A

Adaptation, 3–4

Adaptive radiations, 14–24

defined, 16–17

and diversification of drosophilids, 14–19

and the silversword alliance, 22–23

Agricultural pests, 26

AIDS virus, 26

Alien species, threatening Hawaii’s native plants and animals, 25–26

Alliances, 20

Ancestors, species descended from common, 30

Antarctica, 10

Argyroxiphium sandwicense, 22–23

B

Baldwin, Bruce, 22

Banana poka vine, 25

Behavior, variations in, 3

Big Island, 1, 5, 7–9, 14, 17, 19–20, 32, 41

Biodiversity, 1

Biological classifications, 31

Biological evolution

importance in explaining critical problems, 26–27

studying in Hawaii, 1–4

C

Carr, Gerald, 22

Carson, Hampton, 19

Chromosomes

inversion in, 18–19, 32, 43–44, 46

polytene, 18, 31, 33, 43

Classification, biological, 31

Crickets, 20, 24

D

D. cilifera, 15

D. grimshawi, 15

D. hanaulae, 34, 38, 46

D. heteroneura, 34, 38, 41–42, 46

D. nigribasis, 18

D. oahuensis, 38

D. obscuripes, 38

D. planitibia, 15

D. primaeva, 34, 37, 46

D. setosimentum, 34, 37–38, 41

D. silvestris, 17, 37–38

D. substenoptera, 4, 34, 46

Darwin, Charles, 27

Data tables, 41

Dinosaurs, extinction of, 11

Diptera, 14

Diversification, 20

causes of, 30

of Hawaiian drosophilids, 14–19

DNA, 3, 15, 23, 27

Drosophila, 2, 14–19, 32, 42

Drosophilids

diversification of Hawaiian, 14–19, 42

evolutionary relationships among, 18–19

teaching exercise on, 29–47

Dubautia, 22

E

Earth, evolution of life on, 10–14

Ecosystem management techniques, 26

Elaboration activity for students, 30, 37–38, 47

Empirical evidence, testing explanations by using, 4–5

Endemic species, 1

Engagement activity for students, 29, 33

Environmental influences, 3

Eukaryotic cells, 11

Evaluation activity for students, 30, 39

Evolution

biological, 1–4

of life on earth, 10–14

Evolutionary history, of the silversword alliance, 22–23

Evolutionary relationships, among picture-winged drosophilids, 18–19

Evolutionary tree, 23, 45

Explanation activity for students, 30, 35–36

Explanations, testing by using empirical evidence, 4–5

Exploration activity for students, 29–30, 34

Extinction, 25–26

F

Fact, 4–5

Falsifiability, of a hypothesis, 5

Flies

abundance of in Hawaii, 2

See also individual species

Founder events, 19

H

Hard-shelled animals, 11

Hawaii

alien species in, 25–26

plants and animals of, 3–4, 25–26

science revealing origins of, 5–14

studying biological evolution in, 1–2

Hawaiian drosophilids, adaptive radiation and diversification of, 14–19

Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain, 6

Hawaiian legends, 12

Honeycreepers, 20, 24

Hot spot, 5–7, 8, 9, 10

Hypotheses, 4–5

I

International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO), 39

Inversion mutations, in chromosomes, 18–19, 32, 43–44, 46

K

Kahoolawe, 8

Kauai, 7–9, 19, 35

Kilauea volcano, 14

Kure Atoll, 9–11

Kyhos, 22

L

Lanai, 8

Land-dwelling animals, 11

Life on earth, evolution of, 10–14

Loihi Seamount, 9

M

Maps, 6–10, 17, 19, 46

azimuthal equidistant projection, 2

Materials, 33–35, 37

Maui, 1,7–8,20

Maui Nui, 7–8

Molokai, 8

Morphology, variations in, 3

Multicellular organisms, 11

N

National Science Education Standards, aligning activities with, 30–31, 39

Natural selection, 30

Necker Island, 9, 13

O

Oahu, 8, 19, 36

Observation, 4

On the Origin of Species, 27

P

Pacific Plate, 13

Picture-winged drosophilids

evolutionary relationships among, 18–19, 31–32

teaching exercise on, 29–47

Plate tectonics, 10

and the ages of the Hawaiian islands, 12–13

Polynesians, 12, 25

Polytene chromosomes, 18, 43

R

Radioactive dating, 7–8, 10, 12–13, 46

Reptiles, 11

S

San Andreas Fault, 9

Scaptomyza, 2, 14, 16, 42

Science

producing verifiable explanations, 4–5

revealing origins of the Hawaiian islands, 5–10

Selection, natural, 30

Silversword alliance, evolutionary history of, 22–23

Species

descended from common ancestors, 30

evolving over time, 30

formation of new, 3–4

Student objectives, 33–35, 37

Student reading, 42–44

Student worksheet, 45–47

background, 45–46

elaboration, 47

main activity, 46–47

Suiko Seamount, 8–9

T

Tarweed, 20

Teaching exercise on picture-winged drosophilids, 29–47

background information, 31–32

data tables, 41

elaboration activity, 30, 37–38, 47

engagement activity, 29, 33

evaluation activity, 30, 39

explanation activity, 30, 35–36

exploration activity, 29–30, 34

rubric, 40

student reading, 42–44

student worksheet, 45–47

teacher’s manual, 29–40

Teaching strategies, 33–38

Termites, 25

Theory, 4–5

of evolution, 3, 5, 26

V

Variation, 3

Vascular plants, 11

Violets, 20

Volcanic rock, determining age of, 7–8

W

Wilkesia, 22

Wilson, J.Tuzo, 5–6, 9

Y

Yellowjackets, 25–26

Yellowstone National Park, 10



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Evolution in Hawaii: A Supplement to Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science A Adaptation, 3–4 Adaptive radiations, 14–24 defined, 16–17 and diversification of drosophilids, 14–19 and the silversword alliance, 22–23 Agricultural pests, 26 AIDS virus, 26 Alien species, threatening Hawaii’s native plants and animals, 25–26 Alliances, 20 Ancestors, species descended from common, 30 Antarctica, 10 Argyroxiphium sandwicense, 22–23 B Baldwin, Bruce, 22 Banana poka vine, 25 Behavior, variations in, 3 Big Island, 1, 5, 7–9, 14, 17, 19–20, 32, 41 Biodiversity, 1 Biological classifications, 31 Biological evolution importance in explaining critical problems, 26–27 studying in Hawaii, 1–4 C Carr, Gerald, 22 Carson, Hampton, 19 Chromosomes inversion in, 18–19, 32, 43–44, 46 polytene, 18, 31, 33, 43 Classification, biological, 31 Crickets, 20, 24 D D. cilifera, 15 D. grimshawi, 15 D. hanaulae, 34, 38, 46 D. heteroneura, 34, 38, 41–42, 46 D. nigribasis, 18 D. oahuensis, 38 D. obscuripes, 38 D. planitibia, 15 D. primaeva, 34, 37, 46 D. setosimentum, 34, 37–38, 41 D. silvestris, 17, 37–38 D. substenoptera, 4, 34, 46 Darwin, Charles, 27 Data tables, 41 Dinosaurs, extinction of, 11 Diptera, 14 Diversification, 20 causes of, 30 of Hawaiian drosophilids, 14–19 DNA, 3, 15, 23, 27 Drosophila, 2, 14–19, 32, 42 Drosophilids diversification of Hawaiian, 14–19, 42 evolutionary relationships among, 18–19 teaching exercise on, 29–47 Dubautia, 22 E Earth, evolution of life on, 10–14 Ecosystem management techniques, 26 Elaboration activity for students, 30, 37–38, 47 Empirical evidence, testing explanations by using, 4–5 Endemic species, 1 Engagement activity for students, 29, 33 Environmental influences, 3 Eukaryotic cells, 11 Evaluation activity for students, 30, 39 Evolution biological, 1–4 of life on earth, 10–14 Evolutionary history, of the silversword alliance, 22–23 Evolutionary relationships, among picture-winged drosophilids, 18–19 Evolutionary tree, 23, 45 Explanation activity for students, 30, 35–36 Explanations, testing by using empirical evidence, 4–5 Exploration activity for students, 29–30, 34 Extinction, 25–26 F Fact, 4–5 Falsifiability, of a hypothesis, 5 Flies abundance of in Hawaii, 2 See also individual species Founder events, 19 H Hard-shelled animals, 11 Hawaii alien species in, 25–26 plants and animals of, 3–4, 25–26 science revealing origins of, 5–14 studying biological evolution in, 1–2 Hawaiian drosophilids, adaptive radiation and diversification of, 14–19 Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain, 6 Hawaiian legends, 12 Honeycreepers, 20, 24 Hot spot, 5–7, 8, 9, 10 Hypotheses, 4–5 I International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO), 39 Inversion mutations, in chromosomes, 18–19, 32, 43–44, 46 K Kahoolawe, 8 Kauai, 7–9, 19, 35 Kilauea volcano, 14 Kure Atoll, 9–11 Kyhos, 22 L Lanai, 8 Land-dwelling animals, 11 Life on earth, evolution of, 10–14 Loihi Seamount, 9 M Maps, 6–10, 17, 19, 46 azimuthal equidistant projection, 2 Materials, 33–35, 37 Maui, 1,7–8,20 Maui Nui, 7–8 Molokai, 8 Morphology, variations in, 3 Multicellular organisms, 11 N National Science Education Standards, aligning activities with, 30–31, 39 Natural selection, 30 Necker Island, 9, 13 O Oahu, 8, 19, 36 Observation, 4 On the Origin of Species, 27 P Pacific Plate, 13 Picture-winged drosophilids evolutionary relationships among, 18–19, 31–32 teaching exercise on, 29–47 Plate tectonics, 10 and the ages of the Hawaiian islands, 12–13 Polynesians, 12, 25 Polytene chromosomes, 18, 43 R Radioactive dating, 7–8, 10, 12–13, 46 Reptiles, 11 S San Andreas Fault, 9 Scaptomyza, 2, 14, 16, 42 Science producing verifiable explanations, 4–5 revealing origins of the Hawaiian islands, 5–10 Selection, natural, 30 Silversword alliance, evolutionary history of, 22–23 Species descended from common ancestors, 30 evolving over time, 30 formation of new, 3–4 Student objectives, 33–35, 37 Student reading, 42–44 Student worksheet, 45–47 background, 45–46 elaboration, 47 main activity, 46–47 Suiko Seamount, 8–9 T Tarweed, 20 Teaching exercise on picture-winged drosophilids, 29–47 background information, 31–32 data tables, 41 elaboration activity, 30, 37–38, 47 engagement activity, 29, 33 evaluation activity, 30, 39 explanation activity, 30, 35–36 exploration activity, 29–30, 34 rubric, 40 student reading, 42–44 student worksheet, 45–47 teacher’s manual, 29–40 Teaching strategies, 33–38 Termites, 25 Theory, 4–5 of evolution, 3, 5, 26 V Variation, 3 Vascular plants, 11 Violets, 20 Volcanic rock, determining age of, 7–8 W Wilkesia, 22 Wilson, J.Tuzo, 5–6, 9 Y Yellowjackets, 25–26 Yellowstone National Park, 10