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Appendix A Committee and Staff Biographies lohn A. Armstrong (Chair) received his Ph.D. in the field of nuclear mag- netic resonance from Harvard University in 1961. Dr. Armstrong spent most of his career at IBM, until he retired as vice president of science and technology. He is the author or coauthor of some 60 papers on nuclear resonance, nonlinear optics, the photon statistics of lasers, picosecond pulse measurements, the multiphoton spectroscopy of atoms, the man- agement of research in industry, and issues of science and technology policy. As a result of his contributions in nonlinear optics, quantum phys- ics, and technical leadership in advanced very-large-scale integration tech- nology, Dr. Armstrong was elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) in 1987. In addition, he received the George E. Pake Prize of the American Physical Society in 1989. Dr. Armstrong was a mem- ber of the presidentially appointed National Advisory Committee on Semiconductors. He was also a member of the National Science Board from 1996 to 2002 and served on its Special Commission on the Future of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Dr. Armstrong has served on nu- merous National Research Council (NRC) bodies, including the Commis- sion on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, where he was liaison to the Computer Science and Technology Board; he chaired the Committee on Partnerships in Weather and Climate Services. Keir Becker obtained his Ph.D. in oceanography from Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1981. He is a professor of marine geology and geo- physics at the University of Miami. Dr. Becker's research interests include heat flow and hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust, permeability 117

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118 APPENDIX A and other physical properties of oceanic crust, and borehole hydrogeo- logical observatories. He has published numerous papers on oceanic heat flow and downhole experiments in oceanic crust. Over the past 10 years, Dr. Becker has sailed on various scientific expeditions involving the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drillship, the deep submergence vehicle (DSV) Alvin, the French submersible Nautile, and the lapan Marine Science and Technology Center (lAMSTEC) remotely operated vehicle (ROY) Kaiko. He chairs the Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling Science Committee and recently co-chaired the Dynamics of Earth and Ocean Systems Steering Committee. He has served on many other panels, such as the NRC Committee on Sea Floor Observatories and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution New Alvin Design Advisory Committee. Thomas W. Eagar received his Sc.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1975 in metallurgy. Currently, he is a Thomas Lord Professor of Materials at MIT, where his research focuses on many aspects of metal fabrication, including the fundamentals of bonding composites, superalloys, and electronic packaging as well as improved methods of di- mensional analysis of materials processing. With considerable experience in design analysis and fabrication of submarines and other naval vessels, Dr. Eagar was named a member of NAE in 1997 and a fellow and honorary member of the American Welding Society. He has served on a number of NRC committees including the National Materials Advisory Board, the Committee for Investigation of Steels for Improved Weldability in Ship Construction, and the Committee on New Directions in Manufacturing. Bruce Gilman earned his bachelor's in aeronautical engineering from the Polytechnic University of New York in 1960. He recently retired as presi- dent and chief executive officer of Sonsub, Inc. His experience spans four decades of the offshore industry with particular emphasis on subsea in- tervention engineering and operations. He has been an active participant in the development of the industry from the earliest days of manned sur- face and bell-supported diving through human-occupied submersibles up to today's most advanced ROV systems. He has participated in offshore operations, designed and developed equipment, and served as senior ex- ecutive with some the most preeminent subsea engineering and services contractors and equipment manufacturers. Mr. Gilman is a registered pro- fessional engineer and holds several patents relating to the offshore in- dustry. He is also a Marine Technology Society fellow and a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and Society of Petroleum Engineers. Mr. Gilman serves on the Texas Sea Grant College Program Advisory Committee and on the NRC Committee on Exploration of the Seas and recently completed an assignment as a peer-review panelist on

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APPENDIX A 119 the 2003 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ocean exploration proposal review panel. Mark Johnson earned his M.S. in ocean engineering from the Florida In- stitute of Technology in 1991. He is the lead subsea engineer as a consult- ant for BP Deepwater Production GoM and performs project management of deepwater subsea interventions. Mr. Tohnson's BP project management experience encompasses reviewing current strategies for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and developing and approving new tooling for deepwater projects including diver, ROV, and 1-atmosphere interven- tions. His research interests include design and construction of a surf- zone ROV for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, hyperbaric medicine, and design of life-support systems. Mr. Tohnson's company, 02 Dive Technologies, designs and manufactures rebreather systems for the Na- tional Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) International Space Station, emergency response applications, and technical diver use. He is also a founding member of Rebreather Technologies Inc., a new diving agency for the certification of technical and rebreather divers. Miriam Kastner earned her Ph.D. in geology in 1970 from Harvard Uni- versity. She is a professor of earth sciences in the Graduate Department of Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Kastner's expertise is in marine geochemistry and her research focuses on chemical paleoceanography; the role and fluxes of fluids in convergent plate margins; the origin, environmental implications, and diagenesis of primarily marine authigenic minerals (i.e. phosphates, sul- fates, silicates, carbonates); gas hydrates in continental margins and im- plications for global change; and submarine hydrothermal deposits. Her publications cover areas in gas hydrates, fluid flow paths, oceanic miner- als, and hydrothermal deposits. She is a fellow of the American Geophysi- cal Union, Geochemical Society, and the American Assocation for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). She has sailed on a number of scientific expeditions involving submersibles and ROVs, as well as on the ODP. Dr. Kastner serves on the NRC Ocean Studies Board. Dhugal John Lindsay received his Ph.D. in aquatic biology from the Uni- versity of Tokyo in 1998. He is a research scientist with the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center. Dr. Lindsay's research focuses on midwater ecology, particularly concentrating on gelatinous organisms that are too fragile to be sampled by conventional methods. Dr. Lindsay has extensive experience with the Japanese research vessel and submers- ible fleet, both as chief scientist and as a member of multidisciplinary teams. His sailing experience includes more than 35 cruises aboard vari-

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120 APPENDIX A ous Japanese research vessels and 19 dives in crowed submersibles. He has used conventional sampling techniques such as nets and sediment traps (e.g., R/V Tanseimaru, University of Tokyo) and towed camera ar- rays (e.g., 4,000m and 6,000m Deep-Tow Cameras, R/V Kaiyo) and has also used both manned submersibles (e.g., Shinkai 2000, R/V Natsushima; Shinkai 6500, R/V Yokosuka) and remotely-operated vehicles (e.g., ROV Dolphin 3K, R/V Natsushima; ROV Ventana, R/V Point Lobos; ROV HyperDolphin, R/V Kaiyo; ROV Kaiko, R/V Kairei) to investigate fauna from depths as shallow as the euphotic layer to as deep as the Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench. Dr. Lindsay is a member of the Japanese Society of Fish- eries Science, Plankton Society of Japan, and Oceanographic Society of Japan; is on the editorial board of the journal Plankton Biology and Ecology; and is currently serving on the interim planning committee for the Okinawa Marine Life Science Research Institute. Catherine Mevel received her Ph.D. in 1975 from the Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris. She is the deputy director of the Laboratoire de Geosciences Marines (LGM) at Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris. Dr. Mevel's scientific interests concern the interaction between seawater and the oceanic lithosphere; they include paths of seawater penetration, physi- cal conditions of interaction, and mineralogical and chemical conse- quences. Her experience at sea encompasses participation on the PHARE cruise with the ROV Victor, a number of cruises with the submersible Nautile and Cyana, and the INDOYO cruise with the submersible Shinkai 6500. She has also been involved in many mapping and sampling cruises. Dr. Mevel chaired the Dorsales program, the ODP-France, and was the French representative at ODP EXCOM. She is a member of the InterRidge Steering Committee and the Scientific Committee of the French Research Institute for the Exploration of the Sea. Shahriar Negahdaripour earned his Ph.D. from MIT in 1987. He is a pro- fessor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of the Uni- versity of Miami. Dr. Negahdaripour's projects involve underwater vision and imaging; they include three-dimensional shape recovery from image shading for automatic computer recognition of underwater objects, real- time PC-based vision system for seafloor image mosaicing, automatic opti- cal station keeping, navigation of underwater robotic vehicles, adaptive optical sensing for vision-based three-dimensional target recognition from underwater images, and motion-based video compression for underwater application. He is a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Elec- tronics Engineers (IEEE) and has served as the co-chair of the IEEE Com- puter Society International Symposium on Computer Vision and the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision Pattern Recognition.

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APPENDIX A 121 Shirley A. Pomponi holds a Ph.D. in biological oceanography from the University of Miami conferred in 1977. She is currently the vice president and director of research at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution. Her research focuses on the development of methods for sustainable use of marine resources for drug discovery and development and, in particular, on the cell and molecular biology of sponges with biomedical importance. Dr. Pomponi has led numerous research expeditions worldwide. She is a member of the Society for In Vitro Biology, the American Geophysical Union, and the American Society for Cell Biology. Dr. Pomponi served on the President's Panel on Ocean Exploration and on the NRC's Commit- tees on Marine Biotechnology: Development of Marine Natural Products and Oceans and Human Health Panel. She is currently serving on the NRC's Committee on Exploration of the Seas, the Scientific Advisory Panel to the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy, and the Ocean Studies Board. Bruce Robison received his Ph.D. in biological oceanography from Stanford University in 1973. He is the senior scientist and former science chair of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Dr. Robison's research interests are focused on deep-sea ecology and applying advanced submersible technology to oceanographic research. A qualified manned submersible pilot, he has dived in 12 different research submersibles and is a regular user of ROVs. Dr. Robison led the Deep Rover expedition, the first program to use submersibles to study California's Monterey Subma- rine Canyon, in 1985. He is a fellow of AAAS and the California Academy of Sciences. He received the Marine Technology Society's Lockheed Mar- tin Award for Ocean Science and Engineering and was a recipient of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Science/Research Award. Dr. Robison has served on the NRC Committee on Undersea Vehicles and National Needs. Andrew Solow earned his Ph.D. in geostatistics from Stanford University in 1986. Dr. Solow is an associate scientist and director of the Marine Policy Center at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. His research experience involves environmental statistics, time-series analysis, spatial statistics, Bayesian methods, statistical biology, and ecology. Dr. Solow has authored or coauthored some 120 scientific publications on topics that range from biological diversity, E1 Nino, to empirical analysis on volcanic eruptions. In addition to his work in environmental and ecological statis- tics, he has worked on problems connected to the value of scientific infor- mation. Dr. Solow is a former member of the NRC's Commission on Geo- sciences, Environment, and Resources and the Committee on Fifty Years of Ocean Discovery at the National Science Foundation. He is a current

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22 APPENDIX A member of the Committee for Review of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Strategic Plan. Greg Zacharias obtained his Ph.D. in aeronautics and astronautics from MIT in 1977. He is a senior principal scientist at Charles River Analytics; and leads efforts in human behavior modeling and agent-based decision support systems. Before founding Charles River, Dr. Zacharias was a se- nior scientist at BBN Technologies, a research engineer at C.S. Draper Labs, and a United States Air Force attache for the Space Shuttle program at NASA Johnson Space Center. He has been a member of the NRC Com- mittee on Human Factors since 1995 and served on the NRC Panel on Modeling Human Behavior and Command Decision Making. Dr. Zacharias is a member of the Department of Defense Human Systems (HS) Technology Area Review and Assessment Panel, a member of the USAF Scientific Advisory Board, and chairman of the USAF Human Sys- tem Wing Advisory Group for Brooks Air Force Base. Staff Dan Walker (Study Director) obtained his Ph.D. in geology from the Uni- versity of Tennessee in 1990. A senior program officer at the Ocean Stud- ies Board, Dr. Walker also holds a joint appointment as a guest investiga- tor at the Marine Policy Center of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Since joining the Ocean Studies Board in 1995, he has directed a number of studies including Environmental Information for Naval Warfare (2003~; Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects (2002~; Clean Coastal Wa- ters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution (2000~; Sci- ence for Decisionmaking: Coastal and Marine Geology at the U.S. Geological Survey (1999~; Global Ocean Sciences: Toward an Integrated Approach (1998~; and The Global Ocean Observing System: Users, Benefits, and Priorities (1997~. A member of the American Geophysical Union, the Geological Society of America, and the Oceanography Society, Dr. Walker was recently named editor of the Marine Technology Society Journal. A former member of both the Kentucky and the North Carolina Geologic Surveys, Dr. Walker's in- terests focus on the value of environmental information for policy making at local, state, and national levels. Joanne Bintz earned her Ph.D. in biological oceanography from the Uni- versity of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography. Dr. Bintz has conducted research on the effects of decreasing water quality on eelgrass seedlings and the effects of eutrophication on shallow macrophyte-domi- nated coastal ponds using mesocosms. She has directed NRC studies on The Review of the Florida Keys Carrying Capacity; Chemical Reference Materi-

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APPENDIX A 123 als: Setting the Standardfor Ocean Science; and Enabling Ocean Research in the 21st Century: Implementation of a Network of Ocean Observatories. Her inter- ests include coastal ecosystem ecology and restoration, marine technol- ogy, oceanographic education, and coastal management and policy. lohn Dandelski received his M.A. in marine affairs and policy from the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Mi- ami, where his research focused on evaluating fisheries' impacts on the benthic communities of Biscayne Bay and where he served as the school's assistant diving safety officer. He has been with the National Academies since 1998 and with the Ocean Studies Board as a research associate since 2001. As a graduate research intern at the Congressional Research Service he wrote reports for Congress on fisheries and ocean health issues. Mr. Dandelski is currently study director for the River Basins and Coastal Sys- tems Panel of the Committee to Assess the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Methods of Analysis and Peer Review for Water Resources Project Plan- ning, was the project manager for Abrupt Climate Change: Inevitable Sur- prises, and has worked on a number of other reports including Environ- mental Informationfor Naval Warfare and Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. Mr. Dandelski also holds an M.S. in industrial and organizational psychology, and his interests include environmental experiential educa- tion, information systems, diving health and safety, and marine policy. Sarah Capote earned her B.A. in history from the University of Wiscon- sin-Madison in 2001. She is a project assistant with the Ocean Studies Board. During her tenure with the Board, Ms. Capote assisted with the completion of the studies on Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay and Exploration of the Seas: Voyage into the Unknown.

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