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PLATE 1 Typical human-occupied vehicles: (A) The Alvin on a dive. (B) The fohnson Sea-Link hovers in the midwater with a pilot and scientific observer onboard. SOURCE: (A) R. Catanach, used with permission from Woods Hole Oceano- graphic Institution. (B) Used with permission from Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution.

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PLATE 2 Vehicles of the National Deep Submergence Facility. SOURCE: E.P. Oberlander, used with permission from Woods Hole Oceano- graphic Institution.

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Hi. ~~ #'I I: 0:,, PLATE 4 (A) A black smoker as seen beyond Alvin's scientific apparatus for sam- pling the water chemistry of these chemically rich high-temperature vents. (B) Discovery of hydrothermal vent communities in 1977. SOURCE: (A) M. Lilley, University of Washington, Seattle; K. Von Damm, Uni- versity of New Hampshire, Durham, used with permission from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. (B) R. Lutz, Rutgers, the State University, Port Norris, N.~.; Stephen Low Productions, Dorval, Canada, used with permission from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

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g 4g~5'N 7:36:~2 1 04 1 7~5'W 1 04 1 7.01W 104 164\'W 104 16.~'W ~Qhh \ PLATE 5 Example of a contact along one of the scalloped lava flow fronts that are well-imaged in the DSL-120A sidescan data. Mosaic of images is from Camera Tow#6, which traversed the contact several times. Contact is between relatively flat lying sedimented lobate flows (southeast) and a younger lava flow front (northwest) consisting of pillow tubes, bulbous pillows and pillow lavas. The front is 1-2m high, several tens of meters wide and ~lOOm long. The seafloor behind (west of) the front is relatively flat and consists of relatively unsedimented lobates with collapse pits and an occasional sheet flow channel. SOURCE: D. Fornari, used with permission from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

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PLATE 6 (A) Discovery of a young vent community during the Galapagos Rift 2002 Expedition, dubbed "Rosebud." (B) Chimera fish swims over numerous large clams and a small clump of mussels that line the cracks between the pillow lavas at the new hydrothermal vent site. SOURCE: (A) and (B) T. Shank, R. Wailer, used with permission from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

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PLATE 7 (A) The cephalopod equivalent to the Coelacanth Vampyroteuthis infernalis, the vampire squid from hell. Captured at 850m depth above Sumisu Seamount, Ogasawara Island Chain, by the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center's ROV HyperDolphin. (B) The citrate octopus Stauroteuthis syrtensis is an inhabitant of the narrow benthopelagic transition zone and was known only from very rare net-captured specimens. Recent capture of a live specimen by Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution's Johnson Sea-Link submersible led to the dis- covery of a remarkable evolutionary transition of suckers into light organs. SOURCE: (A) Photo taken by D. Lindsay, used with permission from Japan Ma- rine Science and Technology Center. (B) E. Widder, used with permission from Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution.

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PLATE 8 Typical midwater biota: (A) Cunina peregrine, collected at 300m in the Gulf of Maine. (B) Histioteuthis sp., called the cock-eyed squid. (C) Periphylla periphylla, possibly the most abundant deep-sea scyphomedusa is found in all oceans, generally below 900m. (D) Nanomia care is a common bioluminescent iphonophore in the Gulf of Maine. (E) Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Crustacea: Euphausiacea, Northern krill), is critical component of the midwater food web. (F) Tomopteris sp., an inhabitant of the midwater, this polychaete worm was collected from 1,200m depth off the Northwest Coast of Africa. The field of view for all figures is no more than 20 centimeters. SOURCE: E. Widder, used with permission from Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution.