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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control CHAPTER 14 NITROGEN OXIDE EMISSIONS AND THEIR DISTRIBUTORS INTRODUCTION Nitrogen Compounds Nitrogen, the most abundant gas in the atmosphere, is found in a variety of gaseous and particulate forms. The overwhelming amount in air (79 percent of air by volume or 4.6×1012 tons) is present as relatively inert nitrogen gas, N2. However, the oxidation of nitrogen by bacteria, lightning, organic protein decay, and high temperature combustion and chemical processing causes the appearance of nitrogen in a variety of compounds. The most important, because of health effects and reactivity, are: NO (nitric oxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), NH3 (ammonia) and to a lesser extent N2O (nitrous oxide). Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Nitrous oxide, a colorless and odorless gas, has been used as an anesthetic (laughing gas). It is present in the atmosphere in concentrations averaging about 0.25 ppm (Junge 1963, Bates and Hays 1967). There are no direct pollutant sources of N2O, although it may be an indirect and minor product of NO2 photolysis with sunlight and hydrocarbons. The in-
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control terest in N2O is not in the troposphere (ground level to 8–15 km) where it is practically inert but in photodissociation reactions in the stratosphere. Bates and Hays (1967) indicate that the dissociation of N2O into NO and atomic nitrogen accounts for about 20 percent of the dissociation in the stratosphere. The NO thus formed provides an important sink reaction for ozone. Ammonia (NH3) As an industrial emission, ammonia is produced mainly from coal and oil combustion but natural production from biological generation over land and ocean is many times greater than that from anthropogenic sources (250 to 1). NH3’s importance is the significant role it plays in atmospheric reactions in both the nitrogen and sulfur cycles. Nearly three-fourths of the NH3 is converted to ammonium ion condens ed in droplets or particles. These aerosols are then subject to the physical removal mechan isms of coagulation, washout, rainout and dry deposition. In general, ambient background concentrations of NH3 vary directly with the intensity of biological activity. The highest concentrations occur in the summer and in the tropical latitudes. Concentrations, as reported by many investigators, range from 1 to 10 ppb (Strauss 1972). Nitric Oxide-Nitrogen Dioxide NO, a colorless, odorless gas, is formed naturally from the nitrates in various materials by bacteria and then is oxidized to NO2 (Peterson 1956). Altschuller (1958) and others have reported very hazardous conditions for farm workers near closed silos where NO→NO2 bacterial production has resulted in toxic concentrations of several hundred ppm of NO2. Organic nitrogen compounds are found in
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control coal and oil in concentrations of a few tenths to a few percent by weight. Bituminous coal contains 1–2 percent nitrogen, and United States crude oil approximately 0.05–0.5 percent nitrogen (Demski et al. 1973). Natural gas, while containing up to 4 percent nitrogen gas, does not contain any significant organic nitrogen (Perry et al. 1963). Because organic nitrogen compounds have relatively high molecular weights, they tend to be concentrated in the residual and heavy oil fractions during distillation. Nitrogen oxides are produced during combustion by the oxidation of organic nitrogen compounds in fossil fuels and by the thermal fixation of atmospheric nitrogen gas, N2. The primary sources of NO and NO2 as pollutants are combustion processes in which temperatures are high enough to fix N in the air and fuel, and in which the quenching of combustion is rapid enough to reduce decomposition back to N2 and O2. The predominant product of this high temperature combustion is NO. During combustion, approximately 5–40 percent of the nitrogen in coal, and 20 to 100 percent of the nitrogen in oil is oxidized to nitrogen oxides (see Chapter 15). NO is subsequently oxidized to NO2 either in the stack gas or, to a lesser extent, in the diluted plume. Once the NO has been diluted to 1 ppm (1230 μg/m3) or less, the direct reactions with O2 do not contribute significantly to NO2 formation (USEPA 1971). However, the reaction of NO with tropospheric ambient concentrations of O3 (ozone) to form NO2 is rapid. It is believed that the almost everpresent background concentrations of O3 will yield NO2 predominance over NO, although some researchers have reported higher NO than NO2 concentrations in remote areas (Lodge and Pate 1960, Ripperton et al. 1970). NO2 is removed from the atmosphere either by further O3 oxidation to a nitrous salt or by the more favored conversion to HNO3 in the presence of water vapor. The HNO3 is then rapidly removed by reactions with NH3 and absorption by hygroscopic particles (Strauss 1972)
