmon watershed is steep ancI heavily forested ancI, in comparison with its neighboring watersheds, relatively unclisturbecI. The bulk of the main stem ancI its tributaries consist of bedrock channels with numerous step-pool ancI cascade reaches ancI narrow riparian corridors. The watershed is locatecI entirely within the Cascaclia fore-arc region on the Sierra Nevada block. The high uplift rates ancI the lack of extensional tectonics have prevented the formation of any important alluvial valleys, such as those of the Scott ancI Shasta drainages. The rugged terrain ancI the lack of a large alluvial valley have limitecI some

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LAND USE AND WATER MANAGEMENT 51 of the lancI-use activities that have affected anaciromous fishes in other tributaries. The Trinity River is the largest tributary to the I(lamath River. At 2,900 mi2 with an annual average precipitation of 57 in, it is also the largest contributor of runoff ancI sediment to the I(lamath River. It is a rugged, step, ancI heavily forested watershed. Its eastern portions in the Trinity Alps ancI Coast Ranges reach elevations in excess of 9,000 ft ancI support thick winter snowpacks. The bulk of the watershed is below 5,000 ft in elevation ancI is clominatecI by conifer ancI mixed conifer ancI harc~woocI forests. The con- fluence of the Trinity ancI I(lamath rivers is locatecI 43 mi upstream of the mouth ancI exerts consiclerable influence over conditions in the lowermost I(lamath River ancI its estuary. The Trinity watershed is locatecI entirely within the Sierra Nevada block, west of the Cascade volcanic arc. The basin lies close to the junction between the Cascade subduction zone ancI the northernmost San Ancireas Fault. The physiography of the watershed is con- trollecI by high rates of uplift ancI a series of large, seismically active north- west trencling faults. The eastern half of the basin is composed of rocks of the I(lamath Mountains Geologic Province, while the western half is clominatecI by rocks of the Coast Range Geologic Province. Both provinces contain rock types that are prone to lancislicling ancI high rates of erosion, particularly when clisturbecI by poor lancI-use practices. The high rates of uplift, unstable rock types, ancI high rates of precipitation produce a naturally dynamic lanciscape ancI a river with a variable hycirograph ancI sediment yielcis. Uplift in the Trinity watershed has precluclecI the formation of exten- sive alluvial valleys such as those founcI in the Scott ancI Shasta watersheds. The upper reaches of the main stem ancI the tributaries support steep- graclient rivers with numerous cascades. In portions of the main stem ancI the South Fork, however, low-graclient reaches with narrow alluvial valleys occur. These reaches historically supported dynamic, meandering coarse- grainecI channels that proviclecI icleal spawning ancI rearing habitat for salmon ancI steelheacI. The size of the Trinity watershed, couplecI with its extensive high-quality spawning ancI rearing habitat, macle the Trinity a productive source of coho salmon ancI other anaciromous fishes (USFWS/ HVT 1999). Climate and Historical Hydropattern The tectonic setting of the I(lamath watershed exerts primary control over its irregular distribution of precipitation. The uplift of the Cascaclia fore-arc ancI the formation of the Cascade volcanic arc have proclucecI an important rain shaclow in the upper basin ancI the Shasta Valley. The upper watershed has a relatively low mean annual precipitation (27 in; Risley and Laenen 1999), about half of which falls as snow. Precipitation in the lower

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52 FISHES IN THE KLAMATH RIVER BASIN watershed varies greatly ancI reaches as much as 100 infer in the temperate rain forest close to the coast. The rapicI uplift of the fore-arc has proclucecI a series of steep mountain ranges with strong orographic effects. Where mountain ranges exceed 5,000 ft above sea level, they maintain large winter ancI spring snowpacks in wet years ancI are associated with very high amounts of runoff cluring warm winter storms. Annual runoff, as measured near the mouth of the I(lamath River, is approximately 13 x 106 acre-ft. The upper watershed above Iron Gate Dam, which comprises about 38% of the total watershed area, provides only 12% of the annual runoff of the watershed. The low yielcis from the upper watershed are a product of its location in the rain shaclow of the Cascades, its low relief, anti its extensive marshes ancI lakes that increase hyciraulic retention times. In contrast, the tributaries of the lower water- shecI dominate the total runoff of the I(lamath watershed. Their high runoff stems from their high relief ancI the orographic influence of the Coast Ranges, Trinity Alps, anti the Marble, Salmon, anti Russian mountains. For example, one relatively small tributary, the Salmon River, supplies runoff about equal to that of the entire upper watershed, but from less than one- fifth of the area (Table 2-1~. TABLE 2-1 Runoff, YielcI, anti Basin Areas for the I(lamath Watershecia Ratio of Average Average Annual Runoff to Runoff, Drainage 1,000 Drainage Runoff, Drainage Area, Location acre-ft Area, mi2 % Area, % acre-ft/mi2 Klamath River below Iron Gate Dam 1,581 4,630 12 38 341 Shasta River near mouth 136 793 1 7 172 Scott River at mouth 615 808 5 7 761 Other tributaries 615 709 5 5 867 Klamath River below Scott River 3,020 6,940 23 57 435 Indian Creek at mouth 360 135 3 1 2,667 Salmon River at mouth 1,330 750 10 6 1,773 Other tributaries 1,350 650 10 5 1,500 Klamath River at Orleans 6,060 8,475 47 70 715 Trinity River at Hoopa 3,787 2,950 29 24 1,283 Other tributaries 3,021 675 23 6 4,476 Klamath River at mouth 12,868 12,100 100 100 1,109 aData compiled from reports of the California Division of Water Resources 2002, represent- ing average current conditions (including depletion caused by consumptive use) and gage records of the U.S. Geological Survey. Periods of record for data vary by site from 22 to 50 yr, principally between 1951 and the present, and include both pre- and post-Trinity River Diversion operations.

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LAND USE AND WATER MANAGEMENT 53 The hyciropattern, or timing of runoff, varies throughout the water- shecI. Seasonal runoff from the upper watershed is regulatecI by the long anti complex transport pathways in the basin anti, historically, by the natu- ral buffering effect of overflow into the Lost River anti Lower Klamath anti Tule lakes. Uncler unregulatecI conditions, peak runoff from the upper watershed wouicI typically occur in April anti decrease graclually to minimums in late August or early September. Flow regulation anti lancI-use activities in the upper basin have alterecI the hyciropattern. Unlike the upper basin, the lower Klamath basin exhibits two potential flow peaks, clepencling on the water year. Subtropical storms strike the Klamath watershed with high frequency from late December to early March anti are responsible for all peak ciaily discharges in the Klamath main stem anti its tributaries. The short hyciraulic retention times of the tributaries to the lower Klamath basin enhance the effect of these storms. The second anti more preclictable flow peaks are associated with spring snowmelt. The timing of the snow- melt pulse varies, but it usually occurs in April. Historically, the clecline in flow from the tributaries to the lower basin was graclual anti reached mini- mums in September. During the low-flow periods in the late summer or early fall when no precipitation occurs, spring-fecI tributaries such as the Shasta River anti flow from the upper basin constitute the bulk of base flow in the main stem of the lower basin. Even the Trinity, the largest annual contributor of runoff to the Kla- math, historically proviclecI very little flow in the late summer anti early fall. AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS IN THE UPPER KLAMATH BASIN The upper Klamath basin encompasses about 5,700 mi2 (USER 2000a). Major lakes in the upper Klamath basin inclucle Upper Klamath Lake (now 67,000 acres at maximum lake elevation), Lower Klamath Lake (historical maximum area, 94,000 acres; now about 4,700 acres), Tule Lake (histori- cal maximum area, 110,000 acres; now 9,450-13,000 acres), Clear Lake, anti Gerber Reservoir (see Chapter 31. Upper Klamath Lake, now the largest water body in the Klamath basin, receives most of its water from the Williamson anti WoocI rivers. The Williamson River watershed consists of two subbasins cirainecI by the Williamson anti Sprague rivers. The Williamson River arises in the Winema National Forest, flows to the north through Klamath Marsh, anti turns south to Upper Klamath Lake. The Sprague River arises in the Fremont National Forest anti flows westward to connect with the Williamson River just below the Chiloquin Dam (Figure 1-11. The Sycan River, a major tributary of the Sprague, cirains much of the northeastern portion of the watershed. Both the Williamson anti Sprague subbasins are primarily for-

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54 FISHES IN THE KLAMATH RIVER BASIN estecI (about 70°/O). Other important lancI-cover types are shrub ancI grass- lancI (14%), agriculture (6%~' ancI wetiancI (6%; BoycI et al. 20021. The Williamson ancI Sprague together provide over half the water reaching Upper I(lamath Lake (I(ann ancI Walker 20011. The WoocI River is the second largest source of water (16%) for Upper I(lamath Lake (I(ann ancI Walker 20011. Annie ancI Sun creeks join to form the WoocI River. The watershed cirains an area northeast of Upper I(lamath Lake ancI extends from the southern base of the mountains that surround Crater Lake to the confluence of the WoocI River with Upper I(lamath Lake by way of the northern arm (Figure 1-3), which is often callecI Agency Lake. Although primarily forested, the WoocI River has extensive agricultural lancis ancI wetiancis. The balance of the water reaching Upper I(lamath Lake is clerivecI from clirect precipitation on the lake ancI flows from springs, small streams, irrigation canals, ancI agricultural pumps. Before clevelopment of the I(lamath Project, Lower I(lamath Lake (Fig- ure 1-3) was often larger than Upper I(lamath Lake. Flows from the I(la- math River, supplementecI by springs around the lake, supported a complex of wetiancis ancI open water covering approximately 80,000-94,000 acres in the spring, cluring high water, ancI 30,000-40,000 acres in late summer. The open water proviclecI habitat for suckers, ancI the variable combination of open water ancI marsh created important habitat for migratory bircis along the Pacific Flyway, making it one of the most important aquatic complexes for waterfowl in the West. By 1924, however, clevelopment of the I(lamath Project eliminatecI more than 90°/O of its open water ancI marsh. Only about 4,700 acres of open water ancI wetiancI remain. Drain- ing the lake lecI to the extirpation of sucker populations that hacI been in the lake (USER 2002a), ancI also eliminatecI much of the habitat suitable for waterfowl ancI other bircis. Connections between the I(lamath River ancI Lower I(lamath Lake were severed by clevelopment, which changed the hycirology of both the lake ancI the river in ways that are not entirely clear. Before 1917, when railroacI construction blockecI the I(lamath Straits, "water flowecI from Upper I(lamath Lake, through the Link River into Lake Ewauna, ancI then into the I(lamath River. Between Lake Ewauna ancI I(eno, the river mean- clerecI through a flat, marshy country" (Henshaw anti Dean 1915, p. 655) for about 20 mi before clescencling over a natural rock barrier that stretched across the river at I(eno. "Water in the river perioclically backecI up behind the reef at I(eno anti spreacI out upstream, flowing into Lower I(lamath Lake through I(lamath Straits" (Weciclell 2000, p. 11. Today, connectivity between Lower I(lamath Lake ancI the rest of the basin is limitecI to water pumped through Sheepy Ricige from Tule Lake ancI water from irrigation channels that leacI to the I(eno impoundment (USFWS 2001, Figure 1-21.

