COMMITTEE PRINT

AIR QUALITY AND STATIONARY SOURCE EMISSION CONTROL

A REPORT BY THE

COMMISSION ON NATURAL RESOURCES

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

PREPARED FOB THE

COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC WORKS

UNITED STATES SENATE

PURSUANT TO

S. Res. 135

APPROVED AUGUST 2, 1973

MARCH 1975

SERIAL NO. 94–4

Printed for the use of the Committee on Public Works

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

WASHINGTON: 1975

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control COMMITTEE PRINT AIR QUALITY AND STATIONARY SOURCE EMISSION CONTROLA REPORT BY THE COMMISSION ON NATURAL RESOURCES NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCILPREPARED FOB THE COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC WORKS UNITED STATES SENATE PURSUANT TO S. Res. 135 APPROVED AUGUST 2, 1973 MARCH 1975 SERIAL NO. 94–4 Printed for the use of the Committee on Public Works U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON: 1975 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402—Price $8.60

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC WORKS JENNINGS RANDOLPH, West Virginia, Chairman EDMUND S.MUSKIE, Maine JOSEPH M.MONTOYA, New Mexico MIKE GRAVEL, Alaska LLOYD BENTSEN, Texas QUENTIN N.BURDICK, North Dakota JOHN C.CULVER, Iowa ROBERT MORGAN, North Carolina GARY W.HART, Colorado HOWARD H.BAKER, JR., Tennessee JAMES L.BUCKLEY, New York ROBERT T.STAFFORD, Vermont JAMES A.MCCLURE, Idaho PETE V.DOMENICI, New Mexico M.BARRY MEYER, Chief Counsel and Chief Clerk BAILEY GUARD, Minority Clerk; RICHARD A.HELLMAN, Minority Counsel LEON G.BILLINGS, Senior Staff Member PHILIP T.CUMMINGS, Assistant Chief Counsel; JOHN W.YAGO, Jr., Assistant Chief Clerk RICHARD M.HARRIS, MARGARET L.WORKMAN, JAMES W.CASE, and RICHARD E.HEROD (minority), Assistant Counsels RICHARD E.KAIT (minority), Legal Assistant Professional and Research Staff: KARL R.BRAITHWAITE, HAROLD H.BRAYMAN, EDWARD O.CALLAN, PAUL CHIMES, TRENTON CROW, KATHERINE Y.CUDLIPP, JOHN D.KWAPISZ, PAUL F.EBELTOFT, Jr., GEORGE F.FENTON, Jr., RANDOLPH G.FLOOD, KATHALEEN R.E.FORCUM, ANN GARRABRANT, RICHARD T.GREER, RICHARD D.GRUNDY, WESLEY F.HAYDEN, VERONICA A.HOLLAND, RONALD L.KATZ, LARRY D.MEYERS, JUDY F.PARENTE, JOHN B.PURINTON, MARGARET E.SHANNON, CHARLENE A.STURBITTS, E.STEVENS SWAIN, Jr., and SALLY W.WALKER

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, acting in behalf of the National Academy of Sciences. Such approval reflects the Board’s judgment that the project is of national importance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. The members of the groups selected to undertake this project and prepare this Report were chosen for their individual scholarly competence and judgment with due consideration for the balance and breadth of disciplines appropriate to the project. Responsibility for all aspects of this report rests with those groups, to whom sincere appreciation is hereby expressed. Although the reports of our study committees are not submitted for approval to the Academies’ membership or to the Board, each report is reviewed by a second group of scientists according to procedures established and monitored by the Academies’ Report Review Committee. Such reviews are intended to determine, among other things, whether the major questions and relevant points of view have been addressed and whether the reported findings, conclusions, and recommendations arose from the available data and information. Distribution of the report is approved by the President only after satisfactory completion of this review process.

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control COMMISSION ON NATURAL RESOURCES Gordon J.F.MacDonald, Chairman, Dartmouth College William C.Ackerman, Illinois State Water Survey Thomas D.Barrow, Exxon Corporation John E.Cantlon, Michigan State University Harold L.James, U.S. Geological Survey Allen V.Kneese, University of New Mexico John J.McKetta, The University of Texas at Austin Emil M.Mrak, University of California, Davis William K.Reilly, The Conservation Foundation Robert M.Solow, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Gilbert F.White, University of Colorado E.Bright Wilson, Harvard University Ex officio (Chairmen of Boards) Norman Hackerman, Rice University Howard W.Johnson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Robert W.Morse, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Elbert F.Osborn, Carnegie Institution of Washington Sylvan H.Wittwer, Michigan State University Richard A.Carpenter, Executive Director Raphael G.Kasper, Staff Officer Robert C.Rooney, Editor

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE WASHINGTON D.C. 20418 March 3, 1975 The Honorable Jennings Randolph Chairman Committee on Public Works United States Senate Washington, D.C. 20510 Dear Mr. Chairman: I have the honor to transmit the report entitled “Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control” which was prepared for the Committee on Public Works of the U.S. Senate, pursuant to the request in your letter of 18 September 1974. This study was organized by the Commission on Natural Resources in cooperation with other major units of our National Research Council. As noted in the Introduction, individual chapters were first prepared by specific individuals or groups. Each chapter was carefully reviewed by the parent unit, e.g., the Assembly of Life Sciences or the Assembly of Engineering and by the Commission; the latter’s review guided preparation of the final chapter drafts, particularly the chapter entitled “Part Two in Brief, Strategies for Controlling Sulfur-Related Power Plant Emission.” From the report proper, the Commission prepared the Introduction and Summary; each statement also carries the approval of the cognizant unit. In addition, the report was reviewed by an independent panel appointed by our standing Report Review Committee and the report is now compatible with the recommendations of these reviewers. The report deals with yet another instance of great concern for protection of the environment and of the public health in which the body of available, reliable, pertinent information is less clear in compelling conclusion than national decision-makers may reasonably require. Perhaps

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control the principal contribution of the report is to reveal what is and is not known and, in this way, guide both the decisions which must be taken in the face of uncertainty and the future research program necessary to reduce that uncer tainty. Sincerely yours, Philip Handler President

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction and Summary   xiii PART ONE: HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SULFUR DIOXIDE AND SULFATES     Chapter 1:   Introduction   1      Literature Cited   3 Chapter 2:   General Considerations   4      Atmospheric Sources, Interactions and Sinks   4      Methods of Study of Sulfur Oxide Health Effects   13      Normal Lung Function in Relation to Sulfur Oxide Health Effects   20      Individual Variations in Response   24      Literature Cited   28 Chapter 3:   Basic Biomedical Effects of Sulfur Oxides   35      Biochemical Mechanisms of Sulfur Oxide Toxicity   35      Physiologic and Anatomic Effects of Sulfur Oxides   39      Literature Cited   50 Chapter 4:   Health Effects of Sulfur Oxides   58      Children   58      Bronchial Asthma   75      Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema   87      Literature Cited   150 Chapter 5:   Ecological Effects   170      Introduction   170      Effects of Sulfur Dioxide on Vegetation   172      Effects of Acid Precipitation on Trees and Forest Productivity   174      Effects of Acid Rain on Agriculture   177      Effects of Acid Rain on Fish and Aquatic Ecosystems   178      Ecosystem Effects   180      Atmospheric Aerosols   180      Summary and Conclusion   181      Literature Cited   183

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control PART TWO: STRATEGIES FOR CONTROLLING SULFUR-RELATED POWER PLANT EMISSIONS         Part Two in Brief: Strategies for Controlling Sulfur-Related Power Plant Emissions   193      Relation of Emissions to Ambient Air Quality and Chemistry of Precipitation   193      Efficient Pricing and Conservation   197      Modification of Demand for Electric Power   199      Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD)   202      Control of Ambient Sulfur Dioxide Concentrations with Tall Stacks and/or Intermittent Control Systems   212      Other Techniques for Reduction of Sulfur in the Atmosphere   217      Analysis of Alternative Strategies   220     Section 1: Relationship of Emissions to Ambient Air Quality and Chemistry of Precipitation   232 Chapter 6:   The Relationship of Sulfur Oixde Emissions to Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfate Air Quality   233      Sulfur Oixde Emissions   235      Sulfur Dioxide Air Quality   240      Sulfate Air Quality   245      Ambient Air Quality Trends for Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfate   254      The Air Quality Impact of Projected Increases in Power Plant Emissions   264      Literature Cited   271 Chapter 7:   Sulfates and Acidity in Precipitation: Their Relationship to Emissions and Regional Transport of Sulfur Oxides   276      Introduction   276      The Sulfur Cycle and Sulfate Deposition   277      Sulfates in Precipitation in Eastern North America   279      Acidity of Precipitation in Eastern North America   284

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control      The Relationship of Acid Precipitation to Emissions of Sulfur and Nitrogen Oxides   290      Evidence for Long Range Transport and Deposition of Sulfur Oxides   293      Summary of Comparable Observations in Europe   294      Projected Consequences of Increased Emissions in 1980   296      Neutralization and Run-off to Acidified Precipitation   300      Summary and Conclusions   302      Footnotes   303      Literature Cited   308     Section 2: Techniques for Reducing Emissions from Power Plants   313 Chapter 8:   Pricing Policy and Demand for Electricity   314      Efficient Pricing and Conservation   314      Demand Projections and Elasticity   318 Chapter 9:   Effects of Improved Fuel Utilization on Demand for Fuels for Electricity   323      Introduction   323      Patterns of Fuel Supply and Demand   324      Potential for Improved Effectiveness   332      Potential for Shifting to Alternate Sources for Space Heating   341      Evaluation of Capital Cost Factors   343      Summary of Demand Modification Alternatives   348      Effectiveness of Fuel Utilization in a Process   348      Literature Cited   353 Chapter 10:   Some Methods of Reducing Sulfur Oxides From Power Plants   354      Assessment of the Potentials for Improved Efficiency in the Conversion of Fuel to Electricity   355      Shift to Nuclear Generation as Rapidly as Possible   359      Shift to Lower Sulfur Fuels   360      Remove Sulfur from Coal Before and During Combustion   368      Shift Fuel Consumption from Electricity to Pipeline Grade Gas Made from Coal   381      Footnotes   383

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control Chapter 11:   Flue Gas Desulfurization   385      Introduction   385      Lime Scrubbing for Medium and High Sulfur Coal   394      Limestone Scrubbing for Medium and High Sulfur Coal   419      Environmental Considerations   429      Water Pollution   434      Particulate Removal Efficiencies   435      Costs of Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems   440      Institutional Barriers to the Application of Sulfur Oxide Control Systems   454      Acknowledgements   457      Footnotes   457     Appendix 11-A    458      Control of Emissions of Sulfuric Acid Vapor and Mist   458     Appendix 11-B    474      Literature Cited   480 Chapter 12:   Control of Ambient Sulfur Dioxide Concentrations with Tall Stacks and/or Intermittent Control Systems   485      Introduction   485      Tall Stacks and ICS Programs   488      Legal Background   493      Assessment of the Technology   497      Enforcement   522      Statement of Findings and Conclusions   527      Footnotes   533      Literature Cited   535     Section 3: Analysis of Alternative Emissions Control Strategies   539 Chapter 13:   Analysis of Alternative Emissions Control Strategies   540      Introduction and Scope   540      Alternatives for Emissions Control   543      Methodology   546      The Emissions Control Decision for Representative Electric Power Plant   549      An Overview of the Assessment of Costs and Benefits for a Representative Plant   551

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control      Calculation of Total Social Costs for Various Sulfur Emission Reduction Alternatives   559      The Relation Between Sulfur Oxide Emissions From a Single Power Plant and Ambient Increases in Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfate Levels   572      Reconciling the Model for Ambient Increases From a Single Plant to Emissions Data and Ambient Sulfur Oxide Levels for the Northeastern United States   587      Estimated Health Costs of Elevated Ambient Levels of Sulfur Oxides   598      Sulfur Oxide Damage to Materials   616      Aesthetic Costs   620      Acid Rain: Effects on Soils, Forests, and Fisheries   623      Evaluation of Sulfur Oxide Pollution Costs for the Representative Cases   624      Uncertainty on Pollution Costs and the Value of Resolving this Uncertainty   634      Conclusions and Observations   643      Footnotes   650     Appendix 13-A:  A Model Relating Sulfur Oxide Emissions to Ambient Sulfate Levels   657     Appendix 13-B:  The Representativeness of the Illustrative Cases   669     Appendix 13-C:  National Air Surveillance Networks   686     Appendix 13-D:  Cost Calculations for Electric Power Generation With and Without Flue Gas Desulfurization   690     Appendix 13-E:  Comments on Estimates of Material Damage   695     Appendix 13-F:  Income Redistribution and Equity   700      Literature Cited   704

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control many critical variables and relationships severely limits the conclusions that can be drawn as to the best strategy alternatives for controlling sulfur oxide emissions. By assessing in probabilistic terms the respective costs and benefits for various alternative strategies, the methodology can indicate where, on the basis of the limited information available, stringent control is desirable and where more information would be advisable before a commitment to a particular emissions control strategy is made. (See Chapter 13.) There are considerable uncertainties concerning the extent of the harmful effects of sulfur oxide emissions, and concerning the specific relationships between point source emissions of sulfur dioxide and regional patterns of formation, dispersion, and deposition of sulfates. Any policy adopted now, therefore, should be reviewed periodically in the future and may have to be changed as a result of new findings. Nevertheless, the calculations shown in Chapter 13 suggest that the benefits of abating emissions of sulfur oxide may exceed the costs substantially for plants which affect areas where there are already high ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide and suspended sulfates, such as urban areas in the Northeast. In addition, the Committee places importance on considerations of prudence; the consequences of an error in judgment which led to substantial damage to human health would be more serious than an error which led to an economic misallocation. Accordingly, the Committee recommends that high priority should be given to emission abatement from power plants in and close upwind of urban areas. Although the analysis in Chapter 13 indicates that lower priority should be given to power plants far (of the order of 300 miles) upwind from major cities, it also indicates that external costs imposed by emissions from these plants may be substantial. Since the capacity for installing flue gas desulfurization systems is limited, there will be a continuing opportunity to review the costs and benefits of

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control emission controls for plants now assigned to a low priority. (See Chapter 13.) National capacity to produce stack gas scrubbing equipment is limited. Further advances in applicable technology are expected to occur in the next few years. Scrubbing equipment should be installed first in those situations where its additional benefits in emissions abatement are judged to be highest with respect to its additional costs. All new plants, including those able to meet New Source Performance Standards without the use of scrubbers, should at least be constructed so as to permit subsequent retrofitting of flue gas desulfurization systems, since the cost of allocating space for that purpose is low. In time, the increase in coal use and further information on the effects of sulfur oxide emissions may indicate a need for a greater degree of emissions reduction. (See Chapter 13.) The Value of Resolving Uncertainties on the Effects of Sulfur Oxide Emissions Decisions about control strategies depend upon the information available at the time the decisions are made. A better understanding of the effects of suspended sulfates on health and of the chemistry of the atmospheric conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate could have a significant effect upon future decisions about sulfur oxide emissions abatement. Improving the available information about these aspects of sulfur emissions has an expected value on the order of hundreds of millions of dollars a year, which is at least ten times greater than the cost of a research program to resolve these uncertainties in approximately five years. (See Chapter 13.) Current assessments of the benefits of sulfur oxide emissions reduction for human health, ecological systems, materials, and aesthetic values could be greatly improved. Substantial efforts should be made to develop

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control improved models and data for use on a case-by-case basis to improve decisionmaking on emissions control strategy alternatives. There is also a need to investigate the distribution of costs and benefits among different individuals within society, and the effects of emissions controls and pricing policy on this distribution. (See Chapter 13.) SUMMARY OF PART THREE: CONTROL OF NITROGEN OXIDES FROM STATIONARY SOURCES The quantity of nitrogen oxide produced by human activity throughout the world is on the order of 10 percent of the nitrogen oxide produced from natural sources. However, the anthropogenic nitrogen oxide emissions are concentrated in populated areas and are thus of concern in pollution control programs. (See Chapter 14.) National nitrogen oxide emissions have grown at an average rate of over 4 percent per year for the last three decades. (See Chapter 14.) At present, stationary source fuel combustion accounts for about half of all U.S. nitrogen oxide emissions, and electric power generation represents 24 percent of U.S. nitrogen oxide emissions. (See Chapter 14.) The nitrogen oxide emission rate per unit heat produced is greater from coal than from either oil or natural gas. Therefore, conversion of existing plants to permit the burning of coal and use of new coal-fired electric generating plants would increase nitrogen oxide emissions at a greater rate than that projected from historic trends. (See Chapter 14.) Transportation is the second largest source category, contributing 35.4 percent of the U.S. total nitrogen oxide emissions. (See Chapter 14.)

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control Projections of future nitrogen oxide emissions demonstrate that, if present statutory standards are adhered to, stationary sources will contribute an increasing percentage of total nitrogen oxide emissions through 1990. (See Chapter 14.) There are geographical differences in nitrogen oxide emissions which reflect the distribution of industry, electric power generation, and population. Fifty-six percent of the national nitrogen oxide emissions are produced in the northeast states (EPA Regions I, II, III, and V). (See Chapter 14.) Thirty-nine percent of all U.S. nitrogen oxide emissions are generated in the 10 largest urban areas. In fact, 25 percent of the total U.S. emissions are produced in the five largest urban areas. This reflects the dominance of stationary fuel combustion and industrial process emissions. Only 22 percent of the nation’s transportation-related nitrogen oxide is emitted from the 10 largest urban areas. Thus, in many urban areas, nitrogen oxide emissions from stationary sources are the dominant factor in determining ambient concentrations of this pollutant. (See Chapter 14.) There are considerable uncertainties in the 1972 nitrogen oxide emissions data as reported by the National Emissions Data System (NEDS). For example, examination of the data indicates that industrial process losses are probably significantly underestimated. (See Chapter 14.) Typically, within combustors nitrogen oxide is formed in localized, high-temperature regions by the oxidation of both atmospheric nitrogen (thermal NOx) and nitrogen that may be contained in the fuel (fuel NOx). (See Chapter 15.) The formation of nitrogen oxide in combustion systems can be suppressed, with varying degrees of success, by reducing the

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control oxygen content and temperature in the localized regions of the furnace contributing to emissions, usually in the vicinity of the flame. Reductions in the oxygen content in the flame zone reduce the emissions of both fuel and thermal NOx; reductions in temperature, however, produce significant reductions in only the thermal NOx. (See Chapter 15.) Methods that have been used to reduce the temperature in the combustor include: (a) injection of cooled combustion products, steam, or water into the flame volume; (b) reduction of the temperature to which combustion air is preheated; and (c) extraction of heat from the flame volume. (See Chapter 15.) Methods for reducing the oxygen content in the flame zone involve lowering the volume of air supplied to the burners by reducing the overall air/fuel ratio to the combustor (low-excess-air firing) or by reducing the air/fuel ratio for some burners without reducing the overall air/fuel ratio (staged combustion). (See Chapter 15.) Low-excess-air-firing, staged combustion, flue-gas recirculation, water injection, and reduced air preheat are control techniques that have been successfully demonstrated on utility boilers. The latter two methods, however, have an associated, usually unacceptable, penalty in thermal efficiency. Using combinations of the techniques listed above, an average reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions of 60 percent has been achieved for gas-fired utility boilers, 48 percent for oil-fired boilers, and 37 percent for coal-fired boilers. (See Chapter 15.) The applicability of combustion process modification to existing furnaces must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. In general, boilers can be adapted for low-excess-air firing and staged combustion without major modification. Flue-gas recirculation may be

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control impractical on some existing units. (See Chapter 15.) The capital costs of nitrogen oxide emission reduction in utility boilers vary widely with specific installation size and design. They range from under $0.50/kw for staged combustion to $6.00/kw for flue-gas recirculation on existing units, and from near zero for staged combustion to $4.00/kw for flue gas recirculation on new units. (See Chapter 15.) The level of control achievable on industrial boilers is close to but not as great as that attainable with utility boilers. (See Chapter 15.) Reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions from stationary engines is possible, although such reduction is often accompanied by significant increases in fuel consumption. New engine designs may produce substantial reductions in nitrogen oxide emissions without increasing fuel consumption, but futher development of such designs is required. (See Chapter 15.) Fluidized bed combustion of coal provides a potential alternative to current utility boiler design. Tests on laboratory and pilot-scale fluidized bed combustors have yielded emissions that meet the current standards for new coal-fired units. Tests on larger scale units are needed to establish practical emission levels for commercial applications. (See Chapter 15.) The only intermittent, control strategy that appears practical for NOx emission reduction is load switching of electric power generation. Load switching has limited applicability because of the variability in the contribution of electric power generation to local emissions. (See Chapter 15.) The advantages of tall stack release of sulfur dioxide to reduce ground level

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control concentrations do not apply for nitric oxide. Tall stacks potentially reduce ground level nitric oxide concentrations. However, nitric oxide converts to nitric acid and nitrates faster than sulfur dioxide converts to sulfuric acid and sulfates; and since the reaction products precipitate, there is a greater potential for local impact. (See Chapter 15.) There is considerable uncertainty about the effects of nitrogen oxide release from tall stacks on the formation of photochemical oxidants and on the ground level concentrations of oxidants and nitrogen dioxide. (See Chapter 15.)

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards Pollutant Type of standard Averaging time Frequency parameter Concentration µg/m3 ppm Carbon monoxide Primary and secondary 1 hr Annual maximuma 40,000 35 8 hr Annual maximum 10,000 9 Hydrocarbons (nonmethane) Primary and secondary 3 hr (6 to 9 a.m.) Annual maximum 160b 0.24b Nitrogen dioxide Primary and secondary 1 yr Arithmetic mean 100 0.05 Photochemical oxidants Primary and secondary 1 hr Annual maximum 160 0.08 Particulate matter Primary 24 hr Annual maximum 260 — 24 hr Annual geometric mean 75 —   Secondary 24 hr Annual maximum 150 — 24 hr Annual geometric mean 60c — Sulfur dioxide Primary 24 hr Annual maximum 365 0.14 1 yr Arithmetic mean 80 0.03   Secondary 3 hr Annual maximum 1,300 0.5 aNot to be exceeded more than once per year. bAs a guide in devising implementation plans for achieving oxidant standards. cAs a guide to be used in assessing implementation plans for achieving the annual maximum 24-hour standard. Source: EPA Regulations 40 CFR 50; and Commerce Clearing House, Inc. Pollution Control Guide 1974.

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control New Source Standards of Performance for Fossil Fuel-Fired Steam Generators Pollutant Standard Particulate matter 0.10 lb. per million BTU heat input, maximum two hour average   20 percent opacity (except that 40 percent opacity is permissible for not more than two minutes in any hour) Sulfur dioxide 0.80 lb. per million BTU heat input, maximum two hour average when liquid fossil fuel is burned   1.2 lbs. per million BTU heat input, maximum two hour average when solid fuel is burned Nitrogen oxides 0.20 lb. per million BTU heat input, maximum two hour average, expressed as NO2, when gaseous fossil fuel is burned   0.30 lb. per million BTU heat input, maximum two hour average, expressed as NO2, when liquid fossil fuel is burned 0.70 lb. per million BTU heat input, maximum two hour average, expressed as NO2, when solid fossil fuel (except lignite) is burned   Source: EPA Regulations 40 CFR 60.42 to 40 CFR 60.44

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control PART ONE HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SULFUR DIOXIDE AND SULFATES Part One was prepared under the direction of the Assembly of Life Sciences of the National Research Council. Chapters 1 through 4 were written by Dr. Bernard Goldstein of the New York University Medical School. Chapter 5 is the work of Ian C.T.Nisbet of the Massachusetts Audubon Society. We are also indebted to the anonymous scientific reviewers who have contributed materially to the final form of Part One.

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Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control ASSEMBLY OF LIFE SCIENCES Executive Committee James D.Ebert, Chairman, Carnegie Institution of Washington Robert W.Berliner, Yale University School of Medicine Frederick H.Bormann, Yale University Theodore H.Bullock, University of California, San Diego Robert H.Burris, University of Wisconsin Donald S.Frederickson (ex officio), National Academy of Sciences George K.Hirst, Public Health Research Institute of the City of New York, Inc. Henry S.Kaplan, Stanford University Medical Center Donald Kennedy, Stanford University George B.Koelle, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Estella Leopold, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Paul A.Marks, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Maclyn McCarty, Rockefeller University Ray D.Owen, California Institute of Technology Elizabeth S.Russell, The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor Nevin S.Scrimshaw, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Emil L.Smith, University of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles George F.Sprague, University of Illinois, Urbana Kenneth V.Thimann, University of California, Santa Cruz H.Garrison Wilkes, University of Massachusetts-Boston James B.Wyngaarden, Duke University Medical Center Thomas J.Kennedy, Jr., Executive Director John Redmond, Jr., Staff Officer