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control Nitrogen Oxides Global Emissions To estimate the total annual emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), emission factors have been applied to the fuel usage of several sources (Robinson and Robbins 1968). According to Robinson and Robbins, the annual production in 1967 was about 53×106 tons with coal combustion contributing the majority, 51 percent, followed by petroleum production and combustion contributing 41 percent. Natural gas combustion on a world-wide basis is comparatively less important (4 percent). However, it should be noted that on a local or regional basis, it could be the major source of NOx. (It should also be noted that these figures include combustion sources only since careful surveys of industrial process losses had not been undertaken at the time these estimates were prepared.) See Table 14–1. National Emissions Anthropogenic sources in the United States produce nearly 50 percent of the world’s NOx emissions (USEPA 1971). While emissions from human activities amount to far less than the estimated 50×107 tons of NOx emitted annually from natural sources (USEPA 1971), the spatial concentration of emissions in urban areas leads to concentrations of NOx 10 to 100 times higher than those in non-urban atmospheres. Fuel combustion is the major cause of anth ropogenic NOx emissions in the United States (See Figure 14–12). In 1972, coal, oil, natural gas and motor-vehicle fuel combustion contributed over 86 percent of the estimated 24.6 million tons of NOx emitted in the United States. Stationary area and point sources account for approximately 64 percent of all the NOx. Direct stationary fuel combustion is the largest source
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control TABLE 14–1 World-Wide Urban Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide Fuel Source NO2 Emissions (106 Tons) % Total Sub % TOTAL 52.9 100 COAL 51 100 Power Generation 12.2 23 47 Industrial 13.7 26 52 Domestic/Commercial 1.0 2 3 PETROLEUM 41 100 Refinery Production 0.7 1 3 Gasoline 7.5 14 34 Kerosene 1.3 2 6 Fuel Oil 3.6 7 16 Residual Oil 9.2 17 41 NATURAL GAS 4 100 Power Generation 0.6 1 25 Industrial 1.1 2 50 Domestic/Commercial 0.4 <1 25 OTHER Incineration 0.5 <1 Wood 0.3 <1 Forest Fires 0.5 1 Source: Modified from Robinson and Robbins (1968).
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control category (49.7 percent) with coal as the single largest contributor of NOx in this group. Gasoline powered vehicles are the overwhelming source of transportation-related NOx contributing 32 percent of all NOx and 82 percent of the transportation NOx. Significant quantities of NOx are emitted from industrial processes, primarily the manufacturing and use of nitric acid and refining of petroleum. On a local scale, electroplating, engraving, welding, and metal cleaning are responsible for industrial NOx emissions which may also be significant. In 1972, industrial process losses accounted for 2.9 million tons of NOx, or 11.7 percent of total nationwide emissions. Overall, about 77 percent of the total NOx emissions occur in highly populated areas. Eighty percent of stationary source emissions occur in populated areas as do 71 percent of motor vehicle emissions. The 1972 NOx emissions for the Nation will be defined in greater detail in the following section. There has been a steady growth of NOx nationwide emissions. The decade of the sixties witnessed a greater increase in emissions than the previous two decades (see Table 14–2). TABLE 14–2 NITROGEN OXIDES: Estimated Total Nationwide Emissions (106 tons) (USEPA 1974) 1940 1950 1960 1970 6.5 8.8 11.4 22.1 Over the past three decades, total nationwide emissions are estimated to have quadrupled. During this period, emissions from motor vehicles have increased at a steady rate of 4.6 to 4.9 percent per year. Emissions from stationary sources, however, have contributed progressively increasing proportions. Total NOx
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control emissions from power plants have increased at an annual rate of 6.9 to 7.4 percent. Nitrogen Oxide Concentrations Controversy and uncertainty about NOx measurement methods have made reliable urban NO and NO2 concentration data almost as scarce as the remote area data. Global remote measurements show NO2 variations with growing season, latitude, and altitude. Lodge and Pate (1966) reported average dry season values of 0.9 ppb and wet season values at 3.6 ppb NO2 in Panama. Junge reported in 1966 measured NO2 concentrations averaging 0.9 ppb in Florida and 1.3 ppb at 10,000 foot high Mauna Kea, Hawaii (Junge 1956). In the continental U.S., several investigators found NO2 values in the 4 ppb range and NO concentrations about 50 percent lower at 2 ppb (Hamilton et al. 1968, Ripperton et al. 1970). Based upon the estimated global background levels and the annual emissions rates, the average residence time of NO2 in the atmosphere is about 3 days and that of NO is about 4 days. Residence times of atmospheric pollutants reflect the action of natural scavenging processes including photochemical reactions. Figure 14–1 provides a flow diagram summary of the atmospheric NO-NO2 cycle. The spatial and temporal variations in ambient NO2 concentrations are great. Not surprisingly, the highest concentrations are found in urban regions. Measurements of NO2 have been taken since 1961 through the CAMP and SCAN programs of EPA (formerly NAPCA). However, there is now considerable uncertainty regarding ambient levels and trends for NOx. Although an EPA study of CAMP data for 5 cities reported slight increases in ambient NOx for 1962–1971, the data were obtained by the Jacobs-Hochheiser method for NOx analysis, which has been shown to overestimate ambient NOx levels at low concentrations (CEQ 1975). Thus, these NOx data must be viewed with caution. (See Appendix 14-B)
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control FIGURE 14–1: Nitrogen Oxide Cycle in the Atmosphere (106 Tons/Year).
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control The National Air Surveillance Network (NASN) program for measuring NOx by a modified Jacobs-Hochheiser method was started in 1972 and it will be several years before the program can provide useful trend data on ambient NOx levels. EPA has suspended all Air Quality Control Regions priority classifications based on NOx. However, regions where the standards for NO2 are believed to be exceeded are Los Angeles, Chicago, and Baltimore, and possible, New York-New Jersey-Connecticut, Salt Lake City, and Denver. In spite of the uncertainties in the absolute values, there are NOx data available to indicate the general yearly trends in a few areas. The trends in CAMP observations of nitrogen dioxide are provided in Table 14–3. With the exception of Chicago, annual avenge nitric oxide concentrations of the period 1967–1971 are consistently higher than those of the period 1962–1966. Annual nitrogen dioxide (NO2) averages show a greater variability among cities than do the nitric oxide averages, and the trends for nitrogen dioxide do not parallel those of nitric oxide. It is not clear whether this deviation is a result of instrument variation, or whether it can be attributed to differences in atmospheric conversion rates in various cities (NAS 1974). Monitoring data for NO and NO2 in New Jersey cities presented in Figure 14–2 suggest that a pattern of change similar to that observed in the CAMP cities has occurred at these locations. Maximum monthly averages of nitric oxide appear to have increased after 1971, while the levels of NO2 have remained essentially constant over the same period. In Los Angeles County there has been a direct relationship between increasing NOx emissions and the reported annual average one hour concentrations of NO2. Between 1965 and 1972, NOx emissions have increased in L.A. County at an annual average rate of 3.8 percent per year. The annual average of the maximum hourly average total NOx concentrations has increased approximately 3.2 percent per year from 1965 to
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control TABLE 14–3 Nitrogen Dioxide Trends in CAMP Cities 1962–71 (National Academy of Sciences 1974) Average NO concentration, ppm Average NO2 concentration, ppm Station 1962–66 1967–71 1962–66 1967–71 Chicago 0.10 0.10 0.04 0.05 Cincinnati 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 Denver 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 Philadelphia 0.04 0.53* 0.04 0.04 St. Louis 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 *The unusually high NO concentration for Philadelphia in 1967–71 is discussed in the section of this chapter on U.S. Nitrogen Oxide Emissions.
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control FIGURE 14–2: Maximum Monthly Average Concentrations of Nitrogen Oxides in Three New Jersey Cities (National Academy of Sciences 1974).
