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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control CHAPTER 13 ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE EMISSIONS CONTROL STRATEGIES (Chapter 13 was written by D.Warner North and M.W.Merkhofer under the general supervision of the committee, which reviewed the work at several stages and suggested modifications that have been incorporated. While every committee member has not necessarily read and agreed to every detailed statement contained within, the committee believes that the material is of sufficient merit and relevance to be included in this report.) INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE Sulfur oxide and particulate emissions have adverse consequences for human health and welfare, but the means for controlling these emissions entail considerable expense. This section of the report presents a quantitative framework for comparing alternative strategies for emissions control from stationary sources. The primary focus of attention will be on emissions from coal fired steam electric power plants in the eastern United States. The method of approach to be used in this section is easily adapted to other sources and other regions of the country. The Clean Air Amendments of 1970 required that by July 1, 1975 specified levels of ambient air quality for sulfur oxides must be met. On the basis of these ambient standards the State Implementation Plans (SIP) were developed that set sulfur oxide emission limitations. The national primary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxide is 80 ug/m3 for the annual arithmetic mean and 365 ug/m3 for a maximum 24-hour concentration. These values were selected to protect human health, with a margin of
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control safety. No separate standard presently exists for suspended sulfate levels. When the Clean Air Act was passed and during the period when State Implementation Plans were being developed, there was still no obvious indication that natural gas would be in very short supply for industrial and utility users or that the U.S. would be unable to rely on imported oil to supply a fuel that was lower in sulfur than the indigenous coals that were being burned. Many utilities converted their coal-fired facilities to low sulfur oil or gas as quickly as they were able, and by 1974 23,600 MW of capacity was burning oil (although these facilities may be reconverted to burn coal). The emerging energy shortages culminated with the Arab embargo of oil to the U.S. in October 1973. This event in turn has motivated an energy policy that puts increased emphasis on reducing oil imports to a level low enough that the U.S. economy can continue to function satisfactorily even if the imports are again embargoed. The shift to low sulfur fuels was made because it appeared to the electric utility industry to be the best way to meet the new sulfur oxide standards. Tall stacks and intermittent control systems facilitate compliance with sulfur dioxide ambient standards, but they do not reduce the total amount of sulfur oxides released into the atmosphere. The commercial feasibility of stack scrubbing devices, the other viable option for reducing sulfur oxide emissions, has been a matter of sharp dispute between the utility industry and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It is obvious that the sulfur oxide levels that were to be achieved by July 1, 1975 (under the terms of the Clean Air Amendments of 1970) cannot be met now even if stack scrubbing technology were ready to be used routinely at
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control power plants, because of the time required to build and install the scrubbing devices. During the last decade, emissions and ambient sulfur dioxide concentrations in urban areas have decreased, while nationwide emissions from electric power plants have nearly doubled. Ambient concentrations of sulfate particles in urban areas have not decreased but have remained almost constant from 1957 to 1970. This persistence of high urban sulfate levels despite the decline in urban sulfur oxide emissions may be the result of the increased emissions from remotely located electric power plants. Sulfate levels approaching the level of urban concentrations have been observed in rural areas of the Northeast with no local sources of sulfur oxide emissions and very low sulfur dioxide ambient levels.1 Sulfur oxide and particulate emissions from power plants may pose a serious health hazard. Sulfur oxides and suspended particulate matter may act to impair health by a variety of possible mechanisms following inhalation and retention in the human respiratory tract. It will require further investigation to elucidate these mechanisms. In past epidemiological studies devoted to examining the health effects of air pollution, the pollution parameters of sulfur dioxide concentration and total suspended particulate matter concentration have been utilized for correlation with effects. These parameters are probably only indicators of the toxic potential of the pollution mix and not causal agents. Thus, the particulate phase is known not to be a single agent, but a complex mixture of particles of different size, shape, density and chemical composition. The CHESS studies suggested that particulate sulfates, rather than either of the above two parameters, may be a better indicator of the toxic potential of the polluted atmosphere.2 Laboratory studies which utilized animals have also suggested that certain particulate sulfates (Zn(NH4)SO4, ZnSO4 and H2SO4) are potent bronchoconstrictors, far more effective than sulfur dioxide in air at concentrations comparable to the particulate sulfate concentration. The bronchoconstriction capacity