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LAND USE AND WATER MANAGEMENT 55 Before the I(lamath Project, the lake ancI wetiancis probably retained substantial amounts of early spring precipitation ancI some of the high flow of the river. "By storing ancI subsequently releasing this water into the river, Lower I(lamath Lake wouicI have augmented the effects of grouncI- water in shifting the I(lamath River hycirograph to the river" (Weciclell 2000, p.71. Lower I(lamath Lake was "neither an undrained basin nor a thoroughly cirainecI floociplain. At times, its waters flowecI into the Pacific Ocean via the I(lamath River, yet this drainage was only partial" (Weciclell 2000, p.81. Before 1924, suckers appear to have been abundant in Lower I(lamath Lake, even after its connection to the river was severed in 1917. Suckers migrated into the lake from Sheepy Creek, a spring-fecI tributary on the western ecige of the lake, in numbers large enough to support a fishery (Coots 1965, cited in USFWS 20011. Before the I(lamath Project, Tule Lake (Figure 1-3) varied from 55,000 to over 100,000 acres, averaging about 95,000 acres (making it often larger than Upper I(lamath Lake). Like Lower I(lamath Lake, Tule Lake was connected seasonally to the I(lamath River. During periods of high runoff, water from the I(lamath River flowecI into the Lost River slough ancI clown the Lost River to Tule Lake. The direction of the river's flow is now cleter- minecI by operators of the I(lamath Project, clepencling on irrigation neecis. Most of the former becI of Tule Lake has been cirainecI for agriculture, leaving about 9,450-13,000 acres of shallow lake ancI marsh. The fluctuation in surface area of Tule Lake afforclecI by its connections to the I(lamath River may have been critical in maintaining the high aquatic productivity of Tule Lake ancI its wetiancis (ILM 20001. Tule marshes on the north ancI west sicles of the lake supported populations of colonial nesting water bircis ancI summer resident waterfowl. The large fish popula- tions in the lake supported what was probably the largest concentration of nesting osprey in North America (ILM 20001. Much of the historical vari- ability in lake ancI marsh habitats has been lost as a result of management. Nevertheless, well into the 1960s ancI early 1970s, Tule Lake National WilcIlife Refuge was consiclerecI the most important waterfowl refuge in North America; cluck populations exceeclecI 2.5 million at their peaks. Sil- tation causecI by agriculture ancI loss of wetiancI productivity has occurred in the last several clecacles, however, ancI waterfowl populations have cle- clined (ILM 20001. Historically, suckers in Tule Lake ancI the Lost River were abundant enough to support cannery operations along the Lost River (USFWS 20011. After the I(lamath Project cirainecI most of Tule Lake for agriculture ancI diversion clams of the project blockecI the access of suckers to spawning areas in the Lost River, sucker populations cleclinecI substantially (Scop- pettone et al. 1995, USER 2002a).