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control Gillespie, G.R., A.A.Boyum, and M.F.Collins (1971) Catalytic Purification of Nitric Acid Tail Gas: A New Approach, paper presented at 64th AIChE Annual Meeting, San Francisco, California, December. Grossman, J.W., J.N.Slaminski, and A.Licata (1974) Emission Data and Combustion Calculations for a General Electric PG-5341 Gas Turbine, Report No. WSS/C1 74–5, May. Habelt, W.W. and A.P.Selker (1974) Operating Procedures and Prediction for NOx Control in Steam Power Plants, presented at Tag Central States Section of the Combustion Institute, Spring Technical Meeting, March. Hall, R.E. and D.W.Pershing (1973) Proceedings, Coal Combustion Seminar, June 19–20, Research Triangle Park, N.C., Report No. EPA-650/2–73–021, September. Hall, R.E., J.H.Wasser, and E.E.Berkau (1974) A Study of Air Pollutant Emissions from Residential Heating Systems, Report No. EPA-650/2–74–003, January. Halstead, C.J., C.D.Watson, and A.J.E.Munro (1972) Nitrogen Oxide Control in Gas Fired Systems Using Flue Gas Recirculation and Water Injection, presented at Tag IGT/AGA Conference on Natural Gas Research and Technology, June. Hammons, G.A. and A.Skopp (1971) NOx Formation and Control in Fluidized Bed Coal Combustion Processes, Report NO. 71-WA/APL-3, ASME, August. Hazard, H.R. Conversion of Fuel Nitrogen to NOx in a Compact Combustor, ASME Paper No. 73-WA/GT-2. Heap, M.P., T.M.Longs, R.Walmsley, and H.Bartelds (1973) Burner Design Principles for Minimum NOx Emissions, presented at the Coal Combustion Seminar, June. Heap, M.P., T.M.Lwest, and R.Walmsley (1972) The Emission of Nitric Oxide from Natural Gas and Pulverized Fuel Flames, Report No. Doc. nr.—D og 1 a, May. Hemsath, K.H., T.J.Schultz, and D.A.Chojnacki (1972) Investigation of NOx Emissions from Industrial Burners, presented at the American Flame Research Committee/EPA American Flame Days, Chicago, September.
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control Hilt, M.B. and R.H.Johnson (1971) Nitric Oxide Abatement in Heavy Duty Gas Turbine Combustions by Meas of Aerodynamics and Water Injection, Report No. 72-GT-53, December. Hoke, R.C., L.A.Ruth, and H.Shaw Combustions by Meas and Desulfurization of Coal in a Fluidized Bed of Limestone, Report No. ASME 74-PWR-6. Holliden, G.A. and S.S.Ray (1973) Control of NOx Formation in Wall, Coal-Fired Utility Boilers: TVA-EPA Interagency Agreement, presented at Coal Combustion Seminar, June. Hoy, H.R. and A.G.Roberts (1969) Power Generation via Combined Gas Steam Cycles and Fluid-Bed Combustion of Coal, Gas and Oil Power, July/August. Hung, W.S.Y. (1974) Accurate Method of Predicting the Effects of Humidity or Injected Water on NOx Emissions from Industrial Gas Turbines, Report No. 74-WA/GT-6 (ASME). Jain, L.K., E.L.Calvin, and R.L.Looper (1972a) State of the Art for Controlling NOx Emissions Part I. Utility Boilers, Report No. EPA-R2–72–072, September. Jain, L.K., E.L.Calvin, and R.L.Looper (1972b) State of the Art for Controlling NOx Emissions Part II. Industrial, Commercial and Domestic Boilers, EPA Contract No. 68–32–0241, September. Jarry, R.L., L.F.Anastasia, E.L.Carls, A.A.Jonke, and J.J.Vogel (1970) Comparative Emissions of Pollutants during Combustion of Natural Gas and Coal in Fluidized Beds, proceedings of Second International Conference on Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Publication No. AP-109, Office of Air Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Johnson, R.H. and R.B.Schiefer Environmental Compatibility of Modern Gas Turbines, General Electric Gas Turbine Reference, Library Report No. GER-2486c. Jonke, A.A. (1974) Fluidized-Bed Combustion: A Status Report, presented to Clean Energy