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control of the particulate matter increased as particle size decreased in the guinea pig assay method, which utilized pulmonary flow resistance as the indicator of toxic potential. For the above reasons, and with full recognition of the large uncertainties which still remain to be resolved, this analysis of the social costs of sulfur oxides and particulate pollution will focus on the impact of control strategies for particulate sulfate concentrations in air. The uncertainties in this approach are not only associated with the effects of sulfates on health and the ecosystem, but with the measured and predicted concentrations of sulfate in air; analytical methods to determine particulate sulfates in air are not yet reliable. As will be seen, the range of uncertainty on many of the factors in the analysis is therefore large. ALTERNATIVES FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL This portion of the report will examine the costs for various control methods that might be adopted, together with the reduction in emissions that each method might achieve3. The analysis will address the choice among alternatives that can be implemented by 1980. Promising technologies are under development to remove sulfur before or during combustion, and to improve efficiency, thereby reducing the quantity of fuel needed to generate a given quantity of electricity. However, these technologies cannot be implemented on a large scale until 1985 or later, and the costs may not be significantly lower than the technologies presently available to remove sulfur from stack gases (see Chapter 10). Therefore, the analysis will focus on alternatives that are presently available. The presently available alternatives for controlling sulfur oxide and particulate emissions are the following:
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control Tall Stacks and Intermittent Control A stack height of the order of 100 to 300 meters may be sufficient (depending to some extent on the quantity of sulfur oxides emitted) to disperse the plume of effluent gases over a wide area, permitting ambient concentrations to be held below the levels established as standards. Under some meterological conditions high concentrations that violate standards may develop. A meteorological monitoring system is used to anticipate the outset of these conditions, and an intermittent control is then exercised to reduce emissions by shifting to a cleaner fuel or by reducing the levels of operation of the plants. The net result is that the total quantity of emissions may be reduced slightly or not at all, but ambient concentration in violation of standards may be avoided (see Chapter 12). Coal Preparation By pulverizing the coal and washing it prior to combustion it is possible to remove much of the physically bound portion of the sulfur and a large fraction of the ash. The coal washing process is relatively inexpensive, but some of the energy content of the coal is lost (see Chapter 10). Shifting to Low Sulfur Coal Much of the coal burned by utilities in the eastern United States has a sulfur content of 2–6 percent by weight. Some eastern coal is available with a sulfur content below 1 percent, but its extent is limited, and much of it is held for metallurgical applications. Low sulfur eastern coal commands a substantial price premium, which might increase if there were additional demand for low sulfur fuel. Low sulfur western coal is abundant, but the mining and transportation capability does not currently exist to provide it in large quantity to the eastern United states. Because of the low BTU
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control and high ash content compared to the eastern coals, it is generally not possible to burn western coal in a boiler designed for eastern coal without extensive retrofitting or derating of the plant capacity (see Chapter 10). Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) A number of technologies are under development for scrubbing pollutants from the effluent gases before they are released from the stack. The lime scrubbing process appears to be the best developed technology for coal fired power plants. It permits removal of the order of 90 percent of the sulfur oxide, plus much of the fine particulate matter. Both capital cost and operation costs of flue gas desulfurization are high, but it is the most effective means of removing sulfur oxides and other pollutants from the emissions into the atmosphere (see Chapter 11). Demand Modification Since sulfur oxides and other pollutant emissions from power plants are a by-product of electricity generation, one alternative for reducing these emissions is to reduce demand growth for electric power. The relationship between growth and emission levels is not a simple one, however. Demand is allocated among plants in an electric power system so as to meet demand with acceptable reliability at the least total cost. In practice, the newest and most efficient plants are used almost continuously to meet the base load, while the oldest plants are used to meet the peak loads and to furnish reserve capacity. The allocation of demand for electricity from an electrical system is summarized by the total energy demand made on each plant. This total demand is usually expressed by the loading (load factor) for the plant: the equivalent number of hours (percentage of time) the plant must operate during the year at its rated capacity in order to provide that amount of energy. A slowing of
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control demand growth that leads utilities to delay construction on new plants with low emissions levels may have little effect on total pollutant emissions from the system, if older plants with high emissions continue to be used at high load factors (see Chapter 8). Nuclear power plants provide an economical means of producing base load power without emitting any sulfur oxides or particulates. By accelerating the construction of nuclear power plants, the loading, and consequently, the sulfur oxide emissions from coal fired plants can be reduced. (Of course, there are other environmental problems associated with nuclear power that should be assessed in considering it as an alternative to coal fired plants.) A continued national effort toward domestic self-sufficiency may result in shifts from oil and gas to coal as a fuel for electric power generation. This effort may involve shifting from oil or gas to coal for many existing power stations that have the capability to burn coal, conversion to coal burning capability for fossil steam plants now being planned or under construction, and higher loading for existing coal fired plants as oil or gas fired plants are taken out of operation or reduced in loading. METHODOLOGY The approach to be taken in comparing alternative control strategies is to assess their economic impact on the costs associated with generating electricity and their effect in reducing emissions. A judgment must then be made to evaluate this tradeoff: What increment in increased electricity costs is justified by a given level of emission reduction? We shall assess the benefits of emission reduction by modeling the effect of the emissions on ambient air quality levels and on the deposition of pollutants, then modeling the effects on human health, materials damage, ecological changes, and aesthetic degradation. Through an assessment of costs and benefits the analysis can provide guidance to policymakers in assimilating the complex array of factors that
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control impact on the tradeoff between the consequences of the pollution and the costs associated with emissions control. Considerable uncertainty may characterize the costs of the alternatives, the emissions reductions that may be achieved, the relationship between emissions and ambient air quality levels, and the health, materials damage, and environmental consequences of given levels of pollutant concentration. The degree to which these uncertainties will impact on the decision among alternative control strategies may be identified by sensitivity analysis. If changing a factor within its range of uncertainty will change the preferred decision alternative, it will be useful to quantify the uncertainty by assessing a probability distribution over the range of values the uncertain factor could assume. The value of resolving the uncertainty can then be computed from the decision context (see Howard 1966, 1968; North 1968, and Tribus 1969 on the use of probability in decision analysis; see Spetzler and Stael von Holstein 1972 on methods to encode probability distributions). The scope of the present report does not permit an extensive application of these methods. The approach will be illustrated on the most important uncertainties; the analysis could be expanded to include other uncertainties. In the context of a public policy question such as controlling emissions from power plants, the assessment of overall costs and benefits may need to address issues of equity and of distribution: different people may receive the benefit than those who pay the costs. Cost-benefit analysis of public policy decisions usually assumes implicitly that the parties to the decision may be persuaded to make their choice on the basis of maximizing the overall net benefits to society. The question of how to implement the socially optimal alternative may well be the most difficult aspect of the problem. While a cost benefit analysis may be useful in identifying the best alternative from society’s point of view, considerable further effort may be needed to determine what is the best alternative for practical and effective
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control public policy. The public policy decision makers must understand how the various concerned private parties to the decision will react to a new policy initiative, and they must choose with care the means by which the private parties are to be motivated to act in society’s best interest. There are two ways that a private party may be motivated to act in the public interest when it is at variance with his own immediate objectives: (1) his decision alternatives may be limited by regulations or standards imposed on him by public authority (2) his values may be shifted toward the overall values of the society by economic means: incentives, taxes, penalties, fees; or by non-economic means such as persuasion that his action will gain him the good will (or enmity) of his fellows. The legalistic approach places the responsibility for planning on the public authority, which must assimilate a complex array of economic and technical factors in order to establish the standard. Once established, a standard is difficult to change. If new information indicates that the standard is not appropriate, the planning exercise must be redone and the concerned private and public parties convinced that the change in standards is justified. The use of economic incentives has been advocated by virtually every economist who has written on pollution, but it has rarely been used as a way of controlling emissions4. It has the advantage of flexibility: by delegating the social cost of the pollution as a direct cost to the private party making the decision, the public authority provides him with the incentive to make decisions that are optimal from the viewpoint of the public authority. Planning is therefore decentralized, and the detailed knowledge possessed by the private parties can be used to improve the decision process. Flexibility is much easier to achieve: If the public authority determines that levels of pollution are too high, it raises the cost associated with emissions, providing an incentive to the private parties to reduce them.
