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INDEX

AALS, see Association of American Library Schools

Abbreviations

of periodical titles, uniform for abstracts, 487

standard, in indexing-abstracting system, 456

variation of, in abstracts, 400

Abstracting, 317;

see also Indexing

aid in retrieval, 523

astronomy, 1527

bilingualism for, 1506

Board of International Council of Scientific Unions, 1503

centralization of, in USSR, 513

chemistry, 1527, 1533

condensation, amount of, 525

coverage related to costs, 528

definition, 449

distribution of information in cooperative program, 505

documentation, cooperation and coordination with, 497, 501, 503

duplication of, in survey, 416

economy in, 529

elimination of, in direct search, 976

function of, 523

history in Russia, 511

indexing, combined with, 449

instructions to authors in research organization, 1185

international cooperation, 1503

by international institute, 1524, 1531, 1533

lack of, for geophysics, 1527

medicine, 1527

metallurgy, duplication in field of, 396

of original papers, 89

periodicals added to list in international project, 483

periodicals discovered in international cooperation, 483

physics, 1504, 1527

from proof copies, 485

publishing lag, 327, 523

qualitative efficiency of metallurgical, 398

relation to literature search, 326

selection in, 1056

subject slanting, 407, 524, 525

Abstracting services

duplication of effort, 451

responsibilities of, 1422

for storage-retrieval, 1418

Abstract journals, 590

centralization, need for, 512

literature search in, 351

for retrieval, 170

used by Cables and Insulating Materials Research Institute, 645

Abstracts;

see also Indexes

advantages of uniformity, 486

by authors, 450

characteristics of, 409

classification difficulties, 450

coverage, 330, 527, 1524

ideas, difficulty with, 89

improvements suggested for literature and reference services, 66

indexing of, 453, 890, 895

as information source, 169, 196

informative, 450

metallurgical, 393, 394

method of presentation, 404

number of, in English language, 590

from page proof of journals, 1422

publication of, 1422

publication lag, 1524

quality, 331, 334

relative importance of, 52

reproduction of, 1422

required in searching, 58

specialized, high costs of, 1538

subject indexes, 332

to supplement storage and retrieval, 89

technologists’ use of, 251

types, 526

types of service, 317

use of, 150, 524

use of, in forest science, 273

in VINITI publications, 518



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OCR for page 1607
--> INDEX AALS, see Association of American Library Schools Abbreviations of periodical titles, uniform for abstracts, 487 standard, in indexing-abstracting system, 456 variation of, in abstracts, 400 Abstracting, 317; see also Indexing aid in retrieval, 523 astronomy, 1527 bilingualism for, 1506 Board of International Council of Scientific Unions, 1503 centralization of, in USSR, 513 chemistry, 1527, 1533 condensation, amount of, 525 coverage related to costs, 528 definition, 449 distribution of information in cooperative program, 505 documentation, cooperation and coordination with, 497, 501, 503 duplication of, in survey, 416 economy in, 529 elimination of, in direct search, 976 function of, 523 history in Russia, 511 indexing, combined with, 449 instructions to authors in research organization, 1185 international cooperation, 1503 by international institute, 1524, 1531, 1533 lack of, for geophysics, 1527 medicine, 1527 metallurgy, duplication in field of, 396 of original papers, 89 periodicals added to list in international project, 483 periodicals discovered in international cooperation, 483 physics, 1504, 1527 from proof copies, 485 publishing lag, 327, 523 qualitative efficiency of metallurgical, 398 relation to literature search, 326 selection in, 1056 subject slanting, 407, 524, 525 Abstracting services duplication of effort, 451 responsibilities of, 1422 for storage-retrieval, 1418 Abstract journals, 590 centralization, need for, 512 literature search in, 351 for retrieval, 170 used by Cables and Insulating Materials Research Institute, 645 Abstracts; see also Indexes advantages of uniformity, 486 by authors, 450 characteristics of, 409 classification difficulties, 450 coverage, 330, 527, 1524 ideas, difficulty with, 89 improvements suggested for literature and reference services, 66 indexing of, 453, 890, 895 as information source, 169, 196 informative, 450 metallurgical, 393, 394 method of presentation, 404 number of, in English language, 590 from page proof of journals, 1422 publication of, 1422 publication lag, 1524 quality, 331, 334 relative importance of, 52 reproduction of, 1422 required in searching, 58 specialized, high costs of, 1538 subject indexes, 332 to supplement storage and retrieval, 89 technologists’ use of, 251 types, 526 types of service, 317 use of, 150, 524 use of, in forest science, 273 in VINITI publications, 518

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--> Abstracts Journal reprints of individual sections, 515 of USSR, 513 Access, 70, 1301 apparatus, 1309 duplication cause, 64 lack of, to publications, 1524 of library, 55 random, in storage, 1366 of reference services, 55 Accessions book list of, criticism of, 1421 data as measure of work load, 739 ACS, see American Chemical Society ADI, see American Documentation Institute Advances, see Reviews Aerodynamics classification schedules in retrieval tests, 797 experiment in retrieval, 771 failures in tests of retrieval on, 775 index form in experiment, 772 output in retrieval tests, 779 questions in retrieval tests, 781 relevance of documents retrieved, 778 tests for retrieval on, 774 times studies in retrieval tests, 778 Aeronautical engineering bibliography of studies of literature, 40 Aeronautics experiment in indexing, 688 Age of periodicals, 144 Agencies responsibilities for biological information, 1418 Agriculture bibliography of studies of literature, 40 comprehensive information service of Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, 571 ALA, see American Library Association Algebraic representation of codes, 1313 Alkyl groups in Haystaq system, 1153 All-Union Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (VINITI), 511, 1525 abstracts in publications of, 518 annotation in publications of, 519 bibliographical descriptions in publications of, 519 laboratories of, 520 publication of selective information, 515 Ambiguity problem reduced in direct search, 981 property of language, 977 structural, 1042 American Chemical Society (ACS), 1464 random sample of chemists, 102 American Documentation Institute (ADI), 1431, 1464 American Institute of Physics translations of Russian journals, 1511 American Library Association (ALA), 1463 standards of librarianship, 1461 standards of training, 1469 American Meteorological Society bibliographic cost project, 381 American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE), 1464 American Statistical Association, 1365 Amfis, 843, 846 Analysis forms of, in retrieval, 856 AND operations, 1353 Answers wrong, see False drops Anthelmintic catalogue, 430 Archaeology abstract ornament, 893 artifacts, 895 coding experiment for, 892 iconographical monuments, 898 Argentina facilities for training in documentation, 1459 ASEE, see American Society for Engineering Education Asia documentation in, 589 Aslib, 1431 Conference, 1499 evaluation of retrieval systems, 687 and Library Association (London), 1499 training courses, 1486 training of special librarians and information officers, 1499 Aspect synonymous terms, 743

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--> Association of American Library Schools (AALS), 1463 Association of Assistant Librarians, 1500 Association of German Electrical Engineers (VDE), 498 Association of Special Libraries and Information Bureaux, see Aslib Astronomy abstracting of, 1527 Atomic energy requirements for information, 181 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, 164 analysis of subject catalogue, 377 Attention areas of, 201, 217, 219 Australia facilities for training in documentation, 1459 Author catalogue, 430 Authors’ summaries; see also Abstracts in abstracting of physics, 1509 Automatic dictionary; see also Dictionaries classification table for Russian adjectives, 961 purposes, 952 Russian word list, alphabetized, 963 treatment of inflected forms, 955 Automatic microfilm information system, see Amfis Automatic translation, see Machine translation Aviation coordination of documentation, 499 Battelle Memorial Institute on-the-job training, 1466 Batten; see also Peek-a-boo apparatus, 742 chronology as characteristic, 742 description, 741 system of documentation, 740 Belgium facilities for training in documentation, 1452 Bell Telephone Laboratories proposed information handling system, 1181 Bibliographical descriptions in publications of VINITI, 519 Bibliographical search, in Czechoslovakian research organization, 617 Bibliographic services; see also Bibliographies cost analysis, 381 Bibliographies bound book form, 1221 classification of lists, 595 cost analysis, 381 costs, 383, 385, 507 determination of number, for documentation, 503 effect on cost of variation in quality, 382 example of, with Tabledex, 1232 on forest science, 274 as information source, 196 research service at French Center of Documentation, 609 scattering references (Bradford law), 1315 Tabledex method for, 1221 Bilingualism of abstracting journal, 1506 Binary system disadvantage of, 1036, 1218 Biochemistry information handling, 1202 journals covered in survey, 241 Biological Abstracts, 1422 Biological sciences; see also Biology basal metabolism study, 578 bibliography of studies of literature, 36 breadth of field, 585 data correlation with chemical data, 711 financing information center, 1425 interpretive review, 581 national information center, 1424 publications consulted for preparation of reviews, 574 research review, subject matter of, 573 responsibilities of national information center, 1423 responsibility for information storage-retrieval, 1417 reviews, 571 reviews, complexity of subject matter of, 574 reviews of concept, 581 statistical review, 578 storage-retrieval center, obstacles to comprehensive, 1427 waste in reviews, 576 Biology; see also Biological sciences breadth of application, 1417 financing comprehensive system for, 1417

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-->   needs for storage and retrieval, 86 peripheral fields, 430 peripheral publications in documentation of, 429 range of disciplines, 1417 responsibilities for scientific information, 1417 Biophysics information handling, 1202 Birkhoff, G., 1354, 1364 Bits in dictionary of terms, 752, 756 optimum number per document, 746 Blank sorts, 1064 Book accessions list criticism of, 142 Books on forest science, 269 purchases by individuals, 143 relative importance of, 52 as source of information, 196 Boole, G., 1354 Boolean algebra, 1331 Boolean lattice, 1336 of descriptors, 1338 of document sets, 1337 Botany; see also Biological sciences notation for, 1212 Bradford law scattering references, 1315 Brazil facilities for training in documentation, 1460 British Empire Scientific Conference, 3 Building international cooperation in abstracting, 491, 493 Bulletin Analytique in international abstracting service, 1513 Bulletins criticisms of, 142 Bureau of Applied Social Research, 199 sample interview schedule, 223 Burma documentation, 594 CA, see Chemical Abstracts Cables information on, in Czechoslovakian research organization, 615 Cables and Insulating Materials Research Institute dissemination of information in, 613 periodicals and journals used by, 645 Cambridge Language Research Unit, 918 program of mechanical translation, 933 Canada facilities for training in documentation, 1461, 1469 Canadian Library Association (CLA), 1463 Cap and cup lattice operation, 1335 preserved by transformation T2, 1342 Carbon coding to indicate specific-generic relationship, 1130 in VS3 index of codes, 1134 Carbon chain in VS3 index of codes, 1134 Carburettors characteristics, scheme of, 1079 coding scheme, 1081 limits of field in novelty search, 1079 perforations to indicate interrelationship of characteristics, 1085 punched card for novelty search, 1084 search of patent literature, 1071 Cardinal product, 1332, 1334 of descriptors, 1338 Cardiovascular Literature Project, 449 Cards, 743 in Batten system, 742 costs of bibliographic, 507 disadvantage of edge-punched, 736 in documentation system, 741 field-punched, capacities of, 745 hand-punched and machine-punched in documentation, 509 losses, as disadvantage in uniterm system, 744 as method of presentation of abstracts, 404 reproduction with Comac, 1253 Card translator, 847 Case Institute of Technology additional analyses planned, 115 forms used for study on dissemination, 118 study of dissemination of knowledge, 97 Cataloguing in document control, 738 international, 1531 subject, 1385

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--> Categories descriptors in indexing system, 861 relations within, in indexing, 861 in subject analysis, 858 CDS, see Centre de la Sidérurgie Centre National d’Etudes des Télécommunications (CNET), 611 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 594, 605 coding of archaeological documents, 892 Centre de la Sidérurgie (CDS), 611 Cerebral processes, 1044 Chain indexing, 879 Chains, 1129; see also Chemistry coding of, 1122 in VS3 index of codes, 1133 Characters alphabetical, properties of, 1314 communitivity of, 1363 defined, 1332 with hierarchy, 1343 polynomials of, 1354 Chartered librarians, 1496 Chemical Abstracts (CA) in international abstracting service, 1513 on-the-job training, 1466 as source of information, 169 Chemical Abstracts Service, 1466 Chemical-Biological Coordination Center, 711, 1423 Chemical compounds; see also Chemistry encoding and decoding systems, 712 grouping of, 1122 Haystaq system for, 1143 need for information on, 1202 notation for, 1212 problems of indexing, 1207 structural formulas, genus-species relationships, 1146 in VS3 index of codes, 1137 Chemical data correlation with biological data, 711 Chemical engineering bibliography of studies of literature, 41 Chemical structures computer for recopying, 727 encoding, 714, 715 limitations of machine documentation system, 729 printed electronically, 711 searching and printing flow diagrams, 725 topological principle in recording, 712 Chemistry abstracting of, 1527, 1533 bibliography of studies of literature, 36 codes for storage, disadvantages of, 714 coding formulas in patents, 1075 coding rings, 1121 deficiencies in reviews, 547 documentation center for, 550 equipment cost for input and searching, 682 grouping of codes for data, 671 Haystaq system for, 1143 indexing, 856 international cooperation in abstracting, 1512 journals covered in survey, 242 laboratory and library chemists, relative positions of, 551 machine documentation of, 713 Matrex system used in Patent Office, 676 most-read reviews, 547 organic compound disclosures, 1117 in Patent Office experiment, 680 questionnaire on reviews, 551 reviews, suggested improvements in, 553 skeletal formula in VS3, 1138 storage and retrieval, Patent Office system of, 673 structural formulas, genus-specific relationships, 1146 type of journal to publish reviews, 555 variable scope search system for organic compounds, 1117 Chemists allocation of time, 104, 106 industrial, use of reviews, 650 random sample of American Chemical Society and National Science Foundation, 102 reviews, importance of, to, 545 in study of dissemination, 102 time spent by, in communication, 301 Chile facilities for training in documentation, 1460 Citation index, 462, 824 Civil engineering bibliography of studies of literature, 40 CLA, see Canadian Library Association

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--> Classification, 819, 1260, 1294; see also Codes choice of, for aerodynamics, 772 difficulties, 91 facet analysis, 827, 858 general and special, 878 in Haystaq system, 1161, 1162 hierarchic, 1300, 1305 Library of Congress, 1343 multiple criterion, 1298 of Patent Office, 1343, 1346, 1352 of patents, special, 1074 with peek-a-boo, 771 for physics abstracting, 1512 principles in Batten system, 742 requirements for construction of system, 868 schedules for faceted, 884 schedules in retrieval tests on aerodynamics, 797 by single criterion, 1297 special problems, 875 by subject headings, 1301 subordination problem in technological information, 1295 Classification Research Group, 867, 868, 878, 883 Class inclusion subordination problem in information classification, 1295 Clippings for physics abstracting, 1510 CNET, see Centre National d’ Etudes des Telecommunications CNLA, see Council of National Library Associations CNRS, see Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Codes; see also Classification algebraic representation of, 1313 binary, 848, 851 conventional grouping for chemical data, 671, 678 designations and symbols, 837 disadvantages of, for chemistry, 714 inverted grouping for chemical data, 671, 678 number used in aerodynamics tests of retrieval, 777 for storage and retrieval, 1313 Coding, 1043, 1292; see also Codes analysis of, by Taylor system, 1320 carburettors, 1081 chemical formulas in patents, 1075 in descriptive documentation of Patent Office, 1100 of energy path in machine disclosures, 1108 exact pattern, 1125 of geometrical shapes, 889 hierarchical in patent search, 1094 letter, empirical check of, 914 by location, 838 in metallurgical abstracting, 402 nonrandom superimposed, 905 random superimposed, 903 representations, 889 requirements, 839 retrieval, abstract theory of, 1365 of sequences, 1113 set-subset, 1125 simplicity, 840 superimposed, 903 superposition, 1366, 1367 Coincidence, 1301 Collating, 1248, 1301 Comac system, 1245 example in uniterm system, 743 Colleges facilities for training in documentation, 1441 responsibilities for information techniques, 1431 Colombia facilities for training in documentation, 1460 Colon classification, 859, 867, 869, 881; see also Classification of Ranganathan, 1343, 1350 Comac, 1245 advantages, 1252 collating, 1248 searching, 1246 Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux comprehensive information service of, 571 use of abstracts, 524 Communication, see also Dissemination; Retrieval; Storage accidental, 205, 206 analogy of retrieval systems, 1366 answers to specific questions, 208, 212 Arabic, 1029 Aramaic, 1029 aspects of information perception, 304

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-->   behavior of scientists in relation to, 206, 219, 222 channels of, 201, 202, 208, 1027 context, 1037 cooperation of mathematicians and linguists needed for problems of, 1034–1036 documentary, 1011 Esperanto, 1031 formal and informal, 200 forms of, 1047 global, 1027 Interlingua, 1030 interlingual, 1027, 1045 Latin, 1029 meanings, 1037, 1041, 1042, 1044 mechanics of, 1028 mechanisms, unplanned, 203 medium of, 1029 microscopic problems, 1039 person-to-person, 196, 199, 209, 212, 219, 301, 306, 1187 planned and unplanned, 199 post-Hellenistic Greek, 1029 problem of creative acts of imagination, 1042 schematic of idealized channel, 1366 of scientific concepts by semantic matrices, 1001 selective variation, 1040 single form of, 1029 so-called international, 1027 so-called universal, 1029 square of, 1010 supralinguistic, 1028, 1032, 1045 theory, 1033 time spent by chemists, 301 transformations of, 1040 unplanned, 205 versus dissemination, 87 Communication research sociological, 200 Communication system, 201, 206 functions of, 201 Communitivity of characters, 1363 Compendia, 652 international, 1531 Computers accuracy of retrieval, 705 arranged to provide preparation of announcement lists, 1198 compactness of system for retrieval, 708 convenience of retrieval, 699, 706 disadvantages of, 1208, 1218 evaluation of systems for retrieval, 705 intermediate-sized, for retrieval, 700 recopying function for reports, 727 special purpose, arranged to retrieve, 1192, 1196 speed of retrieval, 706 use of, with Tabledex, 1223 Concept synonymous terms, 743 Conference papers unpublished, 475 Conferences organized by international center, 1518 Contents use of table of, to cut time lag, 600 Continuous multiple access collator, see Comac Contract provisions for cooperation in information services, 1437 Control technology coordination of documentation, 498 Conversation, see Communication, person-to-person Cooperation limits of international, 1523 Coordination, 1301 desirability of, 1523 of documentation methods, 502 false, 1307, 1310 false, in uniterm system, 744 of reviews, advantage of, 556 Coordinatization in retrieval, 1377 Copyright provided for in international agreements, 1439 Cordonnier-Batten system; see Peek-a-boo Correspondence courses of Association of Assistant Librarians, 1500 for training in information work, 1500 Costs; see also Savings of access apparatus, 1311 of bibliographic cards, 507, 508 of bibliographies and bibliographic services, 381, 383

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-->   of bibliographies by size, 385 cooperation and coordination of documentation and abstracting, 507 disadvantage of computers for information retrieval, 1208 effect of quality of bibliographies and bibliographic services, 382 of equipment for input and searching chemical data, 682 of Haystaq, 1159, 1170, 1177 of indexing, 1311 related to coverage in abstracting, 528 relation to benefits in documentation, 805 of retrieval, 687, 709 of search, 1311 of specialized abstracts, 1538 storage and retrieval of information, 1293 of uniterm system, 1302 Council of National Library Associations (CNLA), 1464 Coverage of indexes and abstracts, 330 need for centralization in abstract journals, 512 Crerar Library literature surveys, preparation of, 1465 Cross references in thesaurus, 925 Crystallography International Union of Crystallography, 611 Custom duties abolition of, for exchange of scientific information, 1520 Czechoslovakia facilities for training in documentation, 1451 Data tables for instruments, 91 DDC, see Dewey Decimal Classification Denmark facilities for training in documentation, 1448 study of literature and reference needs, 42 Department of Scientific and Industrial Research of the United Kingdom, 246, 311 survey of use of technical literature, 246 Descriptors, 1301; see also Keywords; Uniterm cardinal product of, 1338 choice of, for Haystaq, 1148,1149 defined for Haystaq, 1145, 1176 definition, 743 discrimination between subjects, 863 in Haystaq system, 1145, 1148–1150, 1152, 1176 in indexing system, 861 kinds of, in indexing for retrieval, 861 ordering of, for Haystaq, 1150, 1152 problems of hierarchical, 862 of VS3, 1120 Design of systems, 818 Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), 867, 883, 1346 Diaries methods of scientists to secure information from, 169 notes on use of cards, 178 number of items, 170 relation to reading time, 149 as survey method, 175 use of, 147 Dictionaries entries, 953, 954 of information requirements, 1182 for instruments, 91 stem entries, 960 storage on magnetic tape or punched cards, 955 of terms, need for and limitations, 747 of terms, required for punched-card system, 749 of terms, uniterms in, 752 of USSR, 515 Disclosures machine, 1106 method, as sequence of states of material, 1104 in patent literature, 1098 technical, analysis by flow diagram, 1107 of technical documents, 1099 Discourse analysis of mathematical theory of, 1037 Discovery versus recall, 1063 Discrimination criteria of, 863 in subject analysis, 863 Dissemination; see also Communication consumption as phase of, 98

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-->   distribution as phase of, 98 forms used by Case Institute for study, 118 phases, 97 through reprints, 92 study by Case Institute of Technology, 97 versus communication, 87 Documentation, 1027; see also Documents accession data as measure of work load, 739 advantage of centralization, 556 analysis of, in professional field, 502 Batten system, 740 better organization in international agencies, 593 bibliographical research service at French center, 609 bibliographies, determination of number of, 503 bulletins published by centers, 602 cataloguing in, 738 center for chemical information, 550 center in France, 605 centralization of, 556 concept of systems, 1047 cooperation with abstracting, 497 cooperation among organizations, 506 coordination and cooperation with abstracting in Europe, 497, 501 cost-benefit relationship, 805 coverage in French center, 606 definition of systems, 1050 descriptive, 1097 difficulties with manipulative systems, 1063 distribution of information in cooperative program, 505 elements in problem, 1365 environmental factors of, 805 facilities for training in, 1467 facilities for training outside North America and Europe, 1458 French center, 594 input to system, 1055 international center, 1543 Italian center, 594 language problem, 589 limitations of system for chemical structures, 729 manipulation time of system, 1065 manual systems, 743 national centers, 593, 595 national centers associated with Unesco, 594 organization of cooperative program with abstracting, 503 output of system, 1061 patterns of responsibility for training, 1468 practice versus theory, 808 prediction in design of systems, 1054 problems of improvement of systems, 805 publications, determination of number of, 502 publications of French center, 607 savings through cooperation, 507, 508 in South Asia, 589 speed and coverage, 589 standardization, 509. stimulus of United Nations, 1436 structure of systems, 1050 as tool of literature search, 631 training for, see Training translation service at Center of Documentation in France, 610 use of hand-punched and machine-punched cards, 509 use of microfilm at French center, 610 variables in systems of, 804 Documentation organizations determination of number, 503 Document control division in categories, 735 Document control center heterogeneity of material, 732 Documents; see also Documentation acquisition and preservation of, 1365 archaeological, 889 evolution of control, 731 increase in, 1517 lower postal rates for exchange of scientific, 1520 requests for, 1365 retrieval, 1365 subsets of collection of, 1331 types of facts drawn from, 1518 Drop-outs, 1373, 1378 derivation of percentage, 1379 Duplication caused by lack of information, 63 cooperation among organizations to prevent, 506 Dyestuffs card index for patents, 1074

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--> Dyson system for indexing chemical compounds, 1207 Economic sciences coordinated documentation, 500 Economic studies definition, 614 Economy in recording with efficient coding, 839 Education, see Training Egypt documentation, 594 Electrical engineering bibliography of studies of literature, 39 coordinated documentation, 497 Electrical engineers Association of German Electrical Engineers, 498 Electrical industry journals listed in survey, 264 survey of literature uses, 245 Encoding elimination of, in direct search, 976 Energetics, 1034 Engineering comments on value of literature, 328 evaluation of abstracting and indexing for special projects, 321 topics in literature search analysis, 337 Epilegmata, 1038 Equivalence in answers, 1162, 1164, 1165 Equivalence table in Haystaq system, 1153 Esperanto, 1031, 1044 Esso Research and Engineering Company, 1524 Europe Belgium’s facilities for training in documentation, 1452 centers for distribution of information, 542 coordination and cooperation of abstracting and documentation, 501 Czechoslovakia’s facilities for training in documentation, 1451 Denmark’s facilities for training in documentation, 1448 France’s facilities for training in documentation, 1450 Germany’s facilities for training in documentation, 1453 Hungary’s facilities for training in documentation, 1451 Italy’s facilities for training in documentation, 1455 Netherlands’ facilities for training in documentation, 1447 Norway’s facilities for training in documentation, 1449 Poland’s facilities for training in documentation, 1454 Spain’s facilities for training in documentation, 1457 Sweden’s facilities for training in documentation, 1449 Switzerland’s facilities for training in documentation, 1455 training facilities for documentation, 1444 United Kingdom’s facilities for training in documentation, 1445 USSR’s facilities for training in documentation, 1456 Expansibility of Haystaq system, 1159 Facet analysis, 827, 858, 867, 1260 Facets dependent, 875 distributed, 873 P, M, E, S, T sequence, 871 principle of decreasing concreteness, 871 Ranganathan sequence, 871 sequence within, 870 False drops in Haystaq system, 1159, 1169, 1170 Filmorex, 850 use in test, 1209 Financing comprehensive storage-retrieval of biological information, 1417, 1424 information services, 1435 international institute for information, 1530 Finland study of literature and reference needs, 42 Flexibility of Haystaq system, 1145 Flexowriter use in information handling system, 1210 Food Machinery and Chemical Company, 1524

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--> Food technology bibliography of studies of literature, 41 faceted classification for, 876 Foreign literature as source of information, 169 Forest science abstracts of literature, 273 American, European, and Asian literature, 269 bibliographies on, 271, 274 books on, 269 classification of literature, 273 duplication of effort through lack of information, 271 information in irregularly published serials, 270 journals on, 269 libraries for, 274 relation to photogrammetry, 271 unpublished information, 270 Forest scientists minimum reliance on literature, 268 use of literature and reference services, 267 Forrestal Research Center, 321 items on loan, 324 journals and indexes in analysis, 336 topics in literature search analysis, 337 France aims of Center of Documentation, 606 bibliographical research service at Center of Documentation, 609 CNRS, see Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique facilities for training in documentation, 1450 Library of Center of Documentation, 607 publications of Center of Documentation, 607 translation service at Center of Documentation, 610 use of microfilm at Center of Documentation, 610 Frequencies of letters, 906–914 Fungus catalogue, 429 Generic questions, 1054, 1066 Genus-species relationships self-defining system, 1149, 1152, 1153, 1155, 1156 among simultaneous questions, 1165 in structural formulas, 1146 Geology bibliography of studies of literature, 36 Geophysics lack of abstracting, 1527 Germany facilities for training in documentation, 1453 patents of, treatment in research organization, 641 Glossodynamics, 1044 Government responsibilities for scientific information, 1430 Grammar in mechanical translation, 919 in searching, 977 “universal,” 1045 Gray Herbarium Card Index, 429 Great Britain training for scientific information work, 1495 treatment of patents in research organization, 641 Groups size of, effect on time allocation, 113 Handbook of Biological Data, 1423 Handbooks definition of, 457 Tabledex for coordinate indexing of, 1229 Harvard Automatic Dictionary, 951 Haystaq; see also Literature search characteristics and aims, 1143–1145 classification, 1161, 1162 cost, 1159, 1170, 1177 description, 1148 effectiveness of system, 1159, 1169 equivalence table, 1153 evaluation of literature search system, 1169 expansibility of system, 1159 false drops, 1159, 1169, 1170 flexibility of system, 1145 functional groups, 1148–1150, 1156, 1159 genus-species relationships, 1146, 1149, 1152, 1153, 1155, 1156, 1165 machines for, 1167, 1168, 1177 magnitude of system, 1143, 1144, 1159, 1160 noise in system, 1160, 1169, 1170

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-->   centers for, 541 centralized system of USSR, 511 criticisms of, 142 exchange of, by VINITI, 516 of the French Center of Documentation, 607 kinds of abstracts for, 526 media, 61 national listings, 598 nonperiodical, for physics, 1512 numbers by affiliations, 60 peripheral, in documentation of biology, 429 primary, responsibility for biology information, 1420 relative importance of, 52 reviews, 546, 553 secondary, 90; see also Abstracts; Bibliographies; Indexes for training in documentation, 1441 Punched card, 749 collating system, see Comac indication of interrelations by perforations, 1094 limitations of, 1218 for patent novelty search, 1084 subdivision in novelty search, 1086 not suitable for notations of large systems, 1208 used in VS3, 1142 Punched tape use of in information handling system, 1209 Punctuation, 1043 Purdue University Thermophysical Properties Research Center, see Thermophysical Properties Research Center Questionnaire review literature and the chemist, 551 sample, for research workers on use of scientific and technical information, 74 for survey of United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority Research and Development Branch, 156 for study of uses of literature, 20 Questions in aerodynamics retrieval tests, 775 discovery versus recall, 1063 distribution of, in Linde system, 766 distribution into types, 766 frequency of, in retrieval, 763 generic, 1054, 1066 generic-specific relationships in VS3, 1119 meaning of, 768 simultaneous, genus-species relationships, 1165 types, 1256 types, in Haystaq, 1171 Quick reference services, 56 use of, 46 Radix numeration binary, 1316 Reading limiting scope, 80 random, 81 systematic, 81 time spent, 48 time for, at work, 137 variations in rates of speed, 304 Read out device, as integral part of Peek-a-boo system, 745 Recall versus discovery, 1063 Recruitment source of, of information officers, 1495 Redundancy, 748 Reference questions analysis of, 181 concepts contained in, 184 References Bradford law of scattering, 1315 Reference services accessibility, 55 bibliography of studies of, 20 use by forest scientists, 267 Reference works, see Books Refiling elimination of, with Comac, 1253 Registration of information officers, 1500 Relevance, 1559 limits in retrieval system, 1277 versus contents, 1406 Reliability of information, 91 Reports to supplement storage and retrieval, 87 value of, 555

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--> Reports list criticism of, 142 as source of information, 169 Representation algebraic, of storage and retrieval languages, 1313 of structures, 1331 Representations coding of, 889 coding by abstract design, 890 definition, 889 iconographical compositions, coding of, 891 three-dimensional constructions, coding of, 890 Research on natural languages, 1263 reports of, relative importance of, 52, 555 reviews of, 572, 577 time available for, 99 Research and development Tabledex for coordinating contracts, 1230 use of information and literature, 131 Researchers in applied research, 81 in fundamental research, 81 need for information, 84 responsibility for biology information, 1419 Research funds responsibilities for biology information, 1418 Research organization information handling system, 1181 Responsibilities for information storage-retrieval in biology, 1417 Retrieval; see also Communications; Storage abstract theory, 1365 accuracy, 705 administrator’s veiwpoint, 701, 708 application of transformations to, 941 aspects of, 77 based on descriptors, 1336 of chemical structures, 724 Comac system, 1245 convenience, 706 coordinate, by Tabledex, 1222 costs, 534, 687 criteria of satisfactory system, 700 definition, 699, 1275 documentalist’s viewpoint, 701, 707 effective methods, 170 evaluation of systems, 687, 705 experiment in, on aerodynamics, 771 factors in system, 699 forms of analysis in, 856 in indexing-abstracting system, 458 indexing cost, 688 interlocking relations, 1277 intermediate-sized computers for, 700 lack of comprehensive means for, 1524 language symbols, used in, 1329 on large electronic computers, 699 in large research organization, 1188 limitations of formal logic in, 1354 limitations of, by machine, 1189 Linde system, 763 linguistic transformations for, 937 mathematical, of abstract system, 1369 mathematical model for, 1328 matrix (double entry table) representation, 1314 matrix theory of, 1370 maze structure, 1383 microfilm rapid selector, 1208 Moore’s algorithms for finding shortest path through maze structure, 1383 physical mechanisms of system, 1275 plan of system, 1329 power of, relation to hierarchical definition, 1309 problems of, 1524 questions, frequency of, 763 questions in tests, 692, 781 relevance of documents in aerodynamics tests, 778 semantics, 804 simplification of tensors, 1376 space used in mathematical models of, 1330, 1331 status of kernels, 944 structural analysis of system, 1275 subject analysis for, 855, 1275 symbols used, 764 systems of, 1368, 1385 systems in relation to people, 1557 Tabledex, 1221 tests in aerodynamics, 774 thesaurus approach, 934 two-stage versus one-stage, 1265 with uniterm system, 1303

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-->   user’s viewpoint, 701, 705 variations in information, 804 Reviews, 541, 649 advantage of coordination, 556 of All-Union Institute for Scientific and Technical Information, 515 annotation in, of VINITI, 519 articles and journals, 545 in biological sciences, 571 chemical, deficiencies in, 547 complexity of subject matter, 574 of concepts, 581 control of publication, 549 costs of publication, 546 creative, 584 facilities for work in preparation of, 585 faulty technique, 576 importance to chemist, 545 interpretive, 581 in Japan, 599 lag in publication, 546 list of journals in survey, 561 most read, 547 occasional, 572 periodical, 571 presentation of, 576 publications consulted for reviews, 574 quality of, 546 relative importance of, 52 research type, 572, 577 as source of information, 169 statistical, 578 suggested improvements for literature and reference services, 67, 553 tabulation of data of survey, 564 type of journal to publish, 555 use of, by industrial chemists, 650 usefulness of Advances, 553 value of, 575 waste in, 576 Rings; see also Chemistry coding of, 1121, 1126 in Haystaq system, 1153 in VS3, index of chains, 1135 Royal Aircraft Establishment classification for aerodynamics, 771 Royal Society of London Conference on Storage and Retrieval of Scientific Information, 77 Scientific Information Conference, 3, 1490 Rubber technology bibliography of studies of literature, 41 Rubrics generation rate, 736 Russia, see USSR Russian; see also USSR difficulties of generating inflected forms, 956, 967 generation of paradigms and canonical stems, 966 split inflected forms, 968 Russian dictionary assembled, 972 work sheet, 969 Russian Institute of Scientific Information in international abstracting services, 1513 Russian literature in physics, 1510 Savings; see also Costs through cooperation and coordination, 507 Scandinavian Council for Applied Research, 19 Scandinavian scientists literature and reference needs, 42 Science information center disadvantages, 1423 proposals for, 1423 Science Museum Library, 287 non-loanable periodicals, 293 titles borrowed, 294 Scientists difficulties in keeping up with advances, 62 individual’s methods of storing information, 1537 methods of literature searching, 139 motivation of, to be informed, 222 needs of, 1255 personal indexes, 55, 140 publications, difficulties with, 62 requirements for information, 189 responsibilities for biology information, 1418 time expenditures of, 100 use of foreign language literature, 53 use of literature related to affiliation, 70 use of literature in relation to education, 70 SEAC, 1144, 1158, 1177 Search abstracts required, 58 by association, 1163

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-->   blank sorts, 1064 carburettor project, 1071 character recognition by machines, 1160 chemical literature, 1143 of chemical structure, preparing question for, 722 in Comac system, 1246 comprehensive, 57 continuous scanning, 58 criteria for, 1159, 1160 critical survey, 58 direct, advantages of, 976 equivalence in answers, 1162, 1164, 1165 file, 1199 flexibility of system, 1145 generic, 1373 generic, of chemical compounds, 711 grammar, role of, 977 Haystaq, 1153 internal, 1558 in large research organization, 1188 machine, 1166–1168, 1177, 1191 methods in special, 629 novelty, mechanization of, 1071 outside the literature, 208 perforations to indicate interrelationship of characteristics, 1085 program for chemical structures, 723 system evaluation, 1169 time spent, 48 translation required, 58 variable scope system, 1117, 1130 Secondary publications, see Abstracts; Bibliographies; Indexes Selection, 1368 in abstracting and indexing, 1056 conditions for, 827 of irrelevant information, 1065 by set inclusion, 1336 uniqueness of process, 1373 Semantic matrices, 997 application of principles, 1006 characteristics of, 1004 for communication of scientific concepts, 1001 conventions for, 1015 defined, 997 formal theory, 1003 Semantics difficulties of, in documentation, 805 indeterminacy, 1310 modes of analysis, 856 problem of storage and retrieval, 804 problems in indexing, 855 Sequence alphabetical, 874 coding of, 1113 Shaw rapid selector, see Microfilm rapid selector Signals in VS3, 1123 SLA, see Special Libraries Association Social sciences bibliography of studies of literature, 34 Societies biological, responsibilities for information, 1421 professional, training for documentation, 1470 responsibilities for scientific information, 1430 Sorting, 1316 Sources of information divisional libraries at Harwell, 165 evaluation of, 138 by experiment, 80 information office at Harwell, 164 proportionate uses, 169 in relation to fields of activity, 152 as revealed by diaries, 169 survey of methods used by scientists, 165 verbal versus literature, 47 South Africa; see also Union of South Africa Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), 1429 South America Argentina’s facilities for training in documentation, 1459 Brazil’s facilities for training in documentation, 1460 Chile’s facilities for training in documentation, 1460 Colombia’s facilities for training in documentation, 1460 facilities for training in documentation, 1459 Peru’s facilities for training in documentation, 1460 Venezuela’s facilities for training in documentation, 1461 South Asia, see also Insdoc

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-->   documentation in, 589 postal delay of journals, 592 scientific publications, 598 Soviet; see USSR Space used on mathematical models of retrieval, 1330, 1331 Spaces (alphabetical characters) properties of, 1314 Space saving in use of microfilm, 533 Spain training facilities for documentation, 1457 Specialization enforced, of scientists, 80 in human knowledge, 1028 problems of, 206 relation to classification of information, 206 Special Libraries Association (SLA), 1431, 1463, 1464 chapters of, 1488 Special library training for work in, see Training Specific and subspecific names checklist, 430 Specifications entries per document, 747 as experimental satellite file, 746 of patents, see Patent Office; Patents Standardization importance of, in classification systems, 509 Standards search for, 620 Statistical review; see also Reviews basal metabolism study, 578 Statistics dependence of linguistics on, 1034 Stem entries, 960 Stieltjes partial fraction form of vocabularies, 1324 Storage; see also Retrieval aspects of, 77 of chemical structures, 719 Comac system, 1245 in large research organization, 1188 problem of modern man, 1028 random access, 1366 relation to collation, 1249 semantics, 804 of texts, 945 variations in information, 804 variations in size, 804 Storage and retrieval systems general theory, 1273 operational efficiency, 1286 problem created by technological information, 1294 structural criteria, 1285 Structural engineering coordinated abstracting and documentation, 499 Structure of documentation systems, 1050 Subject analysis analytic relations, 859 facets, 859 modulants, 859 optimum level of discrimination, 863 Subject catalogue maze attributes, 1385 relationship of completeness and effectiveness, 377 Subject headings classification by, 1301 Subject indexing; see also Indexing overlap of interests, 327 prerequisites for quality, 334 problems of, 318 relation to abstracting, 318 Subjects specific, in information retrieval system, 1276 Subject slanting, 524, 525 in papers with author abstracts, 413 Subject word amount of information in letters, 910 cumulative letter frequencies, 911 frequencies, 906 redundancy of letters, 910, 912 Subscriptions of Scandinavians, by groups, 50 to VINITI publications, 516 Substitute information suggestion of, 1065 Super lattices, 1363 Sweden facilities for training in documentation, 1449

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--> Switzerland facilities for training in documentation, 1455 Syllabus of Library Association (London), 1497 for training information officers, 1491 Symbolic logic, 1035 Symbols, 1044; see also Linguistics; Notation for coding, 837 combination of, 1044 language, used in retrieval, 1329 in retrieval, 764 supralinguistic, 1043 Symposia; see also Meetings organized by international center, 1518 Syntax, 1038 difficulties of, in communication, 1038 in mechanical translation, 919 translation of, 927 Systems evaluation of, 820 Tabledex advantages, 1222 applications of, 1229 article list, 1240 article numbers, 1227 coordinate indexing method, 1221 matrix, 1226 parts, 1223 tables, 1224, 1227, 1233, 1235, 1241 word list, 1241 word list example, 1233 word numbers, 1227 Taxonomy elements of, in heterogeneous collection, 745 of materials, in information center, 737 original classification procedure, 1400 Taylor system, 1317, 1320 Technologists, 81 abstracts, use of, 251 amount of reading, 249 attention drawn to literature, 251 correlation of characteristics, 248 industrial, use of literature, 245 interview schedule for use of literature, 257 literature as source of ideas, 254 literature used by, 250 meetings as source of information, 251 responsibility for biology information, 1419 use of libraries, 255 Tensors, 1372 reduction, 1375 retrieval, simplification of, 1376 Term-associative index, 1392 Term-document index, see Peek-a-boo Term entry systems, 1279 Text direct search of, 975 Textbooks, see Books Textile technology bibliography of studies of literature, 41 Thematical plan by departments, 191 to determine information requirements, 189 by individuals, 190 by subjects, 190 Thermophysical Properties Research Center, 351 operational procedure of analysis, 365 results of analysis, 365 Thermophysics analysis of method of literature search, 351 Thesaurus approach to retrieval, 934 technical 1060 use of, for translation of semantic meaning, 923 Time allocation by activity, 106 allocation affected by group size, 113 allocation of, by chemists, 104 allocation of, for written and oral dissemination, 106 amount needed to keep up to date with literature, 220 decrease in search, with Comac, 1252 expenditure of, by scientists, 100 manipulation, in documentation systems, 1065 required for novelty patent search, 1095 Time lag comparison of translation and postal delays, 593 microfilm to reduce, 596 postal delays, 591 reasons for, 591

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--> Time studies in retrieval tests on aerodynamics, 778 Town planning bibliography of studies of literature, 41 Trade literature in search activities, 632 Trade marks coding, 901 Training for documentation, 1441, 1544 for documentation by Aslib, 1486 in documentation, patterns of responsibility, 1468 in documentation, by professional societies, 1470 facilities for, in documentation, 1467 of information officer, 1489 in-service, in librarianship, 1470 on-the-job, 1441, 1466 patterns of, for documentation work, 1467 for scientific information work in Great Britain, 1495 Transformations application to retrieval, 941 kernels, 940 linguistic, 938 machine application, 948 T2 with descriptors, 1338 used in mathematical models of retrieval, 1330 Translation, 1029, 1030, 1032, 1160; see also Machine translation cause of time lag in publication, 591 at Center of Documentation in France, 610 difficulties of, in communication, 1030 as factor in time lag, 592 idea by idea, 1043 of languages not commonly understood, 600 of material in “exotic” languages, 1524 required in searches, 58 of Russian journals by American Institute of Physics, 1511 of semantic meaning, 923 sentence by sentence, 1040 of syntax, 927 word for word, 1032, 1043 Transliteration uniformity of, in abstracting, 487 Transmission defects, 79 delay in, 79 historical account, 79 waste in, 79 UDC, 867, 881, 883 system for indexing, 688 thematical plan arrangement by, 190 Unesco; see also United Nations documentation agencies, 594 listing of South Asia publications, 598 stimulus to physics abstracting, 1508 suggestions for collection of scientific information, 599 training in documentation, contribution to, 1442 Unified author index, 464 Unified index, 461 advantages, 462 centralization of, 466 cost of preparation, 465 description, 463 publication of, 465 unabstracted articles, 466 Union of South Africa facilities for training in documentation, 1458 United Kingdom Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, 246, 311 Library Association (London), 1495 training facilities for documentation, 1445 United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell, 164 questionnaire used by, 156 survey of use of information and literature, 132 United Kingdom Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, see Department of Scientific and Industrial Research of the United Kingdom United Kingdom Lending Library Unit, see Lending Library Unit United Nations; see also Unesco organization of documentation in agencies of, 593 stimulus to documentation, 1436 United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, see Unesco

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--> United States facilities for training in documentation, 1461 patents, treatment of, in research organization, 640; see also Patent Office training for documentation, 1469 United States Department of Agriculture biological, indexing in, 429 use of Shaw rapid selector, 1208 United States Patent Office, see Patent Office Uniterm, 1301, 1332; see also Descriptors; Keywords advantages of, in indexing, 743, 744 approach in indexing, 688, 736 comparison with edge-punched system in test, 737 disadvantages of, 744, 1302 loss of cards, 744 simplicity of, 744 size of file, 744 synonymous terms, 743 Universal Decimal Classification, see UDC Universities responsibilities for information techniques, 1431 University of Michigan School of Natural Resources literature system for forest science, 274 Unpublished conference papers, 475 Use of scientific information data, 89 related to kind of work, 70 User relevance, 863 Users of information, 81 Uses of scientific information, theories and ideas, 89 USSR; see also Russian Abstracts Journal, 513 facilities for training in documentation, 1456 history of abstracting in, 511 history of periodicals in, 512 medical research information, 277 USSR Academy of Sciences All-Union Institute for Scientific and Technical Information, 511 Mechanical Translation Research Group, see Mechanical Translation Research Group Variable scope search systems, see VS3 VDE, see Association of German Electrical Engineers Venezuela facilities for training in documentation, 1461 Verbal sources versus literature, 47 VINITI, see All-Union Institute for Scientific and Technical Information Vocabularies algebraic representation of, 1320 coincidence by nomenclature and notations, 1066 generation of hierarchies, 1322 partial fraction (Stieltjes’) form, 1324 repetitive, 1321, 1323 VS3 codes, 1119 coding sheet, 1139 descriptors, 1120 features of, 1118 index of codes, 1133 interfix, 1123 of Patent Office, 1117 for polymers, 1131 punched card used, 1142 signals, 1123 skeletal formula, 1138 substantive codes of, 1120 vocabulary of system, 1119 Welch Medical Library Indexing Project, 442 Willis system of notation for botanical entries, 1212, 1214 Wiswesser system of notation for chemical compounds, 1212 Word list end alphabetized, 964 Words distribution among major groups, 959 World Health Organization cooperation in international abstracting service, 1520 Writers, 81 Zatocoding, 903 Zipf-Mandelbrot law word rank and frequency, 1315 Zoological Record, 429 Zoology; see also Biological sciences grouping in medical and veterinary, 430 journals covered in survey, 243

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--> A NOTE ON THE TYPOGRAPHY The graceful and legible type face in which this book is composed is Monotype Bembo. The roman was adapted in 1929 from a fifteenth century model first used by the publisher, Aldus Manutius, for a pamphlet by a young Renaissance scholar, Pietro Bembo. The italic used here was developed some years after the roman appeared. It is based on designs used in Venice after 1524 by the writing-master Tagliente. Bembo is a popular face for literary work, particularly abroad, but it has not often been used for scientific material. The text of this book has been composed with the expectation that electronic computers will be used in analyzing the material for storage and search. Indeed, results of one such experiment were shown among the exhibits during the Conference. The skilled reader may have noted unusually wide spacing between sentences. This results from use of double spaces after sentence stops to enable electronic computers easily to discriminate sentence endings from periods used in figures, abbreviations, and so forth. The punched tapes from the monotype keyboard machines from which type for this book was cast have been preserved for other computer experiments. Arrangements to borrow the tapes may be made through the National Academy of Sciences.