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control Coal, Part IV, 67th AIChE Annual Meeting, December. Jonke, A.A., E.L.Carls, R.L.Jarry, L.J. Anastasia, M.Haas, J.R.Pavlik, W.A.Murphy, and C.B.Schoffstoll (1970) Reduction of Atmospheric Pollution by the Application of Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Report ANL/ES-CEN-1002, June. Jonke, A.A., E.L.Carls, R.L.Jarry, M.Haas, and W.A.Murphy (1969) Reduction of Atmospheric Pollution by the Application of Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Report ANL/ES-CEN-1001, June. Jonke, A.A., G.J.Vogel, L.J.Anastasia, R.L.Jarry, D.Ramaswami, M.Haas, C.B.Schoffstoll, J.R.Pavlik, G.N.Vargo, and R.Green (1971) Reduction of Atmospheric Pollution by the Application of Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Report No. ANL/ES-CEN-1004, June. Jonke, A.A., W.M.Swith, and G.T.Vogel (1974) Fluidized-Bed Combustion: Development Status, presented at the SME Fall Meeting, September. Klapatch, R.D. and T.R.Koblish (19 ) Nitrogen Oxide Control with Water Injection Gas Turbines, Report No. 71-WA/GT-g. Koch, H. (1973) Investigations and Measurements for the Reduction of Gas Turbine Emissions, CIMAC. Kurylko, L. (1971) Control of Nitric Oxide Emissions from Furnaces by External Recirculation of Combustion Products, Report NO. 71-Wa/PID-6, ASME, December. Lange, H.B., Jr. (1972) NOx Formation in Premixed Combustion: A Kinetic Model and Experimental Data, Air Pollution and Its Control, AIChE Symposium Series 126, Vo. 68, p. 17. LaChapell, D.G., S.J.Bowen, and R.D.Stern (1974) Overview of Environmental Protection Agency’s NOx Control Technology for Stationary Combustion Sources, presented at 67th Annual AIChE Meeting, December. Lipfert, F.W. (1972) Correlation of Gas Turbine Emission Data, Report No. 72-GT-60 (ASME). Lipfert, F.W., E.A.Sanlorenzo, and H.W.Blakeslee (1974) The New York Power Pool Gas
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control Turbine Emissions Test Program, presented at the MASS-APCA Specialty Conference on Air Quality Standards and Measurement, Kiameska Lake, New York, October. Livesey, J.B., A.L.Roberts, and A.Williams (1971) Combustion Science and Technology, 4, 9. Lockling, D.W., H.H.Krause, E.L.Putnam, W.T.Reid, M.A.Duffy (1974) Design Trends and Operating Problems in Combustion Modifications of Industrial Boilers, EPA Grant No. 902402, April. Lowes, T.M., H.Bartelds, M.P.Heap, and R.Walmsley (1973) Burner Design Optimization for the Control of NOx Emissions from Boilers and Furnaces, International Flame Research Foundation Doc. K/20/a/68, September. Lowes, T.M., M.P.Heap, and R.B.Smith (1974) Reduction of Pollution by Burner Design, International Flame Research Foundation, Doc. No. K20/a-74, August. Lyon, R.K. (1974) Verfahren zur Reduzierung von NO in Verbrennungabgasen, Germany, Patent No. 2411672, September. Manny, E.H. and A.Skopp (1969) Potential Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emission from Stationary Sources, presented at the 62nd Annual Meeting, Air Pollution Control Association, Paper No. 6g–46, June. Mark et al. (1964) et., Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 2nd edition, Interscience Publishers, New York. Martin, G.B. (1974a) Environmental Considerations in the Use of Alternate Clean Fuels in Stationary Combustion Processes, presented at the EPA Symposium on Environmental Aspects of Fuel Conversion Technology, St. Louis, Missouri, May. Martin, G.B. (1974b) Overview of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Activities in NOx Control for Stationary Sources, presented at the Joint U.S.—Japan Symposium on Countermeasures for NOx, June 28–29. Martin, G.B. and E.E.Berkau An Investigation of the Conversion of Various Fuel Nitrogen
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control Compounds to Nitrogen Oxides in Oil Combustion, AIChE Symp. Ser., 68(126), II. Mason, H.B. and A.B.Shimzu (1974) Briefing Document for the Maximum Stationary Source Technology (MSST) Systems Program for NOx Control, EPA Contract No. 68-OZ-1318, October. Mayland, B.J. and R.C.Heinze (1973) Continuous Catalytic Absorpotion for NOx Emission Control, Chemical Engineering Progress, 69, pp. 75–76. McCann, C., J.Demeter, R.Sneddon, and D.Bienstock (1974) Combustion Control of Pollutants from Multi-Burner Coal-Fired Systems, Report No. EPA-650/2–74–038, May. McCann, C.R., J.J.Demeter, and P.Bienstock (1973) Preliminary Evaluation of Combustion Modifications for Control of Pollutant Emission from Multi-Burner Coal-Fired Combustion Systems, presented at the Coal Combustion Seminar, June. McCann, C.R., J.J.Demeter, A.A.Orning, and D.Bienstock (1970) NOx Emissions at Low Excess-Air Levels in Pulverized Coal Combustions, ASME Winter Meeting, Proceedings, November. McGowin, C.R. (1973) Stationary Internal Combustion Engines in the United States, EPA-R2–73–210, April. McGowin, G.R., F.S.Schaub, and R.L.Hubbard (19 ) Emissions Control of a Stationary Two-Stroke Spark-Gas Engine by Modification of Operating Conditions, Report No. P-2136 (Shell and Copper Bessemer). Merryman, E.L. and A.Levy (1974) Nitrogen Oxide Formation in Flames: The Roles of Nitrogen Dioxide and Fuel Nitrogen, paper presented at Fifteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion, Tokyo, Japan, August. Merryman, E.L., H.R.Hazard, R.E.Barrett, and A.Levy (1974) Recent Studies of Tag Conversion of Fuel Nitrogen to NOx, presented at the Central States Section Combustion Institute, March. Mesko, J.E. and R.L.Gamble (1974) Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Steam Generations for Electric Power Generations, presented at 36th Annual Meeting of the American Power Conference.
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control Mesko, J.E., S.Ehrlich, and J.W.Bishop (1973) Fluidized Bed Holds Promise for Coal, Electric Light and Power, E/G Edition, April. Miller, V.H. (1971) Some Preliminary Results of NOx Measurements in a Tangential Fired 890 TPH Boiler, International Flame Research Foundation, Flame Chemistry Panel, March. Muzio, L.J. and R.P.Wilson, Jr. (1973) Experimental Combustor for Development of Package Boiler Emission Control Techniques—Phase I of III, Report No. EPA-R2–73–292a, July. National Academy of Engineering (1972) Ad Hoc Panel on Abatement of Nitrogen Oxides, C.N.Satterfield, Chairman, Abatement of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from Stationary Sources, Report COPAC-4, National Reserch Council, Washington, D.C. National Coal Association Steam-Electric Plant Factors, 1973 Edition. National Electric Reliability Council (NERC) (1974) Fuel Survey Subcommittee, Technical Advisory Committee, Estimated Fossil Fuel Requirements for the Electric Utility Industry of the United States, 1974–1983, July. National Electric Reliability Council (1974) Review of Overall Adequacy and Reliability of the North American Milk Power Systems, report by Interregional Review Subcommittee of the Technical Advisory Committee, October. Pai, R.H. and R.E.Sommerlad (1973) Nitrogen Oxide Emission, an Evaluation of Test Data for Design, presented at Tag Symposium Control of NOx Emissions from Stationary Sources, 66th Annual AIChE Meeting, November. Parks, B.C. and H.J.O’Donnell (1956) Petrography of American Coals, U.S.B.M., Bull. Pereira, F.J., J.M.Beer, B.Gibbs, and A.B.Hedlye (1974) NOx Emissions from Fluidized-Bed Coal Combustors, paper presented at 15th Symposium on Combustion, Japan, August. Perry, R.H. et al., eds. (1963) Chemical Engineer Handbook, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill and Company, New York.