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control THE EMISSIONS CONTROL DECISION FOR A REPRESENTATIVE ELECTRIC POWER PLANT The public policy decision on emissions control will involve setting standards or implementing a system of incentives and fees. The actual resource allocations to implement an emissions control alternative will be made by the electric utility. The decision problem on emissions control is ultimately whether the owners of a power plant shall modify their operations by such means as installing a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process, switching to a low sulfur content fuel, or installing a taller stack and intermittent control system. The adoption of the emission control strategy will result in higher costs to the owners of the power plant, and these higher costs will generally be passed on as higher prices to the consumers of electricity. The benefits from adopting the emissions control strategy come from the change in amount (and timing) of emissions of sulfur oxide and other materials into the atmosphere that may adversely affect human health, cause damage to other living organisms or material property, and result in effects, such as visibility reduction, that are aesthetically undesirable. A decision between alternative strategies requires a balancing of the additional cost imposed on the generation of electric power against the value of emissions reduction. The analysis will focus on sulfur oxide emissions from coal fired steam power plants in the northeastern United States. As described in other sections of this report, most of the sulfur is emitted as sulfur dioxide rather than as sulfur trioxide or sulfate, but subsequent atmospheric chemical processes may oxidize the sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid aerosol and suspended particles of ammonium sulfate and other sulfate salts. Recent epidemiological data have indicated that these sulfates may give rise to serious and widespread health effects (EPA 1974). Damage to material property from atmospheric sulfur oxides has been estimated to cause hundreds of millions of dollars in annual losses (Waddell 1974). “Acid rain” resulting
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control from atmospheric sulfur oxides may lead to retarded growth in forests, deleterious effects on lakes and streams, damage to agricultural crops, and damage to building materials, statues and other material property (see Section 1 of Part Two). Aesthetic effects from degraded visibility may be another substantial problem. While sufur dioxide is invisible, sulfate particles do absorb and scatter visible light5. Degraded visibility in areas with high real estate or environmental values is a substantial public concern that should be appropriately reflected in the values associated with sulfur emissions (Randall et al. 1974). There are many distinctions that must be made between power plants in different locations. Ideally, a detailed model for assessing costs and benefits should be developed at each power plant for which a decision on emissions control is to be made. This scale of effort is not possible in the present study. We shall not attempt to address in detail the decision at a particular plant, but rather do illustrative calculations that are chosen to be representative of different types of plants and different locations in the northeastern United States. Specifically, we shall consider the following as representative cases: An existing coal fired plant in a remote rural location. An existing plant capable of burning coal in an urban or near-urban location. A new coal fired plant in a remote rural location. A fourth category, a new coal-fired plant in an urban or near-urban location could be added, but for this category the decision would seem relatively obvious: an efficient sulfur removal system would almost surely be required under existing state and local air quality regulations. Federal New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) will require flue gas desulfurization on new coal-fired plants beginning in 19756. (This requirement also holds true for remotely sited plants, but since some utilities have alleged that application of these standards to such plants serves little or
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control LITERATURE CITED Amdur, M.O. (1969) Toxicological Appraisal of Particulate Matter, Oxides of Sulfur, and Sulfuric Acid. Air Pollut. Contr. Assoc. 19(9):638–644, September. Brasser, L.J., P.E.Joosting, and O.von Zuilen (1967) Sulfur Dioxide-To What Level is it Acceptable? Research Institute for Public Health Engineering. Delft, Netherlands, Report G-300, July (Originally published in Dutch, September 1966). Brosset, Cyril (1973) Air-Borne Acid, Ambio II (1–2), 2. Buechley, R.W., W.B.Riggan, V.Hasselblad, and J.B.Van Bruggen (1973) Sulfur Dioxide, Levels and Perturbations in Mortality. Arch. Environ. Hlth., 27(3):134. Bufalini, Marijon (1971) Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide in Polluted Atmospheres: A Review, Environmental Science and Technology, 5, p. 685, August. Burns, J.L. and J.Pemberton (1963) Air Pollution, Bronchitis, and Lung Cancer in Salford. Int. J. Air Water Pollut. 7:15. Carnow, B.W., R.M.Senior, R.Karsh, S.Wesler, and L.V.Avioli (1970) The Role of Air Pollution in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Amer. Med. Assoc. 214(5):894–899, November 2. Douglas, J.W.B. and R.E.Waller (1966) Air Pollution and Respiratory Infection in Children. Brit. J. Prev. Soc. Med. 20:1–8. Fink, F.W., F.H.Buttner, and W.K.Boyd (1971) Battelle-Columbus Laboratories. Technical Economic Evaluation of Air Pollution Corrosion Costs in Metals in the United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Final Report, 104 p., February. Finklea, J.F., D.C.Calafiore, C.J.Nelson, W.B. Riggan, and C.B.Hayes (1974) Aggravation of Asthma by Air Pollutants: 1971 Salt Lake Basin Studies. Health Consequences of Air Pollution: A Report from the CHESS Program, 1970–1971. EPA #650/1–74–004, pp. 2–75, June.
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control Finklea, J.F., J.H.Farmer, G.J.Love, D.C.Calafiore, and G.W.Sovocool (1974) Aggravation of Asthma by Air Pollutants: 1970–1971 New York Studies. Health Consequences of Air Pollution: A Report from the CHESS Program, 1970–1971. EPA NO. 650/1–74–004, pp. 5–71, June. Finklea, J.F, D.I.Hammer, D.E.House, C.R.Sharp, W.C.Nelson, and G.R.Lowrimore (1974) Frequency of Acute Lower Respiratory Disease in Children: Retrospective Survey of Five Rocky Mountain Communities. Health Consequences of Air Pollution: A Report from the CHESS Program, 1970–1971. EPA No. 650/1–74–004, pp. 3–35, June. Freeman, A.Myrick, III, Robert H.Haveman, and Allan V.Kneese (1973) The Economics of Environmental Policy, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. French, J.G. (1974) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Internal Memorandum on 1971–1972 CHESS Studies of Aggravation of Asthma. Galke, W. and D.E.House (1974a) Prevalence of Chronic Respiratory Disease Symptoms in Adults: 1971–1972 Survey of Two Southeastern United States Communities. EPA intramural report, February. Galke, W. and D.E.House (1974b) Prevalence of Chronic Respiratory Disease Symptoms in New York Adults—1972. EPA intramural report, February. Garland, J.A. (1974) Progress Report, 1 May 1973–1 September 1974, U.K. Proposal No. 2, Sorption of Sulfur Dioxide at Land Surfaces. Gartrell, F.E. et al. (1963) Am. Indust. Hyg. Assoc. T., 24, 113. Gillette, Donald G. (1973) Sulfur Dioxide Standards and Material Damage, Paper 74–170, presented at the 67th Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, Denver, Colorado, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Glasser, M. and L.Greenburg (1969) Air Pollution Mortality and Weather. New York City 1960–1964. Presented at the Epidemiology Section of the Annual Meeting