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56 FISHES IN THE KLAMATH RIVER BASIN The hycirology of Tule Lake anti of the I(lamath River first changed in 1890, when settlers built a clike across the Lost River slough in an attempt to protect lancis near Tule Lake from floocling (USFWS 20011. The clike prevented I(lamath River flooc~waters from overflowing into the Lost River drainage ancI ultimately draining into Tule Lake. As is the case with respect to Lower I(lamath Lake, the amount of water that flowecI from the I(la- math River into Tule Lake ancI the effect of this overflow on the historical hycirograph of the I(lamath River are unclear. Estimates of historical I(la- math River flows are clerivecI from measurements recorclecI before Lower I(lamath Lake was clisconnectecI from the I(lamath River, but the measure- ments were taken after Tule Lake was clisconnectecI from the river. The Lost River cirains Clear Lake ancI flows north toward the I(lamath River (Figure 1-31. The structure ancI hycirology of the Lost River have been highly moclifiecI by the I(lamath Project. Historically, the Lost River was con- nectecI to the I(lamath River cluring periods of high flow via the Lost River slough. There is now no clirect outlet to the I(lamath River, although diversion canals can be used to sencI water into the I(lamath Project (Figure 1-21. Aquatic habitats have been moclifiecI throughout the upper I(lamath basin, but the Lost River watershed has been particularly alterecI by clevel- opment of the I(lamath Project. The Lost River, once a major spawning site for suckers, today supports few suckers (Chapter 61. According to the U.S. Fish ancI WilcIlife Service (USFWS), the Lost River "can perhaps be best characterized as an irrigation water conveyance, rather than a river. Flows are completely regulatecI, it has been channelizecI in one 6-ml reach, its riparian habitats ancI adjacent wetiancis are highly moclifiecI, ancI it receives significant discharges from agricultural cirains ancI sewage effluent. The active floociplain is no longer functioning except in very high water concli- tions" (USFWS 2001, III-2-241. New lakes have been created ancI oicI lakes cirainecI, new waterways have been clug ancI oicI rivers turned into irrigation clitches, anti new sucker habitat has been created while original sucker habi- tat has been eraclicatecI. Before 1910, a natural lake, marsh, ancI meaclow complex occupied what is now Clear Lake (Figure 1-31. Water from this lake cirainecI into the Lost River ancI then to Tule Lake (USER 2000a). In most years, the Lost River below the present Clear Lake clam ran ciry from lune through Octo- ber. To hoicI back flooc~waters from Tule Lake ancI store seasonal runoff for irrigation later in the season, a clam was constructed at Clear Lake in 1910, impounding the waters of the Lost River ancI creating a larger lake. Where Gerber Reservoir now stancis (Figure 1-3), 3,500 acres of sea- sonal wetiancis existed before the I(lamath Project, but there was no lake. Construction of Gerber Reservoir in 1926 for floocI control ancI irrigation created new sucker habitat ancI a population of suckers persists there (USER 2002b, Chapter 51.

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84 FISHES IN THE KLAMATH RIVER BASIN period, employment in California increased by 211%' anti U.S. employ- ment by 180%. As in the upper basin, the composition of the regional economy changed substantially over this time. A summary of the changes is proviclecI in Table 2-8. In the lower basin, the sectors that grew most were construction anti services. The share of jobs in construction grew from 2.9% to 5.4% of the total; jobs in services grew from 16.6% to 29.9%. Moclest growth occurred in agricultural services, forestry, fishing, anti other; retail tracle; anti finance, insurance, anti real estate. Employment cleclinecI in the mining, manufacturing, anti military sectors. Lower than average growth occurred in the farming, transportation anti public utilities, wholesale tracle, anti fecleral civilian sectors. Table 2-9 gives estimates of some basic economic indicators anti their distribution among sectors for 1998. This table, which is basecI on ciata from Minnesota Implan Group's Input-Output IMPLAN Moclel, varies slightly from Table 2-8' which is basecI solely on Bureau of Economic Analysis ciata. The sectors with the largest shares of output in 1998 were com bine cI wo o cI pro clucts inclu cling fore stry anti logging an cI manufactur- ing wood products, etc. (19.8%~' construction (8.4%~' retail trade (6.8%~' anti combined agriculture inclucling agriculture, fishing anti relatecI anti manufacturing foocI, etc. (6.5%~. The four sectors with the largest shares of value added were wood products (12.4%~' retail trade (10.4%~' educa- tional services (9.8%~' anti health care anti social assistance (9.4%~. Retail trade (12.8%~' educational services (12.2%~' and health care anti social assistance (11.8%) hacI the greatest shares of jobs in the economy. As noted for the upper-basin economy, output, value aciclecI, anti em- ployment measures indicate the magnitude anti distribution of economic activity among sectors in a region. The magnitude of economic activity in a sector, however, cloes not necessarily reflect the extent to which the sector . . . . . . sustains economic activity In t ne region. Table 2-10 summarizes the contribution of each sector to total regional employment, anti is based on an analysis that used the Lower I(lamath Basin Input-Output Moclel, which was clevelopecI for this report. The jobs uncler the sectoral employment columns are within the sector, whereas the jobs in the export-clepenclent columns are from all sectors that clepencI on the exports from a sector. For example, there were 5~017 jobs in the con- struction sector but 6~941 jobs in the region clepenclecI on construction exports (for example, builcling homes for retirees from outside the region or construction roacis for fecleral or state governments). Of those, 3~886 jobs clepenclecI clirectly on the exports of construction services from the region; these jobs were relatecI to direct purchases from construction firms from househoicI, firms, anti governments outside the region. In aciclition, 1,687 jobs clepenclecI inclirectly on construction exports; these jobs were created when construction firms purchased inputs (for example, builcling materials)

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85 be At o - Q 1 ~9 _ Cal Cad Cad Cad so At At ._ A Cad - C~ so 5 5 so ~0 o - o - Q \ o 1 \ o No or so o U) ~ ~ ~ - 1 ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ of ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 1 - 1 ~ ~ - 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ - 1 on of ~ - 1 of O - 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ O ~ - 1 1 r-1 1 ~ ~ r-1 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r-1 00 ~ ~ r-1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r-1 ~ 00 r-1 00 Do ~ ~ ~ O O of ~ oo ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 - 1 - 1 - 1 O ~ ~ r-1 ~ 00 r-1 ~ ~ 1 ~1 ~ ~1 ~ 00 ~ O 00 r-1 0 oo ~ ~ ~ ~ r-1 - 1 ~ ~ ~ - 1 1 ~ 1 O ~ ~ ~ - 1 oo - 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O ~ ~ ~ - 1 - 1 ~ oo ~ O ~ ~ ~ - 1 oo ~ ~ oo ~ 0 O ~ r~ 1 ~ ~ ~ r-1 - 1 oo ~ ~ oo 0 - 1 oo ~ O ~ ~ - 1 - 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo r-1 oO ~ ~ ~ 00 r-1 00 ~ ~ ~ ~ oo - 1 ~ ~ - 1 oo ~ ~ ~ oo ~ oo oo oo ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ - 1 ~ ~l ~ ~1 0 - 1 oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - 1 ~ O O ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ O ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - 1 0 - 1 ~ ~ - 1 ~ ~ ~ 0 - 1 O oo ~ ~ ~ ~ r-1 ~ ~ r-1 ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ O O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - 1 ~ O ~ ~ oo O ~ ~ ~ r-1 ~ ~ oc ~ O r-1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ O oo r-1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r-1 ~ ~ ~ 00 0 O oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r~ 1 ~ ~ r-1 00 u~ E~ =0 ~ ~ ~7 O ~ ~ _ ~ ~ / ~ _~ ~ , , ~ ~ D ~ _ E~ ~ ~

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86 of _ Do _ Cal Cal Cal Cal so an o ._ an o - Q Cal A ¢ At 5 - 5 Q 5 a - so Cal U) Cal o D ¢ .0 _ ,0 O ~ so o U) ~ ~ O ~ ~ r-1 ~ ~ ~ O ~ 00 oO ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ rat 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ on ~ - 1 ~ O . . . . . . . . . DO ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r-1 ~ O O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - 1 - 1 ~ O O ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r-1 00 oO ~ ~ ~ r-1 oO ~ ~ ~ ~ r-1 O O ~ - 1 ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ ~ ~ - 1 ~ ~ 00 ~ ~ - - 1 - 1 0 ~ - 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - 1 0 ~ ~ 00 O ~ ~ . . . . . . ~ O ~ ~ - 1 0 ~ ~ o ~ oo ~ oo ~ ~ - 1 . . . . ~ ~ ~ O oo ~ ~ ~ ~ - 1 0 oo ~ ~ ~ oo - 1 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ oo ~ - 1 0 0 ~ - 1 ~ ~ O 0 - 1 ~ oo oo - 1 - 1 0 . . . . . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~1 ~ ~ ~ ~1 . . . . ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ ~l ~ oo ~ ~ . . . . ~ ~ ~l ~ oo ~ ~ o . . . . ~ ~ oo o oo ~l ~ ~ ~1 - 1 - 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ - 1 - 1 ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ - 1 0 0 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O oo ~ ~ ~ 0 - 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - 1 0 0 oo - 1 ~ ~ O ~ ~ oo ~ ~ o o ~ ~ ~ . . . . . ~ ~ ~ - 1 0 oo ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ oo o ~ oo ~ oo ~ r-1 00 ~ r-1 ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ ~ ~ r-1 O O ~ ~ - 1 ~ ~ ~ - 1 - 1 - 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ - 1 ~ oo O ~ ~ oo ~ ~ - 1 oo ~ ~l ~ o oo ~ o ~ oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - 1 ~ ~ ~ - 1 - 1 ~ - 1 c~ c~ - ~ ~ s~ c~ ~ ~ - s~ . ~ Q ~ (~! C~ c~^ Q ~ bL) bL) ~ O . _ s~ ~ O ~ O s~ ~ Q ~ s~ ~ C~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ C ~ 't,o ~ ~ ~ C 5 ', , D — C · ~— ~ — ~— ~ ~ ~ — —~ (~! C~ n~ C~ ._ bC . ~ C~ C~ C~ 0 _ C~ . _ . =~ e ~ _ O C~ ~ ¢ ~ ~ 0 00 ~ - ) O . . . . . - 1 ~ ~ oo O - 1 - 1 ~ ~ ~ ~1 O C~ O t) s~ ~ _ C~ ·— .O s~ O Q ~ c~ <~ ~ Q ~ _ ~ ._ ~ ~ ~ .o ~ ~ C~ ._ ~ ~ C O C U ~ O t) s~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ . _ C ~ ~ ~r _ _ C c. _ C

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87 - o Q Q sit O Q .. 0^ .= _ Cal Cal ~ _ ~ O 3 ~ so o At o - Q an Cal Cal so o of ¢ Do X Ct E-° . ~ ._ \ o o . o o - oo ~ ~ ~ - 1 ~ O ~ 0 - 1 oo O O ~ ~ - 1 ~ 0 - 1 0 To ~ ~ - 1 ~ 0 - 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ - 1 o r-1 - 1 ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ C ~ ~ oo ~ ~ r-1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O r-1 ~ 00 r-1 ~ O O oo oo ~ ~ ~ ~ oo r-1 ~ ~ ~ ~ r-1 00 ~ r~ 1 ~ 00 ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ r-1 ~ ~ ~ O ~ 00 00 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ r-1 ~ O O O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ r~ 1 ~ ~ ~ oO ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r-1 ~ O O O ~ ~ ~ O ~1 ~1 ~O~o ~ 1 ~ ~n00ol ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r-1 00 oO ~ ~ ~ r-1 oO ~ ~ ~ ~ r-1 O O ~ r-1 ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ ~ ~ oO ~ ~ ~ r-1 ~ ~ 00 ~ ~ r-1 ~ ~ ~ ~ - 1 - 1 0 ~ - 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - 1 0 ~ ~ 00 S~ C~ ~C . _ S~ ~ Q ~ c~ O ~ ~ .= O u _ 5 u Ci ~~70 ~ -~~ U — _ — U ~L ~_5c~53_~$;c< OCR for page 46
88 FISHES IN THE KLAMATH RIVER BASIN from firms within the region and when the suppliers purchased from other businesses in the region. Another 1,368 jobs were induced by exports of wood products; these fobs were in sectors like retail trade, real estate, and health care that were created when households respent income earned in all the jobs generated directly and indirectly by exports of wood products. The spending and responding of money brought into the region by exports of construction generated a total of 6,941 jobs. Table 2-10 shows that the lower-basin economy depends on the natu- ral-resources sectors, although not to the same extent as that of the upper basin. The combined agricultural sectors support 6.3% of the region's jobs, and the combined wood products sectors support 13.9%. Together, these two natural-resources sectors make up about 20.2% of the lower- basin economy. In the upper basin, the agricultural sector supports 14% of the region's jobs, and wood products supports 12.5%, for a total of about 27% of the economy. Table 2-10 also identifies the dependence of the lower-basin regional economy on four other sectors that often are the focus of local economic development efforts, particularly in rural econo- mies oriented to natural resources. Specifically, these are the sectors that include substantial activity related to tourism associated with visitors from outside the region, such as retail trade, accommodation and food services, other services, and arts, entertainment, and recreation, which together contribute 12.5% of the export employment base (slightly more than in the upper basin). Still, these tourism sectors remain primarily service sectors. For example, the retail-trade sector's share of sectoral employment is 12.8%, and it provides just 3.8% of the export employ- ment base. The lower basin's employment, like the upper basin's, depends heavily on income to households. Household income from government transfer payments (such as social security), dividends, commuters' income, rental payments, and other sources of income originating outside the basin is the most Important part of the export base. In 1998,17,191 jobs, or 20.7%, depended on those payments. The dependence of the basin's economy on federal and state govern- ment and educational institutions is also evident in Table 2-10. Almost one- fourth of the jobs in the region depend on federal and state funding for services, such as education and other public services. Public administration supports 8.0% of all jobs in the basin; this sector includes federal and state payments to local governments (such as federal payments in lieu of taxes, federal forest payments, and state-shared cigarette and highway revenues) and to government personnel (USES, USDA, and USFWS, for example). State and federal funding for educational services plus tuition payments by nonresidents support 14.9% of the region's jobs.

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LAND USE AND WATER MANAGEMENT 89 Two important industries based on natural resources, agricultural crop ancI livestock pro Suction ancI fisheries , are aggregate cI ancI summarize cI in the tables as the agriculture, fishing, ancI relatecI sector. Because they are both so strongly affected by water resources in the I(lamath basin, some aciclitional review of these industries follows. Using the same definition of a farm as in the upper basin, there were 974 farms in the lower I(lamath basin in 1997' that is about 40% of the number of farms in the upper basin (Table 2-111. As noted in the discussion regarding the upper basin, farms inclucle many places that clo not clepencI on their farm operations as their major source of income. IncleecI, as shown in Table 2-11' 35% of farm operators work more than 200 ciays/yr off the farm, ancI only 51% consider farming their primary occupation. Fewer than half the farms (45%) have more than $10,000 in annual sales. Farms averaged 653 acres; 39.5% hacI some irrigation ancI 3.7% of the region's farmiancI is irrigated. Over half the farms (61%) are sole proprietorships, ancI 72% are operated by the person living on the farm. About one-thircI of the farms (35%) hire farm workers. The average annual pay per hirecI farm worker was $6~754. Thus, the number of farm workers in the lower basin is about one-thircI the number in the upper basin, but the average pay per worker is greater in the lower basin. About half (44%) the 2~183 farm workers worked 150 or more clays in 1997. Net cash returns per farm from agricultural sales in the lower I(lamath basin averaged $23~016 ancI were similar to those of the upper basin ($21~323) in 1997. Net cash returns equals the value of agricultural procI- ucts soicI minus operating expenses (not inclucling depreciation. Very few farms (3.1%) received government payments in 1997' which averaged $2~000. Table 2-12 reports the value of agricultural production by commodity for each of the counties in the lower I(lamath basin ancI for the region. The regional value of total agricultural production in 1998 was estimated to be $114 million, compared with $283 million in the upper basin. Dairy ancI nursery products are the principal agricultural products of the region, to- gether accounting for 75.6% of the value of agricultural-commoclity pro- cluction. Cattle ancI livestock products are also important; they account for 13.7% of the value of agricultural commodity production. Fishing is an important part of the culture of the lower-basin culture ancI the economy. Table 2-13 provides information on catch ancI value for the fishing industry in 1997-2001. The catch information reflects only ocean-relatecI commercial fishing, not fishing in rivers. The lower I(lamath basin input-output mocle! explicitly considers ocean fishing in the agricul- ture, fishing, ancI relatecI sectors because the catch is soicI clirectly for pro- cessing or consumption. River fishing is incluclecI only inclirectly in the moclel; that economic activity ancI other activities relatecI to fish in the

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90 . - c~ at pa at ~ - o o ~ Em .~= ~ at o EM At At At At At Q o Cal Cal so Cal _ Cal Cal Cal Cal so At ~0 o Cal . ~ Cal ._ so Cal so Cal _ o ~ C C so ~ o ._ Cal ._ so Cal so Cal Cal o ~ o - , ~ =N Be, Be, ~ ~ Be, o ~ ~ ~ o ~ o of - 1 - 1 ~ - 1 - 1 - 1 oo - 1 - 1 ~ - 1 0 - 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 - 1 oo ~ oo ~ ~ oo O ~ oo r-1 ~ ~ ~ oO ~ O ~ r-1 00 ~ ~ ~ ~ 00 - 1 0 - 1 ~ ~ - 1 ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ r-1 ~ ~ r ~ 1 r-1 00 00 ~ ~ O ~ O O O ~ ~ 0 - 1 ~, ~ ~ r', ~ ~ ~ ~ ~1 oo ~ ~ ~ r-1 ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - 1 ~ oo ~ - 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O O 0 - 1 oo - 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ O O O O ~ - 1 - 1 ~ - 1 - 1 ~ ~ - 1 - 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~l ~ o - ~ . O (d bL) ~ ~ o ~ · ~ ~ ~ o 5 cu ~ O u: O ~ C~ · ~ ~ - - , — ~ ~ + o ~ ~ ~ ' D r ~ ~ ~ U C ~ O _ _ ,— _~ =2 ~ C ~ ~ A e v ¢ ~ c ~ ~ ¢ 3. ¢ ~ c ~ ~ ~ ¢ c~ . c~ c~ c~ o o o ~1 o Q C, bC ~ c~ _ ,~ O ¢ ~ X O c~ c~ O c~ O O ~1 ~ c~ ~ c~ s~ ,L) ~ s~ s~ c~ c~ ~ ~L) ·— ~ O ._ ._ bC . ~ ¢ E- o o c~ ~ r-1 -1^ c~ c~ ~L) c~ ~ O ;> c~ ._ ,= 0 - 1 O ._ 5~ c~ O ~ ¢ u~ - . . u~

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LAND USE AND WATER MANAGEMENT TABLE 2-12 Value of Agricultural Production in the Lower I(lamath Basin, 1998 91 Value of Agricultural Production, $000 Commodity Dairy Nursery products Cattle and livestock products Hay and pasture Vegetables Sheep, lambs, and wool 38 435 472 29,766 Del Norte Humboldt Trinity up UP Lp UP Lower 13 asin Total Share of Total Value of Production o/ /o 10,578 13,322 3,495 1,351 75 Fruit and nuts Other Total 39,028 23,277 11,074 8,179 676 116 91 20 82,461 o 37 1,088 463 32 8 105 49 1,782 49,606 36,636 15,657 9,993 783 162 631 541 114,009 43.5 32.1 13.7 8.8 0.7 0.1 0.6 0.5 100.0 Source: California Agricultural Statistics Service. I(lamath River main stem are reflectecI primarily in the tourism sectors. Thus, the actual effects of fish migration through the I(lamath basin are clifficult to estimate accurately. As Table 2-13 indicates, commercial fishing hacI a value of $12.4 million in 2001, which was less than in prior years anti continues to steaclily clecline. In relative terms, commercial fishing accounts for about 10% of the value of agriculture in the lower basin. The most valuable components of the catch are grouncifish <$s.s million in 2001) and crab and lobster ($4.1 million in 20011. Salmon (Chinook) landings were valued at about $0.2 million in 2001. The economic effects of eliminating or reducing any of the ocean fisher- ies in the lower-basin economy can be calculatecI with the same procedure used earlier to determine the export clepenclency indexes. Using the cletailecI multi-sector version of the Lower I(lamath Basin Input-Output Moclel, which is basecI on the 1998 IMPLAN moclel, to be consistent with the upper basin analysis, the effect of removing all the salmon catch in 2001 ($107,887), assuming that the catch is exported from the region, is a total loss to the regional economy of $164,507. This effect, though relatively small in comparison to the commercial fishing industry or the total regional economy, clicI extend across 193 of the 204 sectors in the regional economy. Commercial fishing has a multiplier of approximately 1.5 on both employ- ment anti output in the region. Thus, for every clollar or job clirectly in- volvecI in commercial fishing there is approximately another fifty cents or

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92 FISHES IN THE KLAMATH RIVER BASIN TABLE 2-13 Fisheries Characteristics of Ports of Eureka (Humboicit County) and Crescent City (Del Norte County) Round Pounds Species Group 1997 1998 1999 2000 Groundfish 16,246,794 13,888,084 12,036,198 10,116,024 Pacific whiting 13,958,624 12,614,230 2,881,997 10,988,772 Salmon (troll chinook) 16,675 26,450 34,500 26,450 Crab and lobster 6,454,585 7,425,668 7,122,922 4,764,952 Shrimp 12,441,711 1,460,207 3,658,543 2,170,063 Coastal pelagic 176,167 161,285 46,246 14,168 Highly migratory 2,222,487 727,022 647,952 823,779 Halibut 9,007 477 891 289 Sea urchins 63,624 2,357 36,532 3,735 Other 1,822,974 564,703 597,413 841,699 53,412,648 36,370,483 27,063,194 29,793,910 Source: Hans Radtke and Shannon Davis, unpublished. half a job lost as suppliers or businesses that sell to those working in fishing, or for the suppliers or businesses experiencing reclucecI sales. The current economic effects of the commercial salmon catch may significantly uncler- state the potential contribution of the salmon fishing to the economy of the lower I(lamath basin. Salmon lanclings at the ports of Eureka anti Crescent City have cleclinecI by more than 95°/O since the 1970s. If the average 1976- 1980 lanclings from the two ports of 2~547~000 rouncI Ib couicI be reached, anti they were soicI at 2001 prices of $1.47 per Ib, the combined output from the salmon fishery wouicI be $3~744~090. The estimated value-aciclecI component of that level of output in 2001 clollars wouicI be $2~476~908. Returning to that level of output wouicI require an estimated 67 direct jobs in the commercial fishing sector. The multipliecI effect of these jobs on commercial fishing to businesses that supply the fisheries sector anti from househoicI expenditures in service sector businesses couicI be an aciclitional 30 jobs, for a total of 97 jobs. These estimates of the economic effects of increased salmon harvest assume the catch is exported outside the region anti that the effects are not reclucecI by changes that might be necessary to achieve the increases (e.g., shifting water from irrigated agriculture to in- crease stream flows). In summary, the economics of the upper anti lower basins clisplay characteristics common to many rural economies, inclucling heavy reliance on natural resources sectors, such as agriculture ancI woocI products. To- gether, the entire basin showed economic activity valuecI in 2002 at $10.5 billion. Of that, about 26% (or $2.7 billion) was clerivecI from sectors basecI

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LAND USE AND WATER MANAGEMENT 93 Value (Nominal), $ 2001 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 8,708,018 9,309,576 6,615,305 6,308,414 6,631,668 5,461,928 5,081,398 581,399 391,780 115,275 764,851 170,967 73,600 21,298 41,427 61,577 42,795 107,887 1,719,814 11,132,662 12,193,371 13,210,063 9,403,268 4,073,747 3,447,869 5,020,462 951,542 1,982,483 1,172,213 1,236,641 148,548 93,398 39,260 11,365 7,879 52,975 1,414,603 1,870,065 764,542 630,488 841,564 1,155,138 8 17,866 790 1,669 723 16 22,595 35,352 825 26,438 3,224 12,279 388,929 509,044 227,912 217,430 262,536 138,378 21,005,382 28,591,122 21,226,754 22,565,202 19,130,721 12,409,956 on natural resources. Reliance on such sectors is slowly cleclining across both the upper ancI lower basins. OVERVIEW The I(lamath basin is exceptionally diverse geomorphically because it has been strongly influencecI by both crustal movement ancI volcanism. Geomorphic diversity in the basin has proclucecI a wicle variety of aquatic habitats, inclucling extensive wetiancis, large shallow lakes, swiftly flowing main-stem waters, ancI various tributary conditions. The watershed is not clensely populatecI but shows strong anthropogenic influences of several kinds. Management of water for irrigation, which has been in progress for more than a century, has alterecI the basic environmental conditions for aquatic life, inclucling the hycirographic features of flowing waters, the distribution ancI extent of wetiancis, ancI the extent ancI physical character- istics of the lakes that were founcI originally in the basin. Of the total economic activity in the I(lamath basin ($10.5 billion), about 26% is cle- rivecI from natural resources, inclucling mostly agriculture, woocI products, ancI ocean fishing. Irrigation ancI agricultural practices have blockecI or clivertecI fish from migration pathways, causecI adverse warming of waters, ancI augmented nutrient transport from lancI to water. Commercial fishing also has left a mark through clepletecI stocks of some species anti, although now controllecI, may have hacI legacy effects that are clifficult to reverse. Timber harvest ancI mining along tributaries have causecI, ancI in some cases

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94 FISHES IN THE KLAMATH RIVER BASIN continue to cause, severe physical impairment of aquatic habitats. Although aquatic habitats now are regarclecI as valuable for the maintenance of native species, remecliation of ciamage to habitat presents great clifficulties because of the extent anti diversity of changes that have occurred in the basin over the last century.