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Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work

GEORGE S.BONN

The purpose of this paper is (1) to present a record of world-wide facilities presently available for the training of interested persons for activity in scientific documentation work, (2) to try to identify the responsibilities of agencies and organizations to provide these facilities, and (3) to suggest additional or differently oriented facilities and responsibilities which may be required to meet current and future needs of the users of scientific information.

The scope of the survey is world-wide within the limits of available information from published reports or from correspondence with more space being given to those facilities which seem to be unique, outstanding, or newly reported, and with references being made to adequate published accounts of other good ones.

Facilities for training are taken to include facilities (1) for formal education in colleges and universities, (2) for regular instruction by competent professional organizations, (3) for practical training on-the-job or in workshops, (4) for home study by correspondence, and (5) for continuation learning through current publications and periodic conferences of professional societies. The training is to prepare persons for work as special librarians (or documentalists or information officers or whatever else they may be called) concerned in any way with scientific or technological information, including the production of services to utilize such information and the performance of research and development to improve and enrich it. Facilities for the necessary subject training in science or technology per se are not included, but it should be pointed out that such subject training is considered to be highly desirable in order to enjoy a successful career in the science-technology information field.

GEORGE S.BONN Graduate School of Library Service, Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.



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--> Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work GEORGE S.BONN The purpose of this paper is (1) to present a record of world-wide facilities presently available for the training of interested persons for activity in scientific documentation work, (2) to try to identify the responsibilities of agencies and organizations to provide these facilities, and (3) to suggest additional or differently oriented facilities and responsibilities which may be required to meet current and future needs of the users of scientific information. The scope of the survey is world-wide within the limits of available information from published reports or from correspondence with more space being given to those facilities which seem to be unique, outstanding, or newly reported, and with references being made to adequate published accounts of other good ones. Facilities for training are taken to include facilities (1) for formal education in colleges and universities, (2) for regular instruction by competent professional organizations, (3) for practical training on-the-job or in workshops, (4) for home study by correspondence, and (5) for continuation learning through current publications and periodic conferences of professional societies. The training is to prepare persons for work as special librarians (or documentalists or information officers or whatever else they may be called) concerned in any way with scientific or technological information, including the production of services to utilize such information and the performance of research and development to improve and enrich it. Facilities for the necessary subject training in science or technology per se are not included, but it should be pointed out that such subject training is considered to be highly desirable in order to enjoy a successful career in the science-technology information field. GEORGE S.BONN Graduate School of Library Service, Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

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--> International organizations and their programs Before examining the various national training facilities around the world, it is proper to point out the very important contributions to science-information-work training being made by certain of the international organizations active in the area of documentation and librarianship. Certainly the most enterprising on the most levels in the most fields in the most countries is the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco) with headquarters at 19, avenue Kléber, Paris 16e, France. Its present program includes (a) sponsoring meetings and conferences on a variety of pertinent and timely subjects in the field of scientific information (1); (b) sponsoring, or otherwise aiding in their establishment, courses and seminars on documentation, bibliography, and other basic topics of interest to scientific information specialists (2); (c) sponsoring scholarships and travel grants for study and research in documentation and library education (3); (d) helping to establish and to train personnel for documentation centers in various parts of the world (4); (e) publishing and distributing outstanding reports, periodicals, series, and other works so necessary and so useful as training aids and as information media on documentation and library activities, techniques, methods, and training throughout the world (5). In many instances the emphasis in the documentation work is on the scientific aspects of it, as, indeed, it usually is in most present-day discussion of documentation. Many, if not all, of these projects are carried out in collaboration with other international organizations or their national affiliates, or with other national or local groups (6). Two other international bodies working in the area of scientific documentation are the International Federation for Documentation (FID), Willem Witsenplein 6, The Hague, Netherlands, and the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA), c/o Bibliothèque Nationale, Berne, Switzerland. In 1948 these two federations set up a joint committee to look into the training and professional status of archivists, librarians, keepers of museums, and documentalists, with Mrs. Suzanne Briet of the Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris) as rapporteur. (Lumping these four groups together in this manner seems to emphasize their common collecting-and-keeping function rather than any collecting-for-use function more common perhaps in America and other places.) The final report presented by Mrs. Briet to the joint committee was published in April 1950 by Unesco (another example of its helpful collaboration) first in French (7) and then in English (8). The report with its important annexes (chronological table and list of training establishments, model courses, and multilingual bibliography of recom-

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--> mended handbooks and works) clearly demonstrates the problems, the rewards, the gaps, and the high lights in professional training as of the late 1940’s, and presents the reasoned background for the recommendations offered for “action in the near future:” (1) a permanent council for professional training under the auspices of Unesco should be established, (2) exchanges of students and teachers should be intensified, (3) equivalences in cultural attainments should be developed to facilitate study abroad, (4) an international professional training review might be founded under Unesco, and (5) an international school for teachers and directors of training establishments should be considered. Certain of these suggestions have been put into effect, notably the one about exchanges of students and teachers and, to a limited extent, the one about developing equivalences of cultural attainments. Mrs. Briet’s report was presented in September 1951 at the Rome FID/IFLA conference along with a Rapport complémentaire bringing the results up to the end of 1950 (9). Other joint committee meetings were held in Copenhagen (October 1952) (10) and in Vienna (June 1953) (11); the 1954 meeting was to be in Zurich and was to include a week-long seminar for those who teach documentation, but after the Vienna meeting no further activities of the joint committee were reported according to both Mr. F.Donker Duyvis, Secretary-General of FID, and Mr. P.Bourgeois, President of IFLA. Instead, as Mr. Duyvis puts it, “FID members considered the joint committee to be too big to be of any real value for the special needs for the training of documentalists. The FID Council therefor decided in 1953 to establish an FID committee: FID/TD ‘Training of documentalists’” (12). The committee, apparently, had not been active enough to have made any reports until the September 1957 FID Council meeting in Paris where plans were announced to produce a loose-leaf booklet giving in some detail the programs of national courses for the training of documentalists (13). In IFLA, on the other hand, “the opinion prevailed that really practical results would only be achieved if the training of librarians proper was treated separately from that of documentalists, archivists and museum staff,” as Mr. Bourgeois explains it (14). So, at the 1956 Munich meeting of IFLA an ad hoc committee was formed to prepare a preliminary report on professional training for librarians to be presented at the September 1957 Paris conference. The report of this committee, prepared by Dr. Egger of the Swiss National Library, presents a very thought-provoking analysis of the interrelated problems of professional training and of recruitment of librarians, particularly of special librarians, and points out the usefulness and even the indispensability of international cooperation and exchange in solving the two-in-one problem. “Notre métier, qui est au service de la documentation,” the report concludes, “se doit de faire

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--> le joint, par ce moyen, entre les techniques, les sciences et les cultures et, dans un futur voué au robot, il pourra merveilleusement contribuer, par sa tradition, à sauver, à préserver cette petite flamme qui brûle au fond de l’âme des hommes” (15). Five questions were raised by the report as to the part that IFLA could take in improving the status, the professional aspects, the public acceptance, the training, and the exchange of librarians. Further study of these questions is being undertaken by a new IFLA committee under the chairmanship of Mr. Piquard, Director of the Libraries of the University of Paris and present president of the Association des Bibliothécaires Français; its report will be awaited with interest. Both FID and IFLA, alone and in various combinations, sponsor meetings, conferences, seminars, and other informational programs in a number of countries on topics of timely or special interest to all types of librarians and documentalists (16), and each federation puts out many publication that are valuable as training aids and as information media about training, techniques, and new ideas in documentation and librarianship generally (17). Two other international groups, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Council on Archives (ICA), alone or in cooperation with Unesco, also publish materials of either informational or educational nature (18) which at least should be noted in this brief discussion of international bodies. One more specialized and, therefore, perhaps more pertinent organization has been formed so recently that it has not had much more time than to get a training committee appointed, but reports and suggestions should soon be coming from the International Association of Agricultural Librarians and Documentalists (19). It may be noted in passing that the general feeling in these international groups seems to be that “although documentation may be considered a special branch of library service using special techniques, it should be as closely associated with other aspects of librarianship as possible,” as Eileen R.Cunningham expressed it in her report on the Brussels 1955 International Congress of Libraries and Documentation Centers (21). This same observation can not be made as readily about many national groups, as will be evident in the following review of certain important ones of them. Training facilities in Europe Since the comprehensive reports made by Mrs. Briet during the early 1950’s, a few short surveys of education facilities for librarianship or documentation work have appeared (22), and there was the Carnovsky paper in 1948 which

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--> covered some of the history of library education in a number of countries (23). Then there is the Unesco series of annual reports on Bibliographical services throughout the world (24) which include a statement from each reporting country on the teaching of bibliography in that country, frequently specifically mentioning training facilities for science-technology bibliography, scientific documentation, special librarianship, and so on. All these cover more than one country and are often quite general, although they may contain the only available information on activities within some of the reporting countries, and may be, therefore, referred to on rare occasions in the following country-by-country survey of training facilities for scientific documentation work. UNITED KINGDOM In order to get into the library profession in the United Kingdom one must be certified as to professional qualifications by either (1) passing a series of rather stiff examinations and having the requisite experience and language ability (the usual way), or (2) graduating from the School of Librarianship and Archives in the University of London’s University College (the unusual way). Professional standards and the examinations are set by the Library Association, the long-established (since 1877) national organization representing to some degree all library interests in the U.K. But it does not provide training facilities for those who wish to take its examinations. For these persons training is available (1) on the job at an approved library; (2) through personal study, attending lectures, and so on; (3) through correspondence courses conducted by the Association of Assistant Librarians, an affiliate of the Library Association; (4) at some 38 centers throughout the country which offer part-time courses; and (5) at nine post-war technical or similar-type colleges which offer full-time course programs (25). Now, the organization directly concerned with special librarians, documentalists, and information officers is Aslib, and it is also very much interested in their professional training with the emphasis, naturally, on the special library or science information service aspect of the training. Accordingly, Aslib is working with the Library Association to produce an examination syllabus which will be accepted as suitable to all types of librarians, since the L.A. exams have come to be associated in people’s minds with public librarianship only, thus affecting, understandably, the type of training available in the various courses and programs mentioned above. (As a matter of fact, the whole concept of education for librarianship of whatever kind seems to be under considerable scrutiny in the United Kingdom, and getting in—or keeping in—the information officers is just another part of the investigation (26).) “Because of these difficulties,” writes Mr. Leslie Wilson, Aslib’s Director,

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--> “Aslib has, for something like fifteen years, (a) been trying to get other institutions to provide full length training programmes for the people in its own membership, and (b) provided from its own resources short introductory and refresher courses for the numerous people who come into information work without full-scale librarianship training or qualifications” (27). In addition, Aslib branches and subject groups provide short courses from time to time on topics of local or timely interest (28). There is some evidence that the efforts of Aslib and of a few of its more seriously concerned members who publish their views in strategic journals are having a gradual effect on the courses and programs mentioned earlier. At least two of the technical college library schools are now offering courses intended for information officers and they seem to be interested in offering still more. A direct report from the instructor of one of these courses (Mr. J. Farradane, a full-time scientific information officer himself, and responsible for an important abstracts journal which his company’s research laboratory publishes) tells how it got started and what it might lead to: My course on abstracting at the North-Western Polytechnic is the first of its kind here, and was started experimentally on the suggestion of Mr. Sewell (of the School of Librarianship there) to see if I could implement the suggestions I had put out in various articles concerning the training required for information officers. The Polytechnic school is of course not tied to the Library Association requirements alone, and is interested to experiment…. The North-Western Polytechnic is as yet far from putting on an “information scientists” course [but] they have asked me whether I could personally take on another set of lectures, e.g., on patent literature (29). A little further on Mr. Farradane reports, “The Manchester school [College of Technology] has started a course intended for information work,” but he rejects the school’s opinion, decided in debate at the first session, that there is “no difference between special librarians and information officers,” an opinion also held, he reports, by the Library Association. Besides the short courses, Aslib also organizes many meetings and conferences during the year, all having to do with some aspect of special librarianship and all providing individual members opportunities for further self-education and for exchanging ideas and views (30). In addition Aslib has a sizable publication program to keep its members (and others interested) well informed and up-to-date on new methods, techniques, training opportunities, and so on (31). It must be pointed out that the Library Association, too, in this area of special librarianship, organizes meetings and conferences and puts out special publications through its Reference and Special Libraries Section, its Medical Section, and its University and Research Section (32).

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--> NETHERLANDS In the Netherlands, as in many other countries, there is one general library organization [Nederlandse Vereniging van Bibliothecarissen, NVB (Netherlands Association of Librarians)] and one special library or documentation work organization [Nederlands Instituut voor Documentatie en Registratuur, NIDER (Netherlands Institute for Documention and Filing)]. The NVB, again as elsewhere, also has a Section for Special Libraries (Sectie voor Speciale Bibliotheken, SSB) to look after the interests of special librarians and documentalists in the overall organization. The two groups, NIDER and NVB, have set up a Central Examinations Board (Centrale Examencommissie van NIDER en NVB) which is, in effect, the responsible body in the Netherlands for professional standards and education in the area of science documentation and special librarianship. This board determines the requirements for examinations, sets the regulations for them, prepares them, administers them, and then to those who pass them it grants diplomas certifying the successful candidates as Special Librarians, Industrial Archivists, or Literature Researchers (Documentalists) (33). Separate and distinct from this Centrale Examencommissie, NIDER and NVB/SSB have set up a Joint Committee on Training (Gemeenschappelijke Opleidingscommissie, GO) which is concerned with the actual training facilities for work in science documentation or special librarianship. The GO offers a regular scheduled program of lecture courses which are designed to prepare newcomers to the field for the certifying examinations of the Centrale Examencommissie, and it offers a group of correspondence courses for assistants and workers in various types of libraries to help them in classification, alphabetization, or title description, for example (34). The teachers of the GO-organized courses, according to the GO catalog, are librarians of university and college libraries and of industrial and government libraries, archivists, workers in business and in other industrial organizations, and other experts in the fields which are taught. As Mr. Ir M.Verhoef, secretary of the GO, explains, “The courses are based on the principle of transfer of knowledge by those who are working in the field, to the new-comers” (35). Mr. Verhoef continues: This has worked out to be very successful up to now, but as our courses are still growing, it is becoming more difficult to find enough experts who have sufficient time available to hold the lectures and correct the home work. Therefore we are now studying the possibility of founding an institute (library school) with professional teachers. But even then part of the courses will be given by non-professional ones.

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--> The courses have a good reception in industry and governmental departments, nevertheless we are quite aware that the contents of the courses must follow closely the new developments in documentation. It is for this reason that for each lecture course a special committee is set up to advise the joint committee on alterations in the programs. For additional comments on the need for a library school and for improvement in courses see remarks by Mr. Kessen and Mr. van Dijk in the August 1957 Bibliotheekleven (36). A number of industries have in-service training programs for information officers (37) as well as for technical translators (38), and training for information officers is available at the Technische Hogeschool in Delft (39). Basic and introductory library courses, useful to special librarians and documentalists, are available at the Royal Library and the Public Library in The Hague and at the Public Library in Utrecht (40). For additional information on training in the Netherlands for special librarians, information officers, and industrial archivists see articles by van Dijk (41), by van Dijk and Berkelaar (42), and by Dreese (43), all rather recent. NIDER, like its counterparts in other countries, has an educationally useful program of meetings, conferences, and publications on timely and pertinent topics, and the entire program should be considered along with other training facilities (44). DENMARK By an act of May 25, 1956, the Danish Library School was officially established, to be “the State School for librarians of public libraries, and for librarians and library assistants of scientific and special libraries” (45). The act provides for the administration and the management of the school; it places the responsibility for the program of study, for regulations, and for entrance requirements; and it establishes the period of appointment (four years) of the necessary lecturers, at least one of whom “shall for a certain length of time have served at a scientific or special library,” a stipulation which must surely gladden the hearts of Danish special and scientific librarians. An article on the new school in the July 1956 Bogens verden (46) states that the law makes a radical change in the training of librarians for scientific and learned libraries, and that special librarians will now have the chance of regular training. Heretofore, national science libraries took librarians with MA degrees and relied on short courses and lectures from the previous public librarian training program to impart the library knowledge required. The training for industrial librarians was always rather inadequate and somewhat dissociated from the

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--> training for other librarians, but on three occasions in the past few years they were able to take part in 74-hour basic courses in librarianship given by the Danish Association of Scientific and Special Librarians (47). Several continuation courses followed the basic courses, but presumably this series of courses will be discontinued once the Danish Library School gets into productive operation. Education at the Danish Library School is free for all students, but the requirements for admission and for continued attendance are rigidly determined. Section II of the school is for the scientific and technical library training (Section I is for the public library training) and is open only to those who have permanent jobs in such libraries, either as librarians or as library assistants. The librarians get 250–300 hours of courses oriented toward administration and readers’ services, while the assistants get about 200 hours of technical services courses. Special timely short courses and lecture series will be available occasionally for advanced study, and the school eventually will be expected to publish research papers in the area of librarianship generally (48). SWEDEN, NORWAY Perhaps the most active group in Sweden as far as special library training is concerned is the Society for Technical Documentation (Tekniska Litteratursällskapet, TLS) which has had a committee on professional training of industrial librarians since 1948. Besides arranging meetings and training courses, TLS has set up study groups and committees dealing with numerous technical library matters (49). Its extension courses, continuation courses, and workshops have been arranged from time to time for industrial librarians, industrial archivists, and for special librarians and documentalists from industry and research institutes, and a number of them have been described at some length in the Society’s own internationally known journal, Tidskrift för dokumentation (50), and elsewhere (51). Training for intermediate personnel of research and specialized libraries has been carried on since 1946 by the Royal Library in Stockholm under the auspices of the Association of Special Research Libraries, the Academy of Sciences, the Medical Library, and the Library of the Technological Institute. Practical and theoretical work is combined in a three or four months’ course. For a good many years science libraries, university libraries, Technological Institute of Stockholm and of Gothenburg Libraries, the Royal Library, and the Archives have required only a university degree and a willingness to work through graded probationary periods of 3, 9, and 24 months in order to become a librarian on their staffs (52). The State Library School trains mostly for public

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--> librarianship, and the Stockholm Municipal Library organizes courses for augmenting its own staff, but special librarians and science documentalists may find useful basic courses either place. Swedish librarians, like those in a good many other countries, have been trying for some time to achieve a uniform system of training which would apply to public librarians as well as to university and special librarians. A 1952 proposal suggested a four-year central library institute in Stockholm, and a 1956 proposal recommended that library science become a new subject department at the four major universities so that it may be more closely related to the academic field (53), but so far neither proposal has been acted on as far as can be determined. The National Library School at Oslo, Norway, offers a nine months’ course of training for positions in special libraries and in research libraries besides in the usual popular and children’s libraries. Students must have university degrees and two years’ experience in a recognized library. Certain large libraries have their own training programs, such as the three-year program at the University of Oslo library which is tied in with work toward a university diploma (54). There have been reports in the past few years that the National Library School was considering the possibility of giving courses only every other year, but there have been no recent announcements one way or another (55). FRANCE The Union française des organismes de Documentation (UFOD) is the agency in France concerned with training for science documentation work, special librarianship, or information work, and has been offering both preparatory and technical courses for “documentalistes” since 1944 (56). The preparatory course (CPD) is for young assistants and leads to a certificate of proficiency. The technical course (CTD) takes two years to complete and is in two parts, the first consisting of instruction in general documentation, and the second in specialized documentation; it leads to an Institut National des Techniques de la Documentation (INTD) diploma and, after acceptable presentation of a thesis, to a State Diploma for Specialized Documentalists (57). Both the CPD and the CTD may be taken by correspondence, too. Descriptions of the courses and course syllabi are given in Annex III of the Briet joint committee report (58). Elementary general library training courses have been organized by the Association des Bibliothécaires français; intermediate training has been available at the Library School of the Catholic Institute of Paris and through a supplementary course at the École des Chartes, the venerable school for archivists; and higher training has been organized under the authority of the ad-

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--> ministration of the Bibliothèque Nationale (59). Certain of these courses will of course be helpful in the basic library training of special librarians or science documentalists. Mr. R.Staveley, in his review of Malclès’ Cours de bibliographie, took occasion to describe briefly France’s new pattern of professional library training schemes of five important educational courses, in which special librarianship and information work are comprehended under the general term of Documentation (60). CZECHOSLOVAKIA The UFOD courses just mentioned, Mrs. Briet suggests, “may be said to have formed the basis of the training given in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Belgium” (61) for documentation work. The course in technical documentation given at the Polytechnic Library in Prague (62) does seem to follow the UFOD pattern, but there are other types of courses also available in Czechoslovakia. Chairs of librarianship have been established since 1950 in the Faculties of Philology of both Charles University (Prague) and Comenius University (Bratislava) offering four-year non-diploma courses and five-year diploma courses as well as five-year correspondence courses. “For specialists employed in scientific libraries, the chair of librarianship arranges, in collaboration with the University Library, one-year courses covering a total of 200 to 240 lecture hours (instruction is given once a week for a full day) at which lectures in a condensed form are delivered on all the technical library subjects covered by the university course,” according to Dr. Jaroslav Drtina, holder of the Chair of Librarianship at Charles University (63). In addition, continues Dr. Drtina, “In 1953 the chair of librarianship in Prague started a course for postgraduates at the highest level, open to holders of university degrees who have had two years’ practical experience and intend to devote themselves to scientific work either at a university or in some other scientific sphere.” Short-term courses in librarianship and bibliography are available at the two large universities’ libraries and at the libraries of the Academies of Science of Prague and of Bratislava (64). Still other courses, for the middle ranks of library workers, are offered at a number of the four-year vocational and technical schools throughout the country such as at Prague, Bratislava, and Brno (65). Among these more general courses there are a number which could be useful to special librarians. HUNGARY Since 1949 the National Library Center (Országos Könyvtar Kozpont), set up by a 1947 law, has organized professional documentation courses, presum-

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--> 70. BRIET. Enquiry…. op. cit., p. 22. MALCLES. op. cit., p. 54. 71. BRIET. Enquiry…. op. cit., p. 19. 72. KUNZE, HORST. Bibliotheksverwaltungslehre. Leipzig, Harrassowitz, 1956. 73. VEREIN DEUTSCHER VOLKSBIBLIOTHEKARE. Handbuch der offentlichen Bücherein. Hamburg, Eberhard Stichnote, 1952. 74. BIBLIOTHEKSKOMMISSION FÜR AUSBILDUNGSFRAGEN BEIM STAATSSEKRETARIAT FÜR HOCHSCHULWESEN. Aus der Arbeit der wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken in der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. Leipzig, Harrassowitz, 1955. 75. KUNZE, HORST. letter dated January 7, 1958, from Berlin. 76. KOBLITZ, J. Dokumentation, v.1.4, 1953/54. pp. 91–92, 123–124. (from Kunze). 77. Documentation, v.1.5, 1953/54, pp. 112–113; v.1.6, 1953/54, p. 127; v.2.1, 1955. p. 16; v.2.2, 1955, p. 39; v.2.3, 1955, p. 58; v.2.5, 1955, p. 101; v.3.3, 1956. p. 64–65; v.3.6,1956, p. 137–138 for announcements and reports of workshops, and v.2.3,1955, p. 58; v.4.2,1957, p. 31–37 for summaries. (from Kunze) 78. Gesetzblatt der DDR 1953, v.1, p. 406. Arbeits- und Sozialfürsorge, v.8, 1953, p. 581. (from Kunze) 79. Nachrichten für Dokumentation, passim, e.g., v.7.2, June 1956, p. 100–101. 80. WILSON, in Ashworth, ed., Handbook…. op. cit., pp. 352–353. 81. BRÄMER, JOACHIM, and VOGEL, DIETER. Die wissenschaftliche Fachbibliothek…. Leipzig, Harrassowitz, 1956. FUCHS, HERMANN. Kurzgefasste Verwaltungslehre für Institutsbibliotheken. Wiesbaden, 1957. (from Kunze) 82. GÜLICH, WILHELM. Ausbildungs- und Nachwuchsfragen in Bibliotheken und Dokumentationsstellen. in Arbeitsgemeinschaft der technisch-wissenschaftlicher bibliotheken, Bericht über die 5-tagung in Braunschweig am 26 und 27 März 1953…. Essen, 1953. pp. 61–76. GRUNWALD, WILHELM. Technische Hochschul-Bibliotheken. Zeitschrift für Bibliothekswesen und Bibliographie, v.2.4, 1955. pp. 257–279. see part 3, esp. STÖTZER, WALTHER. Industrielbibliotheken und Industrielbibliothekare. Zeitschrift für Bibliothekswesen und Bibliographie, v.2.4, 1955. pp. 279–292. FABIAN, RUDOLPH. Ausbildung von Nachwuchskräften in industriellen Dokumentationsstellen. Dokumentation, v.2.6, Nov. 1955, pp. 117–119. 83. DEMBOWSKA, M. Prerequisites of professional growth of younger staff members (in Polish). Bibliotekarz, v.33, Feb. 1956. pp. 26–28. BRIET. Enquiry…. op. cit., p. 29. 84. SIEROTWINSKI, S., tr. O.Wegner. Die wissenschaftliche-technische Dokumentation in der Volksrepublik Polen. Dokumentation, v.1.8, Sept. 1954. pp. 154–159. 85. COLLISON. Third…. op. cit., pp. 65. 86. DEMBOWSKA. op. cit. 87. PRZELASKOWSKI, R. Library staff in research libraries (in Polish). Przeglad biblioteczny, v.24, Jan.–Mar. 1956. p. 24.36. 88. BRIET. Enquiry…. op. cit., pp. 29. 89. LACOUR, CHRISTINA. “Remarques sur le service des bibliothèques dans le Republique Populaire de Pologne.” Archives, bibliothèques, collection, documentation, no. 11, Sept. 1953, pp. 296–298.

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--> 90. Instruction in scientific documentation at the University of Rome. American Documentation, v.8.2, April 1957. p. 146. BALBIS, BRUNO. letter dated January 9, 1958, from Rome. 91. Programma del corso di Tecnica dell ’informazione scientifica svolto dal dott. Bruno Balbis, direttore del Centro nazionale di documentazione scientifica al Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, presso la Scuola di Pubblicistica alla Città universitaria—Facoltà di Giurisprudenza di Roma—nell ’anno accademico 1956–1957. 92. Deleted on revision. 93. BALBIS, BRUNO. Le développement de la documentation en Italie. Revue de la documentation, v.21.2, June 1954. pp. 53–59. 94. MORGHEN, RAFFAELLO. Preside, Scuola speciale per Archivisti e Bibliotecari, letter dated December 11, 1957, from Rome. 95. BOURGEOIS, letter, op. cit. 96. WILSON, in Ashworth, ed., Handbook…. op. cit., p. 354. 97. SOKOLOV, V., GARR, M., KULETZINA, A. Improving the leadership of technical libraries (in Russian). Bibliotekaŕ, no.2, 1953. pp. 20–21. 98. COLLISON. Fourth…. op. cit., p. 108. 99. WHITBY, THOMAS. Head, Cyrillic Group, Union Catalog, Library of Congress, communication during discussion October 8, 1957. 100. Ibid. 101. MIKHAILOV, A.I. letter dated December 12, 1957, from Moscow. 102. New institute of librarianship and bibliography (Moscow). Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.11.7, July 1957. p. 179. 103. Cursos para la formacion tecnica de archiveros, bibliotecarios y arqueologos, 1957–1958. Direccion general de archives y bibliotecas, Madrid. 104. ESTEVE, FRANCISCO. letter dated January 4, 1958, from Madrid. 105. MILAĈIC, DUŜAN. letter dated November 16, 1957, from Belgrade. 106. Ibid. 107. JOEL, I. letter dated December 27, 1957, from Jerusalem. 108. DELOUGAZ, NATHALIE. Library training in Israel. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.11.4, April 1957. pp. 82–83. 109. COLLISON. Fourth…. op. cit., p. 100. 110. CARNOVSKY, LEON. Report on a Programme of Library Education in Israel. Unesco, Paris, 1956. 111. WORMANN, CURT. The scientific libraries of Israel. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.8.1, Jan. 1954. pp. 1–5. 112. COLLISON. Fourth…. op. cit., p. 18. 113. VLEESCHAUWER, H.J.DE. The University of South Africa and its department of library science. Mousaion, no.12, 1956. 114. Pretoria. University of South Africa. Department of librarianship. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.9.10, Oct. 1955. p. 220. review of the new Mousaion. 115. MEWS, HAZEL. Chief Information Officer, Library and Information Division, South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, letter dated November 1, 1957, from Pretoria. 116.——Books are tools. C.S.I.R. Library and information division, Pretoria, 1951.

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--> 117. C.S.I.R. Library and information division. Summary of activities, n.d. mimeo. WILSON, in Ashworth, ed., Handbook…. op. cit., pp. 348–349. 118. MALCLES. op. cit., p. 174. JOHNSON, A.F. “Library training programs.” Australian Library Journal, v.2.1, Jan. 1953. pp. 3–5. 119. WILSON, in Ashworth, ed., Handbook…. op. cit., pp. 346–347. 120. JOHNSON, op. cit. 121. WHITE, H.L. The Commonwealth National Library of Australia. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.7.10, Oct. 1953. pp. E124–127. 122. BRIET. Enquiry…. op. cit., p. 32. 123. PETERSEN, E.N., Acting Head, Libraries Division, Unesco, typed bibliography of articles in Unesco Bulletin for Libraries accompanying letter dated October 18, 1957, from Paris. 124. COLLISON. Fourth…. op. cit., p. 33. MALCLES. op. cit., p. 38, 125. UNESCO. LIBRARIES DIVISION. Bibliographic Newsletter, v.6.2, 1957. pp. 40–41. Brazilian courses in bibliography. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.11.8, Aug. 1957. pp. 218. 126. COLLISON, Third…. op. cit., pp. 31. 127. Ibid., p. 32. 128. LITTON, GASTON. Inter-American school of library science, Colombia. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.11.8, Aug. 1957. p. 198. 129. Mexico: scientific and technical documentation centre. Bibliographic Newsletter of the libraries division of Unesco, v.1.2, 1952. pp. 18–19. 130. MALCLES. op. cit., p. 162. 131. COLLISON. Third.... op. cit., p. 35. 132. Ibid. 133. SAHA, J. letter dated November 27, 1957, from Calcutta. 134. COLLISON. Fourth…. op. cit., p. 51. KEIO-GIJUKU UNIVERSITY. FACULTY OF LITERATURE. JAPAN LIBRARY SCHOOL. Announcement catalogue. The University, Tokyo, 1958. (also personal experience) 135. A.L.A. B.E.L. Standards for accreditation, presented by the ALA/BEL, and adopted by the ALA council Chicago July 13, 1951. ALA Bulletin, v.46.2, Feb. 1952. pp. 48–49. see also ALA/BEL Statement of interpretation to accompany standards for accreditation…. ALA, Chicago, 1952. (Board of Education for Librarianship) 136. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE. OFFICE OF EDUCATION. List of 563 institutions of higher education in the United States announcing courses in library science and/or bibliography. Prepared by Willard O.Mishoff, Specialist for College and Research Libraries, Library Services Branch, July 30, 1957. 137. Library schools, in Canadian Almanac and Directory for 1954, edited by Beatrice Logan. Toronto, Copp Clark, 1954. p. 450. 138. MISHOFF, WILLARD O. Undergraduate programs of library education: a current summary. Higher Education, v.14.1, Sept. 1957. pp. 3–7. 139. Library schools, in Canadian…. loc. cit.

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--> 140. Home-study correspondence courses, in Lovejoys Vocational School Guide. N.Y., Simon & Schuster, 1955. Chapt. 14, pp. 193–201. 141. Subcommittee on course content of the Subcommittee on special library education of the Joint committee on education for librarianship of the Council of National Library Associations; Dr. Baer is Chief Librarian of the National Housing Center, Washington, D.C. Questionnaire letters were sent to the accredited schools listed in Appendix 2, and a preliminary report was made early in May 1957; the final report of the subcommittee probably will have appeared by the time the present paper is published, and may, of course, have reached different conclusions. The results given herein are based on study of the announcement catalogs of the schools surveyed, and on perusal of the individual returns from the survey for which permission was obtained from Dr. Baer and from each school reporting, to all of whom the writer is very grateful. 142. see ALA Bulletin, v.51.11, Dec. 1957. p. 888, footnote, (also Appendix 2) 143. LLOYD, GWENDOLYN. Survey of study facilities for foreign library school students in the U.S. Special Libraries, v.45.1, Jan. 1954. pp. 7–12. Supplement appeared in Special libraries, v.45.9, Nov. 1954. pp. 384–385. 144. MORLEY, LINDA. Special library education in the United States and Canada. Journal of Documentation, v.3.1, June 1947. pp. 24–42. 145. SHERA, JESSE. Training for specials; the status of the library schools. Special Libraries, v.28, Nov. 1937. pp. 317–321. 145a. Check H.W.Wilson Co.’s Library Literature for professional publications, etc. 146. Letters were sent to the presidents of the 31 SLA chapters in October 1957 asking what each chapter is doing in the area of education or training for special librarianship; no follow-up letters were sent. Seventeen reports were received by the end of January 1958; two more were promised but did not come. Results given herein are based on these returns; see Appendix, 3. 147. HARPER, SHIRLEY, and KIENTZLE, ELIZABETH. Special library problems: Illinois chapter education program. Special Libraries, v.44.6, July–Aug. 1953. pp. 236–242. Excellent description of course, its problems, and its evaluation. “During the last two years, it was found that, despite considerable expressed interest, actual participation was very small. Very likely another ‘cycle’ of interest in formalized education programs may come in a few years.”—Illinois. Comments from other chapters were similar but less direct. 148. RECRUITMENT & TRAINING COMMITTEE. NEW YORK CHAPTER. SPECIAL LIBRARIES ASSOCIATION. Directory of Training Opportunities for Special Librarians in Metropolitan New York. New York, 1957. 19 pp. Attention is also directed to the local Adult Education Council, Vocational Advisory Service, and public library’s Readers’ Advisers Office. 149. e.g., Professional training for special librarianship: panel discussion. New York Chapter News, v.28.3, Feb. 1956. p. 5 (announcement and reason for having). KINGERY, ROBERT. S.L.A. N.Y. chapter Recruitment & training committee report. New York Chapter News, v.29.4, April 1957. pp. 10–11. Well-thought-out statement of principles, needs, and limitations of special library education.

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--> Special training vs. library training for special libraries. Texas Chapter Bulletin, v.7, Nov. 1955. 150. New library course due. New York Times, May 17, 1953. (at Queens College, suggested by the New York Chapter) Ballard school course announcements periodically in New York Chapter News; elementary reference work, subject filing and indexing, elementary cataloging, are among those offered the year around. The Ballard School is in the YWCA and has been sponsored and developed by the New York chapter; certificates are given to those who complete the courses. Two members of the Oak Ridge chapter “have been trying to establish a cooperative program with our company for the training of special librarians. The company has such a program for training engineers and seems sympathetic to the idea of including librarians in it.” “A long range hope of our chapter is to cooperate in some library course or workshop at the University of New Mexico. Because of the lack of a library school in the area we feel the need for something like that…. In our libraries at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory we are experimenting with a reference course for technical library work which is aimed at refreshing the minds of our science librarians…. In a few years, after our chapter members have gained experience and confidence with such local ventures, we hope to take an active part in library training in the state.”—Rio Grande, one year old. “Washington, D.C., chapter-sponsored U.S. Department of Agriculture Graduate School courses (current): Introduction to cataloging and classification, Principles of library organization, Basic reference service and reference tools, Introduction to bibliographic science, Law librarianship, Introduction to map library techniques, The principles of physical science (survey course in fundamental concepts).” “We feel that it is so vital that we have made ‘Education for special librarians’ our 1957–58 Chapter project. Our approach to this problem has been to study the present library training facilities in the state…(few courses offered, few professors have knowledge of needs)…. Therefore, we felt one of the functions of our chapter could be to formulate our educational needs and to attempt to develop a mutually cooperative program with the schools to meet these needs…. We have appointed to the project committee the subject specialist, that is, a chemist with no library training, and conventional library school graduates without the subject specialization. In addition we have asked the key library schools to send representatives to our meetings to act as advisors. We have also asked the president of the Library Education Counsel of the state Library Association to act as an advisor. In this manner we can openly discuss our educational needs with these people and, therefore, we can generate interest in our problems at the library school level…. We feel that this is a long-term program. We do not anticipate a solution this year or even next year. We have, however, made some progress…(extension courses, Saturday classes) …. We are actively participating in the state Library Association Library Education Counsel and the Advisory Counsel of the Graduate School of Library Science at the University (to resolve the problem of poor communication

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--> between the special and the ordinary librarians)….”—Texas, very big and very active, especially in the area of special libraries. 151. HENKLE, HERMAN. Dissemination of information for scientific research and development with special reference to the work of Research information service, The John Crerar Library. The Library, Chicago, 1954. 152. CRANE, E.J. The training of chemists for abstracting and indexing, in Training of Literature Chemists, Advances in Chemistry series no. 17. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1956. pp. 16–21. 153. Check list of proceedings for new reference personnel. Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, processed, one page. 154. DUGGAN, MARYANN. Technical Librarian, Magnolia Petroleum Company, letter dated November 19, 1957, from Dallas. 155. HOFFMAN, THELMA. Chief Librarian, Shell Development Company, letter dated December 17, 1957, from Emeryville, California, also enclosed, Shell’s statement giving descriptions and personnel requirements of non-laboratory research positions in technical files, patent library, and technical library. 156. DAHL, RICHARD. Professional development program. Library Journal, v.79.21, Dec. 1, 1954. pp. 2280–2283. Benefits and methods are given, for all libraries. SHANK, RUSSELL; BEHYMER, E.HUGH; METCALF, KEYES. Staff participation in library management. College and Research Libraries, v.18.6, Nov. 1957. pp. 467–478. 157. WESNER, JEAN. Training of non-professional staff. Special Libraries, v.46.10, Dec. 1955, pp. 434–440. Those with no formal library science education and no experience in the field. Needs and methods demonstrated. MCNEAL, ARCHIE. “Ratio of professional to clerical staff.” College and research libraries, v.17.3, May 1956. pp. 219–223. Comments at some length on need for training of non-professionals. MULCAHEY, J.H. Training special library assistants. Special Libraries, v.48.3, March 1957. pp. 105–108. 158. CHAFFEE, RANDOLPH. The engineering library. Machine Design, v.24.9, Sept. 1952. pp. 110–127. “To attract more enrollments in special library courses, industry might offer scholarships or part-time employment in technical libraries to post-graduate students.” Literature chemists scarce, too. Chemical and Engineering News, v.33, April 11, 1955. pp. 1518–1519. Industry “has been forced to provide on-the-job training.” 159. NORWOOD, M.L. Survey of current library in-service training practices. Thesis, University of North Carolina, 1957. WOODRUFF, ELAINE. In-service training for government librarians. Special Libraries, v.44.2, Feb. 1953. pp. 48–52. Program needs and schedule given, adaptable to all kinds of libraries. 160. GRUNWALD, WILHELM. “Der Spezialbibliothekar: Aufgaben, Auswahl, Ausbildungsvorschläge.” Bibliothek, Bibliothekar, Bibliothekswissenschaft; Festschrift Joris Vorstius…1954. pp. 182–191. Interesting proposed training program. FILL, KARL. Thesen zur ausbildung der dokumentalisten. Nachrichten für Dokumentation, v.5.1, March 1954. pp. 28–32. Stresses needs and then courses.

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--> PRESSL, LISSI, and SCHMOLL, GEORG. Einige Gedanken und Materialien zur Ausbildung von Dokumentalisten in der DDR. Dokumentation, v.4.2, March 1957. pp. 31–37. Includes a 20-category lesson plan and a bibliography. 161. MALLABER. op. cit. MACKIEWICZ, ELIZABETH. Education for special librarianship in Great Britain. Aslib proceedings, v.5.4, Nov. 1953. pp. 286–292. Training for librarians and documentalists. Aslib proceedings, v.6.2, May 1954. pp. 117–119. Points out differences between librarians and information officers. FARRADANE, J. Information service in industry. Research, v.6, Aug. 1953. pp. 327–330. Also discusses training of the information officer. KAY, A.G. Qualifications for special library work. The Engineer, v.198, July 23, 1954. pp. 130–132. HARRISON, J.C. Special librarianship and the library schools. In Library Association, Reference and special libraries section, Proceedings of the annual conference 1956. London, 1957. pp. 23–28. Training of special librarians and information officers. Aslib proceedings, v.9.4, April 1957. pp. 99–100. BENGE, R.C. The place of literature studies in library education. Journal of Documentation, v.13.3, Sept. 1957. pp. 147–151. Stresses importance of subject literature study to both librarians and information officers, in schools. DAIN, N.E. review of and comments on Harrison’s paper (above). Library Association Record, v.59.10, Oct. 1957. pp. 347. HARRISON. comments and reply to Dain (above). Library Association Record, v.59.11, Nov. 1957. p. 375. HOLMSTROM, J.E. Observations on the training of information officers. Unesco Department of natural sciences, 30 September 1953. Reference 250/3930. mimeo. Gives definitions, functions, and suggested training syllabus. Similar to point of view of Farradane (above). Deplores lack of effect of previous appearance of observations (27 September 1948) on Library Association syllabus drafting. 162. ASHEIM, LESTER, ed. The core of education for librarianship. ALA, Chicago, 1954. Suggests seven “areas of the core,” and what might be included in library training at the undergraduate level and in special subject fields. ——Education for librarianship. Library Quarterly, v.25.1, Jan. 1955. pp. 76–90. Review of 1931–1955 and of beginning of demand for special library training. BRODMAN, ESTELLE. Whither education for medical librarians? Stechert-Hafner Book news, v.8.6, Feb. 1954, pp. 61–62. DISBROW, MARY. Impressions of the course in medical libraries at Emory University. Bulletin Medical Library Association, v.41.3, July 1953. pp. 277–282. Included lectures on departments of medicine by medical men. Education for special librarianship. Library Quarterly, v.24.1, Jan. 1954. pp. 1–20. Includes suggested education in science-technology and medicine library work. LANCOUR, HAROLD. The training of the special librarian in the U.S. Aslib proceedings, v.5.4, Nov. 1953. pp. 271–275. Includes development of pattern. LEONARD, RUTH. Education for special librarianship. Special Libraries, v.41.5,

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--> May–June 1950. pp. 157–159. Description and discussion of Simmons College program. POSTELL, WILLIAM. Education for medical librarianship. Special Libraries, v. 48.5, May–June 1957. pp. 186–188. Development and present needs. SHERA, JESSE. Education for librarianship—an integrated approach. ALA Bulletin, v.48.3, March 1954. pp. 129–130, 169–173. ——et al., ed. Documentation in Action. Reinhold, New York, 1956. passim. ——Librarians’ new frontier. Library Journal, v.82, Jan. 1, 1957. pp. 26–28. ——Research and developments in documentation. Library Trends, v.6.2, Oct. 1957. ——The training of the chemical librarian: a challenge and an opportunity. Special Libraries, v.47.1, Jan. 1956. pp. 8–16. TAUBE, MORTIMER. Implications for professional organization and training, in The Communication of Specialized Information edited by Margaret Egan. University of Chicago Graduate Library School, 1954. WATERS, EDWARD. Special library education. Library Trends, v.1.2, Oct. 1952. pp. 244–255. Whole issue devoted to special libraries. ——Training for special librarianship. Special Libraries, v.47.9, Nov. 1956. pp. 393–399. Gives definitions, deficiencies, training programs, and progress. 163. BRIET. op. cit. (ref. 22) VAN DIJK. op. cit. (ref. 36) PRZELASKOWSKI. op. cit. (ref. 87) VLEESCHAUWER. op. cit. (ref 113) 164. A.L.A. B.E.L. Standards…. op. cit. (ref. 135) 165. Library education division. ALA Bulletin, v.51.11, Dec. 1957. p. 858. See also reports on activities of Joint Committee on Library Education, e.g., in Association of American Library Schools Report of meeting, Chicago, January 28, 1957, pp. 59–62, in which Dr. Carl M.White explores the whys and wherefores of the committee trying to pin down its responsibilities, if any. AALS Newsletter, January and July, frequently contains news and comments on instructional programs in the area of special librarianship. LED News Letter, including its Teachers section issue, frequently contains news and reports of activities in all areas of education for librarianship, surveys, new courses, committee reports, and so forth. 166. MERTON, ROBERT. The functions of the professional association. American Journal of Nursing, v.58.1, Jan. 1958. pp. 50–54. 167. Ibid., p. 52. 168. COBLANS, HERBERT. New methods and techniques for the communication of knowledge. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.11.7, July 1957. pp. 154–175. KYLE, BARBARA. Current documentation topics and their relevance to social science literature. Revue de la documentation, v.24.3, Aug. 1957. pp. 107–117. The present state of “Research in librarianship” is examined and discussed from all points of view in the October 1957 Library Trends; the entire issue is devoted to the subject of research in librarianship.

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--> APPENDIX 1 Aslib training courses The Education Committee has had under consideration means of extending Aslib’s programme of short training courses and has agreed that courses on the following subjects are desirable: Organization of Science and Technology Good relations with users and presentation of information to management and administration Acquisition, handling and exploitation of periodicals Advanced classification and indexing Production of library and information department publications Mechanical information retrieval Work with technical reports Patents and patent law. Work is proceeding on the organization of these courses.

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--> APPENDIX 2 Survey of accredited library schools   Special libraries Literature courses Courses offered Short name of school Prog. Cour. Semr. S-T Doc Med Oth U-g Ext Eve Sum Atlanta       e       x     x California       e x           x Carnegie Tech s-t s-t   e s             Catholic University   x           x     x Chicago   x   r       x   x x Columbia s,m     r,e x x i,p x     x Denver   x   r             x Drexel Institute x x   e               Emory c         x   x     x Florida State   x x e       x x   x Illinois       e   x a,b       x Indiana       r       x     x Kentucky               x     x Louisiana State   x           x     x McGill   x     x     x       Michigan   x   e s x i x x   x Minnesota   x   r       x   x x North Carolina     x e   x   x     x Oklahoma x     r       x     x Peabody m     r       x     x Pratt Institute   x   e             x Rosary       r           x x Rutgers     x e x     x x x x St. Catherine       e       x   x x Simmons x x x e       x   x x So. California   s-t   r,e       x x   x Syracuse       r       x   x x Texas State College for Women   x   r       x     x Texas x x           x x   x Toronto   x           x       Washington, St. Louis   x               x x Washington, Seattle       r       x     x Western Michigan     x e       x     x Western Reserve   x   e x   ★     x x Wisconsin   x           x     x Total 35 8 19 5 13r 5x 5 26   5 9 31     (15 add. 3) 16e 2s   a, agriculture; b, biology; c, chemistry; e, elective; i, indexing/abstracting; m, medicine; p, pharmacy; r, required; s, science; t, technology; U-g, undergrad; *, machine lit., etc., and Center for Documentation and Communication Research. Cour., course; Doc, documentation; Eve, evening; Ext, extension; Med, medical; Oth, other; Prog., program; S-T, science-technology; Semr., seminar; Sum, summer.

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--> APPENDIX 3 Survey of SLA chapters   Education/training programs outside chapter liaison with nearby library school Programs inside chapter (held during 1956–1957) Chapter talks teach tours cnslt w/stud other none wkshp meth lect Georgia x   x x x     x     Illinois x x     x conf.     x   Louisiana   x     x   x       Michigan   x     x conf.   x     Montreal x           x       New Jersey x x x   x     x     New York x x x   x 1     x   Oak Ridge           2     x x Oklahoma             new       Pittsburgh   x   x       x     Puget Sound x   x   x       x x Rio Grande x     x     new       San Francisco Bay x   x x x       x   Texas       x   3   x     Toronto   x   x x     x   x Washington, D.C.   x       4 x       Wisconsin                   x Totals 17 8 8 5 6 9   5 6 5 4 1. Instrumental in establishing Ballard School library courses, and courses at Queens College, New York. 2. Establishing cooperative training program within a company. 3. Active program with industry, library associations, schools. 4. Instrumental in getting courses set up in USDA graduate school, cnslt, consult; conf, conference; lect, lecture; meth, methods; USDA, United States Department of Agriculture; w/stud, with students; wkshp, workshop.