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control of the American Public Health Association, Philadelphia, November 11. Goldberg, H., J.F.Finklea, C.J.Nelson, W.B.Stern, R.S.Chapman, D.H.Swanson, and A.A.Cohen (1974) Prevalence of Chronic Respiratory Symptoms in Adults: 1970 Survey of New York Communities, Health Consequences of Air Pollution: A Report from the CHESS Program, 1970–1971. EPA No. 650/1–74–004, June. Goldberg, H.E., J.F.Finklea, J.H.Farmer, A.A.Cohen, F.B.Benson, and G.J.Love (1974) Frequency and Severity of Cardiopulmonary Symptoms in Adult Panels: 1970–1971 New York Studies, Health Consequences of Air Pollution: A Report from the CHESS Program, 1970–1971. EPA #650/1–74–004, pp. 5–85, June. Grennard, Alf and Fraser Ross (1974) Progress Report on Sulfur Dioxide, Combustion, 4, January. Hammer, D.I. (1974) Frequency of Acute Lower Respiratory Disease in Two Southeastern Communities, 1968–1971. EPA intramural report, March. Hayes, C.G., D.I.Hammer, C.M.Shy, V.Hasselblad, C.R.Sharp, J.P.Creason, and K.E.McClain (1974) Prevalence of Chronic Respiratory Disease Symptoms in Adults: 1970 Survey of Rocky Mountain Communities, Health Consequences of Air Pollution: A Report from the Chess Program, 1970–1971. EPA No. 650/1–74–004, June. Hogstrom, U. (1973a) Residence Time of Sulfurous Air Pollutants from a Local Source During Precipitation, Ambio 11. Hogstrom, U. (1973b) Wet fallout of sulfurous pollutants emitted from a city during rain or snow. Atmospheric Environment, 8, 1291, December. House, D.E. (1973) Preliminary Report on Prevalence of Chronic Respiratory Disease Symptoms in Adults: 1971 Survey of Four New Jersey Communities. EPA intramural report. May. House, D.E., J.F.Finklea, C.M.Shy, D.C.Calafiore, W.B.Riggan, J.W.Southwick, and L.J.Olsen (1974) Prevalence of Chronic
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control Respiratory Disease Symptoms in Adults: 1970 Survey of Salt Lake Basin Communities, Health Consequences of Air Pollution: A Report from the CHESS Program, 1970–1971. EPA No. 650/1–74–004, June. Howard, Ronald A. (1966) Decision Analysis: Applied Decision Theory, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Operational Research, pp. 55–71, Wiley-Interscience. Howard, Ronald A. (1968) The Foundation of Decision Analysis, IEEE Transactions on Systems Science and Cybernetics, Vol. SSC-4, No. 3, September. Jacoby, Henry D., John D.Steinbruner, et al. (1973) Measuring the Value of Emissions Reductions, Chapter 8 of Clearing the Air by William R.Ahern, Jr., Ballinger, Cambridge, Massachusetts, p. 175. Kellogg, W.W. et al. (1972) The Sulfur Cycle, Science 175, 587. Lave, Lester B. and Eugene P.Seskin (1970) Air Pollution and Human Health, Science, 169. 723. Lawther, P.J. (1963) Compliance with the Clean Air Act: Medical Aspects. J. Inst. Fuels (London). 36:341–344. Lewis, T.R., M.O.Amdur, M.D.Fritzhand, and K.I.Campbell (1972) Toxicology of Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide Decay Products. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Publication Number AP-111, 42 p., July. Lindeberg, W. (1968) Air Pollution in Norway. III. Correlations between Air Pollutant Concentrations and Death Rates in Oslo. Published by the Smoke Damage Council, Oslo, Norway. Love, G.J., A.A.Cohen, J.F.Finklea, J.G.French, G.R.Lowrimore, W.C.Nelson, and P.B.Ramsey (1974) Prospective Surveys of Acute Respiratory Disease in Volunteer Families: 1970–1971 New York Studies, Health Consequences of Air Pollution: A Report from the CHESS Program, 1970–1971. EPA #650/1–74–004, pp. 5–49, June. Lunn, J.E., J.Knowelden, and A.J.Handyside (1967) Patterns of Respiratory Illness in
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control Sheffield Infant School Children. Brit. J. Prev. Soc. Med. 21:7–16. Martin, A.E. and W.Bradley (1960) Mortality, Fog and Atmospheric Pollution. Mon. Bull. Min. Health, London, 19:56–59. McJilton, C. and R.Frank (1973) The Role of Relative Humidity in the Synergistic Effect of Sulfur Dioxide Aerosol Mixture on the Lung. Science, 182:503–504, November 2. Miller, J.M. and R.G.DePena (1973) Contribution of Scavenged Sulfur Dioxide to the Sulfate Content of Rain Water, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 77, 5905–5916. Munn, R.E. (1973) Secular Increases in Summer Haziness in the Atlantic Provinces, Atmosphere, Vol. II, No. 4. National Academy of Sciences (1974a) Air Quality and Automobile Emission Control on Air Quality Studies, Vol. 2, Health Effects of Air Pollutants; Prepared for the Committee on Public Works, September. National Academy of Sciences (1974b) Air Quality and Automobile Emission Control on Air Quality Studies, Vol. 4, Costs and Benefits of Automobile Emission Control; Prepared for the Committee on Public Works, September. National Coal Association (1974) Steam-Electric Plant Factors/1973 ed. Washington, D.C., January. Nelson, W.C., J.F.Finklea, D.E.House, D.C.Calafiore, M.B.Hertz, and D.H.Swanson (1974) Frequency of Acute Lower Respiratory Disease in Children: Retrospective Survey of Salt Lake Basin Communities: 1967–1970, Health Consequences of Air Pollution: A Report from the CHESS Program, 1970–1971. EPA #650/1–74–004, pp. 2–55, June. Newman, L., J.Forrest, and B.Manowitz (1975a) The Application of an Isotopic Ratio Technique to a Study of the Atmospheric Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide in the Plume from an Oil Fired Power Plant. Submitted to Atmospheric Environment. Newman, L., J.Forrest, and B.Manowitz (1975b) The Application of an Isotopic Ratio Technique to a Study of the Atmospheric Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide in the Plume
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control from a Coal Fired Power Plant. Submitted to Atmospheric Environment. North, D.Warner (1968) A Tutorial Introduction to Decision Theory, IEEE Transactions in Systems Science and Cybernetics, Vol. SSC-4, No. 3, September. Nose, Yoshikatsu and Yoshimitsu Nose (1970) Air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases. Part IV. Relationship Between Properties of Air Pollution and Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases in Several Cities in Yamaguchi Prefective. J. Jap. Soc. Air Pollut. 5(1):130. Proceedings of the Japan Society of Air Pollution, 11th Annual Meeting. OECD (1974) Environmental Directorate Co.-Operative Technical Programme to Measure the Long Range Transport of Air Pollutants Steering committee, Report on First Measurement Phase, NR/ENV/747 Paris, April 15. Raiffa, Howard and Robert Schlaifer (1961) Applied Statistical Decision Theory, Harvard University, Boston. Raiffa, Howard (1969) Decison Analysis: Introductory Lectures on Choices Under Uncertainty, Addison-Wesley. Randall, A., B.C.Ives, and C.Eastman (1974) Benefits of Abating Aesthetic Environmental Damage, New Mexico State University Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 618, May. Roberts, Paul T. and Sheldon K.Friedlander (1974) Conversion of Sulfur Dioxide to Ambient Particulate Sulfates in the Los Angeles Atmosphere, paper presented at the conference: Health Consequences of Environmental Controls, Durham, North Carolina, April. Robinson, E. (1971) Sources and Fate of Atmospheric Sulfur Compounds, Final Report, SRI Project SCC-8966, March. Rodhe, H., C.Persson, and O.Akesson (1972) An Investigation Into Regional Transport of Soot and Sulfate Aerosols, Atmospheric Environment 6, 675–693. Sagan, L.A. (1972) Human Costs of Nuclear Power, Science, 177, 487–493.
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control Sagan, L.A. (1974) Health Costs Associated with the Mining, Transport, and Combustion of Coal in the Steam-Electric Industry, Nature, 250, 107–111, July 12. Solow, Robert M. (1971) The Economist’s Approach to Air Pollution and Its Control, Science, 173, 498. Spence, J.W. and F.H.Haynie (1972) Paint Technology and Air Pollution: A Survey and Economic Assessment. Environmental Protection Agency. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Publication Number Ap-103, February. Spetzler, Carl S. and C.A.Stael von Holstein (1972) Probability Encoding Decision Analysis, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, California, to appear in Management Science. Sugita, O., M.Shishido, E.Mino, S.Kenji, M.Kobayashi, C.Suzuki, N.Sukegawa, K.Saruta, and M.Watanabe (1970) The Correlation Between Respiratory Disease Symptoms in Children and Air Pollution. Report No. 1—a questionnaire Health Survey. Taiki Osen Kenkyu 5(1):134. Tribus, Myron (1969) Rational Descriptions, Decisions, and Designs, Pergammon Press. U.S. Department of Commerce (1970) Statistical Abstract of the United States; 91st Ed., Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Commerce (1972) 1970 Census of Population, Characteristics of the Population, Vol. 1, Part A, Section 1, Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C., May. U.S. Department of Commerce (1974) Statistical Abstract of the United States; 95th Ed., Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1974) 650/1–74–004, ORD, NERC/RTP, N.C., Health Consequences of Sulfur Oxides: A Report from CHESS 1970–1971, RTP, N.C., May. U.S. Federal Power Commission (1974a) Steam-Electric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses—1972, Washington, D.C., April. U.S. Federal Power Commission (1974b) Steam-Electric Plant Air and Water Quality Control Data-1971, Washington, D.C., June.
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control U.S. Federal Power Commission (1974c) National Power Survey, Technical Advisory Committee, Task Force on Conservation and Fuel Supply, Power Generation: Conservation, Health, and Fuel Supply, Draft. U.S. Public Health Service (1971) Acute Conditions, U.S., July 1966-June 1967, in Vital and Health Statistics, Washington, D.C. Visher, Stephen S. (1954) Climatic Atlas of the United States, Harvard University Press, Cambridge. Waddell, Thomas E. (1974) The Economic Damages of Air Pollution, Washington Environmental Research Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA-600/5–74–012, May. Watanabe, H. and F.Kaneko (1971) Excess Death Study of Air Pollution in: Preceedings of the Second International Clean Air Congress. H.M.Englund and W.T.Beery (eds.), New York, Academic Press, pp. 199–200. Weber, E. (1970) Paper No. CP-25F presented to 2nd International Clean Air Congress, Washington, D.C., December. Yashizo, T. (1968) Air Pollution and Chronic Bronchitis, Osaka Univ. Med. J. 20:10–12, December. Zeedijk, H. and C.A.Velds (1973) The Transport of Sulfur Dioxide Over a Long Distance, Atmospheric Environment, 7, 849.
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control PART THREE CONTROL OF NITROGEN OXIDES FROM STATIONARY SOURCES Part Three was prepared under the direction of the Commission on Natural Resources of the National Research Council. The discussions of nitrogen oxide sources in Chapter 14 and of tall stacks and intermittent control for nitrogen oxides in Chapter 15 are based on analyses by John Spengler, Anthony Cortese, and Douglas Dockery of the Harvard School of Public Health. The examination of control techniques in Chapter 15 is based on the work of Adel Sarofim and Richard Flagan of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: