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Subject Slanting in Scientific Abstracting Publications1

SAUL HERNER

In recent years, as a result of rising publishing costs and a general increase in scientific publication, the burden placed upon scientific indexing and abstracting publications has mounted significantly. This increased burden on indexing and abstracting publications and their growing inability to cover the scientific literature adequately have given rise to discussions of the feasibility of cooperative abstracting and the common use and exchange of abstracts among the various indexing and abstracting agencies. Various assemblages, including the Royal Society Scientific Information Conference, the Unesco International Conference on Science Abstracting, and, more recently, a meeting of the major American abstracting publications, have given careful and detailed consideration to inter-agency cooperation.

One question which arises in connection with the feasibility of the common use and exchange of abstracts is whether abstracts in the various abstracting publications differ so greatly in structure, content, and emphasis as to necessitate independent preparation, or whether they are similar enough to permit cooperation or exchange. The present paper is a discussion of the results of a detailed analysis and comparison of the abstracting treatment given to representative papers from 51 prominent scientific periodicals by nine major indexing and abstracting publications.

Method of execution

Since the purpose of the study was to ascertain similarities and differences in the manner in which a given paper is abstracted in the several indexing and abstracting publications, the first step was to obtain a representative sample of papers with a great likelihood of having been abstracted two or more times.

SAUL HERNER Herner and Company, Washington, D.C.

1  

The work discussed in this paper was done under Agreement NSF-G3945, with the National Science Foundation.



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--> Subject Slanting in Scientific Abstracting Publications1 SAUL HERNER In recent years, as a result of rising publishing costs and a general increase in scientific publication, the burden placed upon scientific indexing and abstracting publications has mounted significantly. This increased burden on indexing and abstracting publications and their growing inability to cover the scientific literature adequately have given rise to discussions of the feasibility of cooperative abstracting and the common use and exchange of abstracts among the various indexing and abstracting agencies. Various assemblages, including the Royal Society Scientific Information Conference, the Unesco International Conference on Science Abstracting, and, more recently, a meeting of the major American abstracting publications, have given careful and detailed consideration to inter-agency cooperation. One question which arises in connection with the feasibility of the common use and exchange of abstracts is whether abstracts in the various abstracting publications differ so greatly in structure, content, and emphasis as to necessitate independent preparation, or whether they are similar enough to permit cooperation or exchange. The present paper is a discussion of the results of a detailed analysis and comparison of the abstracting treatment given to representative papers from 51 prominent scientific periodicals by nine major indexing and abstracting publications. Method of execution Since the purpose of the study was to ascertain similarities and differences in the manner in which a given paper is abstracted in the several indexing and abstracting publications, the first step was to obtain a representative sample of papers with a great likelihood of having been abstracted two or more times. SAUL HERNER Herner and Company, Washington, D.C. 1   The work discussed in this paper was done under Agreement NSF-G3945, with the National Science Foundation.

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--> This was done by selecting a random sample of 516 papers from the 51 most-cited periodicals in Brown’s study of the most frequently cited serials in mathematics, physics, chemistry, geology, physiology, botany, zoology, and entomology. (Cf. C.H.Brown, Scientific Serials, pp. 71–142, Association of College and Reference Libraries, Chicago, 1956.) The 51 journals studied are given in Appendix I. By taking a random sample from the most-cited journals on Brown’s list, it was possible to ensure that the papers selected for study were representative of their fields, and that they were in journals with a high probability of being abstracted in two or more abstracting publications. In the selection of papers for study, the January, 1955, issue of each of the sample journals was used. Where publications were issued more frequently than once a month, all issues for the month of January, 1955, were used. Where a given journal was issued less frequently than once a month, and where there was no January, 1955, issue, the first available issue for 1955 was used. The year 1955 was selected as being the latest in which there was a reasonable certainty that the annual indexes to the abstracting publications had been published. The month of January was selected because it permitted the greatest possible amount of time during the year for the abstracting publications to have picked up the papers in the sample. As it developed, it was necessary to turn also to the 1956 issues of the nine abstracting publications in order to obtain a full definition of the abstracting treatment given the 516 sample papers. The selection and recording of the sample papers was done as follows. A count was made of the total number of articles in the test issues of the 51 specimen journals. This number was divided by 500, the total number of papers required for a satisfactorily small sampling error. The resulting interval between papers was four. The first paper in each issue and every fourth paper thereafter were selected. Descriptive details were then recorded for each paper. These details included the author or authors, title, journal, volume, page, date, language, and the presence or absence of an author abstract or summary. Each paper was checked against the 1955 and 1956 indexes of the nine indexing and abstracting publications under study, which were as follows: Applied Mechanics Reviews, Biological Abstracts, British Abstracts of Medical Sciences (now International Abstracts of Biological Sciences), Chemical Abstracts, Electrical Engineering Abstracts, Geological Abstracts, Mathematical Reviews, Nuclear Science Abstracts, and Physics Abstracts. These abstracting publications were selected as being the foremost in the eight subject fields of the journals whose papers were to be analyzed, and because each was thought to cover publications in two or more of the subjects under study. The check of the specimen papers against the indexes of the nine abstracting publications produced a list of 207 papers which had been indexed two or more

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--> times. These papers are listed in Appendix II. A detailed descriptive record was made of the abstracting of each of the multi-abstracted papers. Included in the information recorded in each case were the following: name of abstract journal, presence or absence of an abstract, whether the abstract was informative or indicative, whether the abstract was a signed or an author abstract, and any distinguishing characteristics which would indicate the degree and character of subject slanting in the abstract. In addition to the descriptive records which were kept for the abstracts in the abstracting publications, analyses were made of all author abstracts or summaries appearing in the original papers. These author abstracts or summaries were given the same descriptive treatment as the abstracts in the abstracting publications. In all, a total of 483 abstracts from the abstracting publications and 152 author abstracts or summaries were examined. This made a grand total of 635 abstracts or author summaries. Content and characteristics of abstracts Of the 483 cases in which the specimen papers were picked up by more than one of the nine abstracting publications, 457 gave abstracts and 26 gave only reference citations. The bulk of the 26 items that were given only reference citations were letters to the editor, notes, communications, and other short types of papers. Of the 457 cases in which papers were actually abstracted, 385, or 84 per cent, received informative abstracts. Biological Abstracts and British Abstracts of Medical Sciences had the largest proportion and Mathematical Reviews had the smallest proportion of informative abstracts. (For the purposes of the present study, informative abstracts were defined as those giving results.) Only three of the 457 abstracts were critical, in the sense that they contained abstractor’s comments about the paper being summarized. Sixty-seven per cent of the abstracts were labeled as original abstracts, and were signed or initialed accordingly. The remaining 33 per cent were labeled as author abstracts. In the case of Biological Abstracts, a high proportion of the author abstracts were not taken directly from the papers but were prepared especially by the authors for Biological Abstracts. Distinguishing characteristics of abstracts In order to determine the distinguishing characteristics of the abstracts under study and to detect the presence or absence of subject slanting, all the abstracts of each specimen paper were reproduced and mounted on a single sheet of paper, along with the abstract or summary that appeared in the paper, in the

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--> event that there was such an abstract or summary. All sets of abstracts for the specimen papers have been retained for further study, and for perusal by other investigators.2 In the course of the preparation of the sets of abstracts, it became strikingly evident that there was a strong resemblance between the abstracts or summaries that appeared in the specimen papers and the abstracts in the abstracting publications. This resemblance prevailed regardless of whether the abstracts in the abstracting publications were marked as author abstracts or whether they were signed by abstractors other than the authors of the papers. There were, in all, 207 cases in which signed or initialed abstracts were prepared for specimen papers containing abstracts or summaries, and in which the names or initials of the abstractors were not those of the authors of the papers. From a careful comparison of these abstracts with the abstracts or summaries in the papers, it developed that 46 were verbatim copies of the author abstracts or summaries, and 119 were variations of the author abstracts or summaries. There were 42 cases where the signed or initialed abstract bore no clear relationship to the author abstract or summary. The abstracts below illustrate the comparative abstracting treatment given a specimen paper having an author’s summary. The paper, by L.L.Campbell, is entitled, “Purification and Properties of an Alpha-Amylase from Facultative Thermophilic Bacteria.” It was picked up by Chemical Abstracts, Biological Abstracts, and British Abstracts of Medical Sciences. All three abstracts were signed, and gave the appearance of original abstracts. One was signed by the author, who had prepared a special abstract for the abstracting publication involved. Following is the summary that appeared in the original paper: Conditions for the production and purification of alpha-amylase from a strain of Bacillus coagulans and a strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus, following growth at 35 and 55°C. have been determined. The procedure followed for the purification of the enzyme preparations resulted in a 450–600-fold increase in enzyme activity. A comparison of various properties of the amylase preparations showed that the only significant difference in the preparations produced at 35°C. and those produced at 55°C. was in the thermal stability at 90°C. The 55°C. preparations showed only a 6–10% reduction in activity after 1 hr., whereas the 35°C. preparations showed a 90–92% reduction in 1 hr. Following is an abstract that appeared in one of the three abstract publications: Methods for the production and purification of alpha-amylase from a strain of Bacillus coagulans and B. stearothermophilus following growth at 35 and 55°C. were determined. A comparison of various properties of the amylase preparations shows 2   These will be available at the Conference for anyone who wishes to see them.

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--> that the only significant difference in the enzyme produced at 35°C. and that produced at 55°C. is in the thermal stability at 90°C. The 55°C. preparation shows only a 6–10% reduction in activity after 1 hour, whereas the 35°C. preparations show a 90–92% reduction in 1 hour. Aside from the deletion of the second sentence and minor changes in verb tense and wording, the foregoing abstract is an exact replica of the summary that appeared in the original paper. Following is another abstract of the same paper: Conditions were determined for the production and purification of alpha-amylase from a strain of Bacillus coagulans and B. stearothermophilus after growth at 35° and 55°. The method increased the enzyme activity 450–600-fold. The only significant difference in the preparations produced at 35° and 55° was the thermal stability at 90°. The 55° preparations showed only a 6–10% reduction in activity after 1 hr.; the 35° preparations showed a 90–92% reduction in 1 hr. In the second abstract, there was only a moderate editing of the author summary and a few changes of words. The third abstract, which follows, comes closest to being completely original. It leaves out certain specific details contained in the author summary, and it includes details on method which were not included in the author’s summary. Amylases were isolated from Bacillus coagulans and Bacillus stearothermophilus grown at 35° and at 55°. After dialysis the activity of all preparations was reduced, and the enzymes were reactivated by Cl′. The temp, optima were: for the 35° enzymes, 45–55°; and for the 55° enzymes, 60–70°. Heating at 90° had little effect on the 55° enzymes, but inactivated the 35­° enzymes comparatively rapidly. Further indication of the use to which author abstracts or summaries are put by abstracting publications is obtained from an analysis of the treatment of another paper, entitled, “Determination of Sodium Content of Human Sweat by Radioactive Sodium 24,” by Decker, Genkins, and Braunwald. This paper was also picked up by Chemical Abstracts, Biological Abstracts, and British Abstracts of Medical Sciences. In two cases, the abstracts were signed by abstractors other than the authors. In the third case, the abstract was signed by the author. Following is the authors’ summary which appeared with the original paper: A method for determination of sodium concentration of sweat from local areas is described. It consists of administering radioactive sodium to subjects, and then inducing a local flow by subdermal injections of mecholyl chloride. Sweat so produced is collected by the method of Dole, Stall and Schwartz, employing filter paper discs sealed in a collecting device. Sodium concentration is derived by determining the radioactivity of the filter paper, and its increment in weight after sweat collection.

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--> Following is an abstract of the specimen paper that appeared in one of the abstracting publications: 24Na is given to the subjects, and a local flow of sweat induced by subdermal injections of mecholyl chloride. The sweat produced is collected on weighed filter paper discs sealed in a collecting device. Na concentration is derived by determining the radioactivity of the filter paper, and its increment in weight after sweat collection. The foregoing abstract is an excerpted and slightly edited version of the summary that appeared in the original paper. It leaves out the first sentence of the summary, as well as details given in the third sentence as to the origin of the method used. It includes nothing that was not included in the authors’ summary, aside from the fact that the filter paper used in the experiment was weighed in advance. Following is a second abstract of the same paper: A method for determination of Na concentration of sweat from local areas consists of administering about 100 microcuries of Na24 intravenously the night before, then inducing a local flow by subdermal injections of mecholyl chloride. Sweat so produced is collected by the method of Dole et al., employing filter-paper disks sealed in a collecting device. The Na concentration is calculated from the radioactivity of the filter paper and its increment in weight after sweat collection. In the second abstract above, the first two sentences of the author summary were combined, and details as to the amount of Na24 administered and when it was administered are given. Aside from that, the abstract is essentially identical with the authors’ summary. With the exception of one added phrase, one deleted phrase, and the addition of a final sentence about the advantages of the experimental method used, the third abstract, which follows, is a word-for-word copy of the authors’ summary. A method for determination of Na concentration of sweat from local areas is described. It consists of administering radioactive Na to subjects and after equilibrium is obtained, inducing a local flow of sweat by subdermal injections of Mecholyl Chloride. Sweat so produced is collected with filter paper discs sealed in a collecting device. Na concentration is derived by determining the radioactivity of the filter paper and its increment in weight after sweat collection. The chief advantage of this method is its accuracy and its avoidance of the necessity for general body heating. The two specimen papers whose abstracting treatment was discussed in the previous paragraphs were both in the field of biochemistry. However, their abstracting treatment is typical of that given the majority of the specimen papers in the present study, regardless of field. The apparent dependence of abstractors upon author summaries in the papers they abstract, regardless of field, is illustrated by the treatment given a

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--> paper by Anderson and Hutchison which was published in the Physical Review. The paper was entitled, “Paramagnetic Resonance Absorption in Praseodymium Trichloride.” Following is the author abstract that was published with the paper: Paramagnetic resonance absorption in crystalline solutions of PrCl3 in LaCl3 has been investigated at a frequency of 2.32×1010 sec−1 and at the boiling point of He. The apparent g’s, when H is parallel and perpendicular to the c axis have been found to be 1.79 and 3.98 respectively. The results have been discussed in terms of the known crystalline structure and Stark splittings. The paper in question was picked up by Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts, and Physics Abstracts. Two of the abstracts were copies of the authors’ summary and were marked to indicate this. The third abstract was signed by an abstractor other than the authors of the original paper. This abstract follows: Paramagnetic resonance absorption in cryst. solns. of PrCl3 in LaCl3 was investigated at a frequency of 23,200 Mc./sec. and at the b.p. of He. The apparent g’s, when H is parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis, were found to be 1.79 and 3.98, resp. The results are discussed in terms of the known cryst. structure and Stark splittings. Aside from some simple word and verb tense changes and a conversion from cycles to megacycles, the foregoing abstract is identical with the authors’ summary. The question of subject slanting As was noted earlier, the vast majority of the signed abstracts examined in the present study were modifications of the authors’ summaries that appeared with the original papers. To the extent that one is able to generalize from the sample used in the present study, it would appear that there is little subject slanting in abstracts of papers having author summaries or abstracts. Assuming that the findings in the present study are based on a representative sample, a paradox arises. From an examination of the published items that do get original abstracts, it develops that these are primarily letters to the editor, communications, and similar short pieces. The apparent reason that such items get original abstracts is that they generally do not have author abstracts or summaries. Thus, long, detailed papers get author abstracts or refinements of author abstracts in the abstracting publications, while letters to the editor and the like get original abstracts when they are abstracted. In view of the apparent limitations on the slanting of abstracts of papers with author abstracts or summaries, it is evident that the best place to look, with any degree of optimism, for subject slanting is in the abstracts of papers without

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--> author abstracts or summaries. An analysis was therefore made of the abstracts of 55 such papers. The abstracts for each of the 55 papers were carefully compared with one another in an effort to detect any distinct differences in subject viewpoint. As it developed, there were 17 cases in which only one of the abstracting publications abstracted a paper and the others merely gave it a reference citation. Among the remaining 38 papers, there were 11 clear cases of subject slanting and 27 in which no slanting was detectable. The three abstracts that follow are indicative of the abstracting treatment given an item having no author summary or abstract. The item, a letter to the editor of the Physical Review, was written by Z.Bay, V.P.Henri, and F. McLernon. It is entitled, “Upper Limit for the Lifetimes of Excited States of Ni60.” It was abstracted in Chemical Abstracts, Physics Abstracts, and Nuclear Science Abstracts. Two of the abstracts were signed by abstractors other than the authors. One was signed “auth.” An investigation of the meaning of this latter inscription, in view of the fact that there was no author abstract accompanying the letter to the editor, revealed that the abstracting publication in question had used the first sentence of the letter to make up its abstract. As it developed, one of the two other abstracts had been done in exactly the same way, although in this case the abstract was signed. The third abstract departed from the other two in that it gave brief detail on the method and apparatus used in the experiment described in the letter. Following are the three abstracts: The upper limit for the lifetimes of the 2 excited states of Ni60 following the β-decay of Co60 is 10−11 sec. The E2 transition energies are 1.17 and 1.33 m.e.v. An upper limit of 10−11 second for the lifetimes of the two excited states of Ni60 following the beta decay of Co60 has been determined. The E2 transition energies are 1.17 and 1.33 Mev. An account is given of a short-resolving-time (10−10 sec) coincidence circuit using diphenylacetylene scintillation counters. A value of 10−11 sec as an upper limit has been set on these lifetimes. A further illustration of the abstracting of a paper with no author summary or abstract is obtained from an analysis of two abstracts of a paper entitled, “Metabolic Interrelations Between Intrinsic Factor and Vitamin B12. III. Vitamin B12 Absorption at Varied Intrinsic Factor Doses.” These two abstracts are as follows: Intestinal absorption of B12 is increased in pernicious anaemia, when the intake of intrinsic factor is increased, but the dose of B12 unchanged. The increase in absorption occurs up to an optimal point, after which an excess of intrinsic factor shows no enhancing effect, or may even decrease absorption of the vitamin.

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--> Tests were made on patients with pernicious anemia, whereby the hepatic uptake method previously described (C.A.48, 11590c) was utilized. Increase in oral dose of intrinsic factor prepns. from hog stomach or active human gastric material, with a const, dose of vitamin B12, up to a certain point increased the intestinal absorption of the vitamin. Further increase seemed to have no further enhancing effect or even decreased the absorption of vitamin B12. This last effect might be due to an excessive binding of the vitamin to the nonabsorbed fraction of the intrinsic factor prepn. The first of the two abstracts above is from British Abstracts of Medical Sciences, and the second is from Chemical Abstracts. From a comparison of the two, one gets the impression that Chemical Abstracts is more concerned with clinical details than is British Abstracts of Medical Sciences. This would seem to be an example of “reverse slanting.” From the statistical analysis of the slanting of abstracts of papers having no author summaries or abstracts, and from the foregoing comparisons of the actual abstracts of such items, there would appear to be some subject slanting, but of a very minor nature. Conclusions Where there is an author abstract, use is generally made of it in the preparation of abstracts by abstractors for the indexing and abstracting publications studied. Because of the heavy dependence on author abstracts as bases for abstracts in indexing and abstracting publications, a paradox develops in which short papers and letters to the editor, which generally do not have author abstracts, have the greatest likelihood of receiving original abstracts, while longer, more detailed papers have the smallest likelihood of original abstracting, because they generally do have author abstracts. Author abstracts appear to be acceptable as abstracts for indexing and abstracting publications. Where author abstracts are used, there can obviously be little subject slanting. There is little detectable subject slanting in cases where original abstracts are prepared. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author wishes to express his indebtedness to Mr. Robert S.Meyer for his very significant contribution to the planning and execution of the study upon which the present paper is based.

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--> APPENDIX I Sample journals and their abstracting treatment Journal titles Sample papers Papers abstracted Multi-abstracted papers Académie des Sciences, Paris, Comptes rendus 67 54 13 Acta Chemica Scandinavica 10 10 0 Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 3 2 0 Akademiia Nauk S.S.S.R., Leningrad, Doklady 40 28 6 American Chemical Society, Journal 50 50 9 American Journal of Botany 3 3 1 American Journal of Mathematics 3 3 0 American Journal of Physiology 12 12 12 American Mathematical Society, Transactions 4 4 0 Analytical Chemistry 16 16 3 Annalen der Physik 3 3 2 Annals of Botany 3 3 1 Annals of Mathematics 3 3 0 Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 8 8 8 Biochemical Journal 9 9 6 Botanical Gazette 3 3 2 Chemical Society of London, Journal 15 15 0 Chemische Berichte 6 5 0 Faraday Society, London, Transactions 4 4 1 Geological Society of America, Bulletin 3 3 1 Helvetica Chimica Acta 11 10 0 Helvetica Physica Acta 2 2 2 Journal de Physique et le Radium 4 4 3 Journal of Applied Physics 7 7 4 Journal of Biological Chemistry 13 13 12 Journal of Chemical Physics 18 17 17 Journal of Economic Entomology 10 9 0 Journal of Experimental Zoology 2 2 0 Journal of General Physiology 3 3 3 Journal of Geology 2 2 0 Journal of Physiology 5 5 5 Justus Liebig’s Annalen der Chemie 3 3 0 Mathematische Annalen 2 2 0 National Academy of Sciences (Washington), Proceedings 4 2 1 Nature (London) 30 24 11 Nuovo cimento 6 6 3 Pfluger’s Archiv für die gesamte Physiologie 2 1 0 Philosophical Magazine 5 5 4 Physica 3 3 2 Physical Review 30 30 27 Physical Society of London, Proceedings 6 6 6 Plant Physiology 5 5 5 Review of Scientific Instruments 6 5 5 Reviews of Modern Physics 2 2 2 Royal Society of London, Proceedings 9 9 8 Science 15 13 8 Société chimique de France, Bulletin 8 8 0 Société de Biologie, Paris, Comptes rendus 19 15 0

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--> Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Proceedings 13 13 13 Zeitschrift für Physik 3 3 1 Zeitschrift für physikalische Chemie 3 3 0 Totals 516 470 207 Percentages of total sample 100 91 40 APPENDIX II Multi-abstracted papers Ajzenberg, F., and T.Lauritsen, Energy Levels of Light Nuclei, Part V, Reviews of Modern Physics, 27, 77–166 (1955). Alekseevskii, N.E., et al., Use of a Heterogeneous Magnetic Field to Increase the Resolving Power of the Mass-Spectrometer, Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR Leningrad, 100, 229–32 (1955). Allfrey, V.G., et al., Some Observations on Protein Metabolism in Chromosomes of Non-Dividing Cells, Journal of General Physiology, 38, 415–24 (1955). Anderson, John H., and Clyde A.Hutchison, Jr., Paramagnetic Resonance Absorption in Praseodymium Trichloride, Physical Review, 97, 76–8 (1955). Andrillat, Henri, Sur la Mesure des Intensités Relatives des Raies de O III et de la Raie Hβ dans les Spectres des Nébuleuses Planétaires, Comptes rendus, Académie des Sciences, 240, 491–93 (1955). Avignon, Yvette, and Simone Desprez-Rebaud, Étude, au Moyen de l’Emulsion Sensible, du Libre Parcours Moyen d’Absorption de la Composante Nucléaire de Rayonnement Cosmique, Comptes rendus, Académie des Sciences, 240, 515–17 (1955). Azbel, M.Ya., Theory of the Skin Effect in a Constant Magnetic Field, Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR Leningrad, 100, 437–40 (1955). Baker, B.R., et al., Puromycin. Synthetic Studies. VII. Partial Synthesis of Amino Acid Analogs, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 77, 1–7 (1955). Banks, Charles V., et al., Magnetic Studies of Nickel (II) and Palladium (II) Complexes with Some Vic-Dioximes, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 77, 324–25 (1955). Bay, Z., et al., Upper Limit for the Lifetimes of Excited States of Ni60, Physical Review, 97, 561–3 (1955). Bean, C.P., and D.S.Rodbell, Kinetics of Magnetization in Some Square Loop Magnetic Tapes, Journal of Applied Physics, 26, 124–5 (1955). Bélanger, Leonard F., Autoradiographic Visualization of Ca45 Intake by Normal and Pathological Cartilage in vitro, Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 88, 150–2 (1955). Bentley, P.J., Some Aspects of the Water Metabolism of an Australian Marsupial Setonyx brachyurus, Journal of Physiology, 127, 1–10 (1955). Bergkvist, K.E., et al., Neutron Deficient Isotopes of Pb and Tl. II. Mass Numbers 204, 202, 201, and 200, Philosophical Magazine, 46, 65–9 (1955).

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--> Berry, F.J., et al., The Early Development of Spherical Blast from a Particular Charge, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. A227, 258–70 (1955). Berry, W.K., et al., The in vitro Protection of Cholinesterases against Some Organophosphorus Inhibitors, Biochemical Journal, 59, 1–5 (1955). Bettelheim, F.R., Amino Terminal Group in Chymotrypsinogen, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 212, 235–9 (1955). Binggeli, Edmond M., Mesures de l’Intensité des Neutrons de la Radiation Cosmique, dans l’Eau, à Grandes Profondeurs, Helvetica Physica Acta, 28, 3–23 (1955). Blicke, F.F., and G.R.Toy, Antispasmodics. XX. Basic 1,3-Dioxolanes and 1,3-Dioxanes, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 77, 31–32 (1955). Boyd, R.L.F., and D.Morris, A Radio-Frequency Probe for the Mass-Spectrometric Analysis of Ion Concentrations, Proceedings of the Physical Society of London. A68, 1–10 (1955). Boyle, W.S., and P.Kisliuk, Departure from Paschen’s Law of Breakdown in Gases, Physical Review, 97, 255–9 (1955). Braunstein, Jerry, and William T.Simpson, Overlaps of Trial Functions for the Hydrogen Molecule. II. Covalent and Ionic Character of H2, Journal of Chemical Physics, 23, 176–8 (1955). Breckenridge, C.G., and H.E.Hoff, Transmedullary Stimulation of Central Respiratory Mechanism in Apnea, American Journal of Physiology, 180, 219–31 (1955). Brinkman, H.C., and B.Peperzak, Approximate Solutions of the Thomas-Fermi Equation for Molecules. II, Physica, 21, 48–52 (1955). Brown, Callaway, et al., Magnetic Susceptibility of Liquid Ozone-Oxygen Mixtures, Journal of Chemical Physics, 23, 103–08 (1955). Brown, F.B., et al., The Vitamin B12 Group. Presence of 2-Methyl Purines in Factors A and H and Isolation of New Factors, Biochemical Journal, 59, 82–86 (1955). Brown, Fielding, and Charles L.Gravel, Domain Rotation in Nickel Ferrite, Physical Review, 97, 55–9 (1955). Brown, Frederick C., Temperature Dependence of Electron Mobility in AgCl, Physical Review, 97, 355–62 (1955). Brown, J.W., and C.H.Wadleigh, Influence of Sodium Bicarbonate on the Growth and Chlorosis of Garden Beets, Botanical Gazette, 116, 201–09 (1955). Bube, Richard H., Photoconductivity and Crystal Imperfections in Cadmium Sulfide Crystals. Part II. Determination of Characteristic Photoconductivity Quantities, Journal of Chemical Physics, 23, 18–25 (1955). Cade, R., An Electrostatic Problem Involving a Non-Linear Fluid Dielectric, Proceedings of the Physical Society of London, B68, 1–9 (1955). Campbell, L.Leon, Jr., Purification and Properties of an α-Amylase from Facultative Thermophilic Bacteria, Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 54, 154–61 (1955). Cerulus, Frans, The Contribution of Non-Static Forces to the Binding-Energy of the Deuteron, Helvetica Physica Acta, 28, 67–84 (1955). Chackett, G.A., et al., The Distribution of the Products of Heavy Ion Reactions with Aluminium, Philosophical Magazine, 46, 1–11 (1955). Checkland, P.B., and H.W.Thompson, Vibration-Rotation Bands of Deuterium Cyanide, Transactions of the Faraday Society, 51, 1–8 (1955).

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