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control Pershing, D.W., J.W.Brown, and E.E.Berkau (1973) Relationship of Burner Design to the Control of NOx Emissions through Combustion Modification, presented at Coal Combustion Seminar, June 19–20. Pershing, D.W., J.W.Brown, G.B.Martin, and E.E.Berkau (1973) Influence of Design Variable on the Production of Thermal and Fuel NOx from Residual Oil and Coal Combustion, presented at 66th Annual AIChE meeting, November. Pompei, F. and J.B.Heywood (1972) The Role of Mixing in Burner-Generated Carbon Monoxide and Nitric Oxide, Combustion and Flame, 19, 407. Proceedings of Second International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. Turner, Elliott Williams, Coates, Rice, Ehrlich, Hoy, etc. Quan, V., J.R.Kliggel, N.Bayard de Volo, and D.P.Teixeira (1973) Analytical Scaling of Flowfield and Nitric Oxide in Combustors, presented at Coal combustion Seminar, June 19–20. Radwon, A.H. and R.S.Sadowski (1972) An Experimental Correlation of Oxides of Nitrogen missions from Power Boilers Based on Field Data, Report No. 72-WA/Pwr-5, ASME, July. Rawdon, A.H. and S.A.Johnson (19) Control of NOx Emissions from Power Boilers, Riley Stoker Corp., Paper No. 22. Rendle, L.K. and R.D.Wilson (1956) The Prevention of Acid Condensation in Oil-Fired Boilers, J. Tag Inst. Fuel, September. Rice, R.L. and N.H.Coates Fluid-Bed combustion: Suitability of Coals and Bed Materials, Power Engineering. Roessler, W.A., A.Moraszew, and R.D.Kopa (1974) Assessment of the Applicability of Automotive Emission Control Technology to Stationary Engines, EPA 650/2–74–051, July. Roessler, W.V., E.K.Weinberg, J.A.Drake, H.M.White, and T.Fura (1973) Investigation of Surface Combustion Concepts for NOx Control in Utility Boilers and Stationary Gas Turbines, Report No. EPA-650/2–73–014, August. Sarofim, A.F. and J.H.Pohl (1973) Kinetics of Nitric Oxide Formation in Premixed Laminar
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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control Flames, Fourteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, pp. 739–753. Sarofim, A.F., G.C.Williams, M.Modell, and S.M.Slater (1973) Conversion of Fuel Nitrogen to Nitric Oxide in Premixed and Diffusion Flames, presented at SIChE 66th Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November. Schaub, F.S. and K.V.Beightol (1971) NOx Emission Reduction Methods for Large Bore Diesel and Natural Gas Engines, Report No. 71-WA/D4P-2, ASME, July. Schiassi, A. For Energy Preservation-Low Excess Air Combustion, Report No. F 25/ha/3, International Flame Research Foundation. Sensenbaugh, J.D. (1966) Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Combustion Processes, presented at Air Pollution Training Course, Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, March. Sensenbaugh, J.D. and J.Tonakin (1969) Effect of Combustion Conditions on Nitrogen Oxide Formation in Boiler Furnaces, Paper No. 60-WA-334, October. Shaw, H. (1972) Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from a Gas Turbine by Fuel Modifications, Report No. 73-GT-5, December. Shaw, H. (1973a) The Effect of Water, Pressure and Equivalence Ratio on Nitric Oxide Production in Gas Turbines, Report No. 73-WA/GT-1, July. Shaw, H. (1973b) Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from a Gas Turbine Combustor by Fuel Modifications, J. Eng. and Power, 301. Shaw, H. (1974a) Test-Report-Aqueous Solution Scrubbing for NOx Control of the Deactivation Furnace Effluent Gas, Contract No. DAAAIS-74-C-0084, May. Shaw, H. (1974b) The Effects of Water, Pressure, and Equivalence Ratio on Nitric Oxide Production in Gas Turbines, transactions of the ASME, pp. 240–246, July. Shaw, H. (1975) The Effect of Water on Nitric Oxide Production in Gas Turbine Combustors, presented at the 20th Annual international Gas Turbine Conference, March.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: