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Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization

MAREK CIGÁNIK

The term “scientific, technical, and economic information” (STEI) has become very familiar in our country. No exact definition of this term has been hitherto given, even though many authors have attempted to interpret its meaning. I wish to point out that this composite conception represents the result of two development trends, i.e., on the one hand the effort to improve and to increase the cooperation between special librarians and documentalists and to settle controversies between them, and on the other hand to meet the continuously increasing need for satisfactory information of scientific and engineering workers in their special fields as well as in fields more or less related to their special ones. The latter point appears to be of greater importance than the former. In our country, the essential importance of the latter point was evident in particular in research institutes. Even though some research-type working places have many years of experience, still research institutes and academies of science are, in general, relatively new institutions and thus are more interested in STEI.

The problem of information is not, however, a linear and direct one. It is first of all concerned with ascertaining existing technological procedures and knowledge in a given field, and the possibility of applying knowledge, taken from other fields related more or less to the main field, in the interest of adopting the latest technical progress and eliminating duplicity of work in research. But it is also important to ascertain currently used technics and technology of research started in our plants for comparison with the latest information. Making the results of our own research available for customers, getting an insight into their requirements, and, finally, exchanging information and data by means of publications, lectures, conference, etc., are also topics of importance. Such a view on information differs from those of the librarian and the documentalist, for this activity is beyond the province of a librarian’s or a documentalist’s work.

MAREK CICÁNIK Cables and Insulating Materials Research Institute, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia.



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--> Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization MAREK CIGÁNIK The term “scientific, technical, and economic information” (STEI) has become very familiar in our country. No exact definition of this term has been hitherto given, even though many authors have attempted to interpret its meaning. I wish to point out that this composite conception represents the result of two development trends, i.e., on the one hand the effort to improve and to increase the cooperation between special librarians and documentalists and to settle controversies between them, and on the other hand to meet the continuously increasing need for satisfactory information of scientific and engineering workers in their special fields as well as in fields more or less related to their special ones. The latter point appears to be of greater importance than the former. In our country, the essential importance of the latter point was evident in particular in research institutes. Even though some research-type working places have many years of experience, still research institutes and academies of science are, in general, relatively new institutions and thus are more interested in STEI. The problem of information is not, however, a linear and direct one. It is first of all concerned with ascertaining existing technological procedures and knowledge in a given field, and the possibility of applying knowledge, taken from other fields related more or less to the main field, in the interest of adopting the latest technical progress and eliminating duplicity of work in research. But it is also important to ascertain currently used technics and technology of research started in our plants for comparison with the latest information. Making the results of our own research available for customers, getting an insight into their requirements, and, finally, exchanging information and data by means of publications, lectures, conference, etc., are also topics of importance. Such a view on information differs from those of the librarian and the documentalist, for this activity is beyond the province of a librarian’s or a documentalist’s work. MAREK CICÁNIK Cables and Insulating Materials Research Institute, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia.

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--> The division of labour generally practised in today’s society made it inevitable for special workers—information engineers—to do the work in the field of information, and to establish individual organisation units designed as scientific, technical, and economic information divisions. This does not mean, however, that the division of labour is in all cases and everywhere strictly maintained, for it is determined by economic rules which must be respected also in the information field. There will be, therefore, cases for which it will be necessary to direct the activity of this division in a different way, since the establishment of separate STEI units is not economical. If we want to solve the information problem with reference to the economical point of view, it is necessary to analyse all related activities and to seek the maximal and minimal limits for the given conditions. Dividing the STEI’s activities The STEI divisions comprise a whole scale of simple and intricate activities. Besides information proper, library work, documentation, publishing, bibliography, photoreproduction, etc., are covered. After a detailed analysis in the light of the modern view on information, the conclusion was drawn that there are three types of basic activities comprising all the other activities, namely literature search, literature research, and economic analyses. Literature search defines an activity steadily aimed at ascertaining sources of information from a determined scientific or manufacturing branch. Literature research indicates an activity of ascertaining and utilizing scientific and technical experiences discovered in information sources in the course of a literature search, and in addition to literature sources (e.g., samples and products). Economic studies are thought to illustrate research and technical work effectiveness. The main scope of these analyses is to make it possible to direct technical development towards the greatest possible efficiency. Literature research is directly connected with research proper by the intermediate of the so-called indirect research which deals chiefly with the experimental verification of data taken from literature. Results of literature search, worked out in this way, represent a verified literature research, in contradistinction to the non-verified one, and are a necessary basis for proper or direct theoretical and exploratory investigations. The results of the verified literature research offer a direct basis, too, for the adoption of up-to-date technics and technology for plants. The division working in the STEI field activity in our country is called “study division.”

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--> Literature search In the literature search activity, we distinguish three stages of work: search proper, treatment of the results of searches, and supply of information (making accessible). Each of these stages comprises several logically connected sub-activities. An overall review of activities concerned with literature search is given in Fig. 1. It must be emphasised that the most important part of each stage in search proper is to determine the extent of the other activities. In this way, a certain dynamic standpoint has come to the front, for each source is sought and tested from a certain point of view. There is always a main scientific field, to which several borderline subjects have been attached. Sources dealing with the main field will be interesting as a whole regardless of their special application. Sources concerned with borderline subjects will be interesting in their applicability to the main subject and, from a general point of view, by offering a general survey of borderline subjects for research workers. Thus, for our Institute, technology of cables and insulating materials represents the main topic. We are interested in everything related to this subject. Branches of secondary importance closely related to the main topic are: the whole field of electrical engineering as regards the application of electrical conductors, cables and insulating materials; further the whole field of macro-molecular, chiefly rubber and plastics, chemistry; of varnish chemistry and the related chemical technologies. Measuring techniques and testing practice, mathematics, physics, chemistry, analytical and physical chemistry, machinery and painting technics are considered distantly related to the main topic, principally with reference to the application aspect, i.e., to the cable and insulating material technique. The general aspect prevails particularly in cases where definite and generally valid methods are concerned, e.g., in analytical chemistry, varnish chemistry, or definite procedures such as drawing and annealing of wires, moulding of plastics, extruding of materials in the plastic state. Thus, when critically examining certain scientific branches in the whole search, three outstanding characteristics are apparent: concreteness, applicability, and generality. The same points of view are applicable also to the main topic, that is, referring to the specialization of the individual research workers, and they are reflected, but in a different way, chiefly when working up the results and making them accessible.

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--> FIGURE 1. Literature search activities.

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--> SUBDIVIDING SEARCH PROPER Search proper is not restricted to selection of literature on a special topic. That is only a part of the whole search, i.e., search represents, in this sense, a term with new meaning. Search is subdivided into general and special type. General search comprises a systematic search in existing literature sources covering a given field as well as fields more or less related to the main field from the three points of view mentioned. Sources ascertained need not be put in practice immediately. As a rule, while performing this part of search, the existing condition or situation is the prevailing factor, but the retrospective standpoint must be considered as well. An essential feature of this part is the continuance of systematic search. Special search includes ascertaining available data covering a specifically confined subject, such as conductors for X-ray apparatus. From concepts treated up to this point, it may be concluded that literature search proper may be performed in a high-grade and economic way by a worker having a thorough specialised knowledge not only of the main field but also of those of relative secondary importance. If several scientific fields are covered in the main topic, a further specialization is desirable. A further difficulty lies in the fact that, in addition to a specialization in the related branches, an acquaintance with at least the principal languages is obligatory. Subdivision of general search Experience in our country has shown that it is well to subdivide general search according to the types of literature examined. Such a subdivision is instructive, from a theoretical point of view, because, it is necessary, in this case, to ascertain and work out a complete plan of the literature followed and, moreover, it makes possible a further division of labour as well as an effective control of the relative completeness of search performed by a single worker. From Fig. 1 the organization of search is evident, but a brief further illustration seems to be needed. Bibliographical search. This activity involves searching and ascertaining sources in all types of bibliographies and has a few scopes. First, it has to afford a concrete basis for acquisitions, i.e., it consists of a systematic following of bibliographies, in particular of books and periodicals. In this case a bibliographic search for acquisition is concerned. It is impossible to treat either acquisition or selection of general type bibliographies in this paper, for this topic represents a problem common to almost all those who are concerned with technical and often also with all natural science work. A particular importance is attached to bibliographical search when estab-

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--> lishing the plan for ordering periodicals for abstracting and periodical search. In addition to current methods of qualifying and classifying periodicals, or, in other words searches in bibliographies, libraries, and frequency of references gathered from a certain periodical in abstracting journals, we introduced a systematic recording of the frequency of references in a certain periodical on a special card established for each journal. Further details will be mentioned in the section dealing with periodical search. Within the limits of bibliographic search work, the concept of the so-called supplementary bibliographic search or cooperative search is coming to the front. There are two kinds of this search: (a) ascertaining the occurrence and availability of a certain publication, e.g., in bibliographies, catalogues of government scientific and related libraries, and in particular of industrial-branch information departments; (b) search in specialized bibliographies. Further investigation in these to ascertain sources of specialized searches and completion of sources not found by current methods, from these bibliographies, are practised. [Important bibliographies of this type in our branch are: Underground Systems Reference Book (1931, National Electric Light Association, New York), Underground Systems Reference Book (1957, New York: Edison Electric Institute), Classified Bibliography on Insulated Conductors beginning with 1930 (1954, New York: American Institute of Electrical Engineers), Naučnaja literature po dielektrikam (1952, Moskva: Akademija nauk SSSR), Digest of Literature on Dielectrics (from 1936 to date, National Research Council, Washington), Handbuch der Physik, Band XVII Dielektrika (1956, Berlin: Springer-Verlag), Landolt-Börnstein: Zahlenwerte und Funktionen aus Physik, Chemie, Astronomie, Geophysik und Technik, IV. Band-Technik 3. Teil Elektrotechnik (1957, Berlin: Springer-Verlag), Bibliography on Wire (1936–1951, The Iron and Steel Institute).] Further objectives are search of subject bibliographies and bibliographies as well as search in these bibliographies, and, finally, supplementary search in literature mentioned in high-grade specialized books and papers. Such a search usually gives valuable results. The last stage of a bibliographical search is the abstracting bibliographical search. In our country, this activity is incorrectly called “passive documentation.” Abstracting search has the characteristics of a supplementary search, mainly as an additional periodical search. It consists of following the special abstracting periodicals and separate cards services, and of working up sources not involved when performing other types of search. Periodical search. This activity consists of searching and establishing sources in periodicals, i.e., of searching in scientific and technical journals. This is of

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--> utmost importance for the needs of theoretical and fundamental researches. This search results in concrete papers found in a given periodical. Equally valuable are, of course, further data, in particular references to literature, book reviews, advertisements, data concerned with firms, new products, and manufacturers’ literature. Thus, the periodical search includes periodical, bibliographical, and trade literature. A periodical search is a relatively wearisome procedure for the specialized worker and, therefore, a correct choice of periodicals which have to be followed is essential. It is impossible to state the maximum and minimum numbers of periodicals. After a few years’ experience, we assembled a list of periodicals actually abstracted (Appendix I). Systematic abstracting of periodicals was started in 1922, when the so-called literary department was established within the library of the Cable Works Co., Ltd., at Bratislava. About 60 foreign periodicals and 5 abstracting journals were abstracted by scientific and technical workers of the concern. Later (in 1947) this number was raised to 130, then to 200, and, in 1955, to 350 periodicals abstracted by workers in the department of documentation. For each periodical, a record card (using the horizontal type Karto system) was kept on which, in three-month intervals, was noted the number of references taken from it, together with a subdivision into concrete, applicable, and general papers. In addition to other well-known criteria, these results are very useful in making a critical examination of a given periodical for our purposes, as well as in preliminary planning of periodicals to be abstracted. Three years’ experience with such a type of investigation showed the lack of economy in raising the number of original periodicals followed. For reaching actual sources, a certain optimal number of periodicals is sufficient, i.e., our special requirements are met by following 200 periodicals and 30 abstract journals, which is considerably less than the 350 originally abstracted, the topics being followed very broadly. After this practical evaluation we reduced by one-third not only the number of periodicals followed but also the time needed for search, and raised the number of abstracting journals, thereby broadening the so-called supplementary search. By these measures, we raised the number of sources, while saving one-third the time. The ratio between references taken from original sources and from abstracting journals and cards services is actually 1:1, and the total is 12,000 abstracts a year. With all searches, but particularly in periodical ones, the ascertaining of sources is related both to the general thematic search plan (main and borderline fields, in general, regardless of whether the source in question is, at this point, interesting) and to the operative research planning (concrete planned tasks and

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--> the continuous completion of bibliographies worked out by special search works in the preceding years). This part of search is usually called continual search, and this is emphasised especially. Patent and trade literature search. By this term is meant a search consisting of seeking and establishing sources in patent and trade literature. This represents the most important type of search for industrial and applied research. At this point, it will be analyzed only within the scope of general and continual research. It was apparent that combining the patent and trade literature search was essential. Patent literature, in particular patent applications, precedes all other types of literature, but it is not always realistic. A large dose of phantasy, chiefly in covering, blocking, and securing patents, is incorporated, whereas trade literature is realistic and often gives information on invention realizations. From the practical and proven economic standpoint, we concluded that following the patent literature of Germany, the United States, Great Britain, and France, and, after careful selection, the manufacturing volumes of the other countries, naturally in addition to Czechoslovak patent literature, seems to be sufficient. Search is, at our Institute, aimed at official journals and patent abstracting periodicals as well as at patent specifications of selected classes, performed in close cooperation with the National Invention and Standardization Office in Prague. For abstracting patent literature, a special method, described in the section dealing with results of search, was developed. The objects of trade literature search are specialized journals and house organs mentioned in the section on periodical search, and, in particular, advertisements appearing in these periodical; further, industrial shows, trade literature obtained regularly from firms or centers of trade literature, as well as lectures of individual firm representatives. A prerequisite for the realization of an effective search in trade literature is the availability of a firm directory with a survey on their manufacturing program. Standards search. This activity is characterized by the ascertaining of existing standards and tentative specifications. Similar conclusions are valid here as in searches in patent literature, but standards literature is delayed as compared with the other types of literature. Special material search. In this case, a search of bibliographies and bibliographies on research and development reports is made. We follow U.S. Government Research Reports, Nuclear Science Abstracts, ERA Reports, Otčoty NIIKP (Naučno- institut promyšlennosti, Moscow,) and VEI (Vsesojuznyj elektrotechničeskij institut, Moscow), lists of solved and resolved projects of the individual Czechoslovak institutions and others. This literature is less easily available, but it is important.

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--> Another object of this activity is the following of dissertations, symposia, lectures on conferences, as well as of scientific, technical, and instructive films. There is no definite specialization for cable and insulating material technics, but important in this respect are the conferences of CIGRÉ and IEC, World Power Conference, Conference on Electrical Insulating Materials, further meetings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, American Society for Testing Materials, Institute of Electrical Engineers, Verein Deutsche Elektrotechniker, and others. Performance of general search in practice. Between 1922 and 1927, search in the cable concern was accomplished by regular circulation of periodicals among scientific, technical, and commercial workers. The same workers also made the selection of periodicals for search. From 1927 this activity was the responsibility of the director together with top scientific workers of the physical laboratory, which at that time was the research center of the concern. Search was effected on the basis of a plan for systematically abstracting periodicals and patent government publications. Each member of the committee had to follow about 20 periodicals. After the foundation of the Research Institute, the search was effected by the director again, together with a few highly qualified top workers. After the number of periodicals increased, search was transferred to the study department head, and, later, to the specialized group leaders. Until these specialized group leaders acquired sufficient qualifications, search was performed practically by all research workers who received the periodicals in the course of circulation. The present state of affairs is, in our opinion, the best one. The study department head effects a preliminary search aimed at the up-to-date research tasks, designs papers concerned with these topics, and those which are to be published in the Bulletin. Search is effected immediately after the arrival of the periodicals by mail. In addition, the head of the study department makes the search of the part in patents which cannot be subdivided into individual classes with a definite specialization. The further search, namely a scanning of assigned periodicals is done by the specialized group leader within the study department (engineers), whereas bibliographical acquisitive and cooperative search is done by the librarian-in-chief, and, finally, abstracting and part of supplementary search is done by the individual documentalists with reference to their specialization. A control search, in addition, is effected officially for a definite special field by scientific workers from research, with particular reference to application. This is done in such a way that the study department head, together with the specialized group leaders, indicates significant, interesting papers which must be abstracted within a week. The periodical is afterwards available for readers in the reading room for one month, or, in special

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--> cases, it is sent to selected research workers on a “limited” circulation. During availability in the reading room as well as on limited circulation, the periodical should be inspected, in addition to the destined research worker, by all workers interested in the related topic. Every worker who has reviewed the journal, classifies every source in question by “K” (concrete), “a” (application), or “v” (general) according to the principal point of view covered. Further classifications are “obj.” (order!), if a certain source has to be ordered, and, finally, the classification manual and datum are written on the circulation slip put into the periodical. After the journal has been on display in the reading room for an appropriate time, it is returned to the documentalist who, according to his specialty, completes the literature search and performs abstracting work. Uninspected periodicals are also abstracted, but, in those circumstances, on the advice of the study department head. Pointing out search, in contradistinction to the other activities, in particular the evaluation of results which is closely related to search, is not only of theoretical, but, also of considerable practical importance. Search requires thorough specialized knowledge as well as knowledge of the perspective development trend in a special field. Only when these requirements are met can an effective and economic search be effected without danger of working in the “l’art pour l’art” way. Finally, a well-done general search makes possible an effective division of labour. In Czechoslovakia, where the STEI institutions are relatively recent, it must be realized that a worker, even with university level qualifications, is unable to work out a well-assembled search, and, in this case, the task has to be done by the laboratory and highly qualified workers of the Institute, since neglecting the work concerned with abstracting literature may lead to serious consequences. On the other hand, a highly skilled study department head and specialized group leaders considerably increase the efficiency level of research activity. SPECIAL SEARCHES-LITERATURE REVIEWING General type search is characterized by its prevailing practice feature, whereas special search is predominantly retrospective. A finished special search has to answer, in an indicative or complete way, the question of what is known about a specific problem. Special search, therefore, usually was a necessary first stage procedure before the solution of any research, development, or industrial type task. Performance of a special search is, with reference to economy, a first-grade requirement in research and exploring activities. Its methods, however, change depending on the type of basic or applied research covered. According to the solution of a given task that special search has to offer, we distinguish selective and comprehensive special searches.

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--> Selective special search This represents a type of search which gives an indicative picture of a certain subject. As a rule, it is restricted to the study department’s own findings because information has to be gained within a short time. This kind of search is frequently used in our country at the time the research program is established, when the problem of incorporating the customer’s requirement into the plan is decided upon. Selective search has to define the requirement to such an extent that a definite decision can be made. The results of this search are summarized in a so-called signalizing (preliminary) literature review. It is often desirable to emphasize, in performing selective search, a certain type of literature such as research reports, patents, and standards. It is usual to designate this type of activity as selective type searching (search by types of material). Within a designated type of literature, a complete search, which represents, however, always a selective-type search, may be made. Another point of view appears when classifying a selective search according to the quality of sources; in this case we may speak of a selective recommended search (recommendatory search). Comprehensive search This search gives a complete picture of the situation in a certain field. Its aim is to ascertain all sources which are related to the topic in question. An absolute degree of completeness of sources, as a rule, can never be attained. Such a requirement is, on the one hand, of no practical value, and on the other hand, it is unrealistic. This lack of practical value is based on the fact that it is unnecessary to quote all sources, which frequently repeat each other. It is necessary, however, to find all sources of importance as well as every source which, compared with other sources, contains, at least in part, novelties. Collected sources are also valuable, of course, even though they do not contain any substantial new contributions, but because they sum up data gathered from widely scattered sources. Such sources may be, after all, compilations of special search results. A requirement of an absolute degree of completeness is unrealistic, for it cannot be attained in practice because of inaccessibility of sources, keeping them in secret, etc. There are two kinds of comprehensive search depending on the subject covered. When a special detail of a known topic is involved and if it may be resolved definitely by search, we call it a search for specific factual information. Thus, for instance, electric properties of polyethylene produced by current industrial procedures have to be ascertained. In this case the search is limited to disclosing concrete data and is neither repeated nor continued; it is, therefore, performed but once. Under these circumstances, it is profitable to quote

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--> in our country; for other systems, the patent number may be photographed on a special picture. Cutting the abstracts, putting them into pocket cards, and filing for 1000 specifications requires 35 hours of work. For microfilming 500 original specifications averaging 6 pages each, 30 hours are required, and for putting them into pocket cards 10 hours are required. It is assumed, here, that for 1000 abstracts 500 original specifications have to be furnished. (e) The fifth stage consists of classifying abstracts according to a selected system. In our case, a detailed UDC is involved. It is much more advantageous than to use, for example, the German patent classification, because the UDC system is by far superior in degree of thoroughness, systematic work, and accuracy. Thus, the German patent class 21 c 3/01 covers the design of electric conductors and cables and, in this way, patent literature on all conductors and cables is, in practice, to be found in this class. Consequently, it is necessary to select a further subclassification, whereby the uniformity of the system is impaired. The group 21 c 7/01 comprising electric conductors and cables insulation according to the type of the insulating material shows the same characteristics. Within the UDC, there are rough groups for these concepts which may be subdivided to any degree of accuracy, while for the patent classification, such a subdivision is no longer possible. By arranging the pocket cards according to the patent subclasses of the relative countries, classification proceeds quickly, because several equal or similar type patents are classified at the same time. For each subclass or group, a documentalist skilled in the relative field is appointed, so that correct classification is secured, and 1000 specifications are thus classified within twenty hours. The UDC number is written with a pen both on the pocket card and on the abstract photocopy by the documentalist. (f) After the classification has been made, additional bibliographical abstracts to be used for the author’s file as well as for the systematic file according to the patent classification of various countries should be copied. Copying one bibliographical abstract requires at least 5 minutes, and its filing 1 minute. Such a procedure is possible, but it requires a lot of copying. It is better by far to eliminate copying and use photography. In concrete terms, the typist is, in the course of work, working with a complete file of patent subclasses. According to the subclasses, she takes out the abstracts from the pocket cards and arranges them in this order by putting the abstracts one upon the other into a special A4 size stencil with transparent tapes placed for fastening. In addition, abstracts are placed one upon the other in such a way that only the heading of the abstract carrying data on the patent number, title, inventors, and firm, application and claims, and, finally, on patent classifica-

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--> tion are visible. There is place for 40 abstracts on an A4 size cardboard. The whole operation, namely assembling the photographs, which was described briefly, and returning them to the pocket cards after photographing requires 20 hours for 1000 abstracts. From abstracts thus prepared the photographer takes microfilms and an appropriate number of photocopies. This requires 3 hours of his time. There are three kinds of advantages connected with this work. (1) All data concerning patents treated according to the patent subclasses of the relative countries are made available on the microfilms. (2) Additional interested persons may be informed. (3) If a greater number of interested persons has to be kept informed, photo-offsetting with eventual publication of an information bulletin is possible. It is further possible to simplify the general treatment, depending on the cooperation of other similar type centers, by exchange of treated patents either according to countries or to fields. Finally, the primary scope of this procedure is attained by gaining cards for additional files as a result of cutting the photocopy. The first photocopy is cut as a whole according to the requirements, and the whole subclass is put into the pocket card. In this way a cumulative systematic file according to the patent subclasses of the individual countries is built. The original pocket cards are transferred to the systematic file built according to the UDC. Additional photocopies are cut for the author’s files while, for each firm and each author, one pocket card is put in, and abstracts are gathered for a certain time. After an appropriate number of abstracts has been stored, the abstracts are attached to A6 size file cards. There is place for 10 abstracts on such a card. Cards are selected according to the UDC numbers, and thus is obtained a cumulative file classified according to firms and, in addition, according to fields for each firm. With this method a view of the manufacturing program of the relative firm may be gained and, since this file includes cards on trade literature also, it is possible to recognize the license and patent trends of the firm. In a similar way, measures are taken in the author’s file, where, however, arranging cards according to the UDC numbers is omitted. Cutting 1000 abstracts and filing them requires 35 hours. Survey on work required for 1000 specifications (net times) Documentalist 50 hours Photographer 50 “ Typist 85 “ Cataloger 35 “ It is possible to use a quite similar method for treating German patent ap-

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--> plications from the journal Auszüge aus den Patentanmeldungen which may be combined, in a further stage, with a study of the official patent journal, or, what is more advantageous, with the card’s bibliography, Villa Kartei, the card of the Villa Kartei confirming that the patent has been granted. Thus, it may be established from the UDC file, for which applications patents were granted, and this is also marked on the cards of the file arranged according to patent classes, the other files not being completed. For British specifications, the method outlined may be used with the exception that it is impossible to write a cumulative accession card in the second stage, because the individual groups in the “Abridgements” are arranged in the sequence of accession, but it is usually necessary to treat several groups, and this requires a continuous completion of the accession file. The method remains unchanged, however, when the functions of the accession and the patent subclass files are interchanged. Equally well, an additional photocopy may be made during the photostat assembly stage, and an accession file may be built by cutting the photocopies, and it is possible again to accumulate abstracts for a certain number series. A similar procedure may be used also for French and other patents, but, if no abstracting journals exist, an abstract has to be prepared by photograph assembly. In the case given, it is useful to request a search in the relative country in the form of a numerical list of references. We proceeded to do so for French patents, and abstracts covering the field of plastics and insulating materials were taken from Chemical Abstracts, Rubber Abstracts, and Chemische Zentralblatt. Current treatment of patents Retrospective treatment of patent literature was the main topic involved when describing the methods of work used. For us, this point is of utmost importance, because following of patents was neglected and now it is urgent to fill quickly the gap that resulted. The system described is most advantageous because, for a high-level documentation center, essentially complete information can be accomplished within two years. It is possible, thus, to treat 80,000 specifications by employing four workers, three of whom are only clerical assistants. The total costs amount to a fraction of that required by any other existing system. The system indicated has, however, to meet the requirement of a quick and economical treatment of current information on patents. The file system meets these demands very well, but it is necessary to modify the working procedure. That will be shown again with examples: U.S. patents. When treating U.S. patents of the current year, there is no

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--> change in the international relation. Only the proportions are different, because the OG is treated regularly, immediately after receipt, so that a great number of patents accumulates and this results in a slight increase in the amount spent for the treatment of a whole year’s patents as compared with retrospective treatment. This limitation may be eliminated by performing a proper search and selection immediately after receipt of the individual OG numbers; original specification microfilms are ordered without delay, and the four stages of retrospective treatment are carried out in practice. The fifth and sixth stages are performed once a month, i.e., involving four to five numbers. German patent applications and patents. The treatment of the patent abstracting journal Auszüge follows the schedule mentioned above. Since this journal is printed only on one side, it may be used for cutting. Consequently, photographic work mentioned for retrospective treatment in the third stage may fall off. One number of the periodical may be utilized by several centers, especially those concerned with a different set of problems, so that each center may cut out the abstracts of use to it. The journal can even be used by centers charged with partially overlapping tasks, for it is possible for them to arrange an exchange of subclass photocopies prepared during the sixth stage of retrospective treatment. Treating the applications of the German Federal Republic does not put an end to work, for the granting of patents has also to be followed for the individual countries. This can be done by following the patent journal or, again, by following the card bibliography Villa Kartei at the documentation center of the Government Office for Inventions and Standardization (SÚVN), and, finally, directly by following the relative subclass original specifications at the SÚVN. When doing this, the cumulative file, arranged according to the patent subclasses, which may be always taken along, becomes important, and the granting of the patent may be indicated on the relative cards. For the sake of completeness the original specification microfilms or cards from the Villa Kartei may be ordered, and these may be, without additional treatment, put into the pocket cards together with application microfilms in the UDC file. The patents of the German Democratic Republic from the journal Erfindungs- und Vorschlagswesen may be treated in a similar way. Patents of Great Britain and other countries. A similar method of work may also be used for the British “Abridgements” and, as soon as the announced French patent abstracting journal is issued, for French patents. A certain limitation concerned with following these abstracting journals lies in the fact that they are, except the German Auszüge, issued with considerable delay. For instance, the British “Abridgements” are being issued two months after

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--> the Official Journal. In this case, search proper may be performed in the Official Journal, and original specification microfilms may be ordered according to it. Pocket cards preferably may be written in advance, and the following search in the “Abridgements” is thereby accelerated. In our country, there are further possibilities owing to the mutual cooperation of the patent documentation centers and the SÚVN. This cooperation is based on the SÚVN’s activity concerned with sending to the individual centers, immediately after arrival at the SÚVN library, the original patent specifications. In this way information on patents is received as much as two months sooner than some abstracting journals. The individual centers usually work out short indicative abstracts for these specifications, and provide them with the relative Czechoslovak patent class numbers which practically correspond to the German patent classification numbers. Concurrently with the original specifications, microfilms or photocopies may be prepared. After treatment, specifications, together with the abstracts, are returned to the SÚVN, which issues abstracting information bulletins for complete fields of knowledge. This cooperation is, at present, in its initial stage, and an economic evaluation has not yet been made. It is evident that, in the form it is practised today, the system is not appropriate because it is economical for the individual centers only when their work is compensated for by the advantage of preparing the microfilm in their own photolaboratories or, alternatively, when using the abstracts from the information bulletin. However, the use of abstracts from the information bulletin involves cutting an appropriate quantity of numbers, attaching them to A6 size cards, and incorporating them into the file. This is a cumbersome operation and by the time these cards are ready for use, foreign abstracting journals are available. Consequently, it is more useful and economical to use the method described in this paper. The cooperation of the agencies is, of course, effective when patents of countries not covered in special patent abstracting journals are treated. Proposal concerning a more effective utilization of the cooperation with the SÚVN Even though the method of work suggested in this paper is by far more economical for the treatment of recent patent literature, it shows certain limitations. For the patent center, a complete and high-level patent information service is built. This is very important, for the work in patent policies for a certain field will be ruled from this center. This office will be able to give more comprehensive and accurate information than the SÚVN. It is, however, necessary to make information available appropriately and quickly for workers in research as well as for engineers in manufacturing. SÚVN information bulletins are not meeting these requirements in a satisfactory way, be-

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--> cause an indicative abstract usually cannot give the reader sufficient information whether to order and study the relative specification. A fundamental improvement could be attained by the following system. SÚVN would continue to deliver to the patent centers patents included in certain classes. These centers would provide the specifications with German (i.e., in practice, also with Czechoslovak) classification numbers. For themselves, they would prepare specification microfilms which would be put into pocket cards designed for the DC file. For each specification, a very short abstract in one or two sentences is made to give the object of the patent. These abstracts, more properly called short annotations, would be written in columns of the same width as in patent abstracting journals. To differentiate the abstracts, the patent number, in addition to the annotation, would be written on the margin. Abstracts are arranged according to the order of German subclasses. To make the procedure continuous, the typist would arrange the specifications in the order of origin, and afterwards the list of annotations would be written as follows: Ukončenie obdĺžníkového vlnovodu so špeciálnou úpravou na smerové vyžarovanie pre parabolické antény. 21 c 5/03 Austr. 209.245 Fr. 1,148.363 Spojenie dvoch vlnovodov pomocou okienka z polytetrafluóretylénu alebo polyetylénu. Austr. 209.032 Sonda na odvádzanie prenášanej elektromagnetickej energie z vlnovodu alebo súosového kábla. Brit. 787,341 výhybka vlnovodu umožňujúca prenos mikrovĺn rôznymi vlnovodmi v na- pomere. and so on. Brit. 787,070 When the list of annotations is finished, specifications provided with the German class numbers are returned to the SÚVN, and a short abstract is written on the specification with a pencil. SÚVN makes the relative specifications available to centers in due time, but only to a selected number, because it is not possible to make an adequate selection for the whole problem of a center, especially when it is scattered over various patent classes. At this point, the center can prepare photocopies, from its microfilms, chiefly of important patents, and send them to the research workers and engineers in plants, accord-

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--> ing to the thematic plan. Additional work is thereby made economically effective. In a further stage, relative search and treatment of abstracting journals using the indicated method of work are effected. The pocket cards containing data and specification microfilms prepared in cooperation with the SÚVN are already available, and are normally in the operating cycle. When the activity for a determined time interval, such as one month, has to be summarized, the center performs it in the following way. The abstract photocopies are removed from the pocket cards, arranged again on an A4 size cardboard, but in such a way that, in addition to the heading of the abstract, the figure remains and under the figure an annotation is written in the Slovak or the Czech languages that was worked out during the stage of original specification treatment. This is prepared by cutting the annotation list. Abstracts arranged in this way are transferred photographically onto metal plates (for off-setting) which serve in the distribution of the special information bulletin. This bulletin may be issued either by the patent center or by the SÚVN, the task of the patent center being to prepare only the film for transfer onto the metal plates. Such a bulletin is useful to a certain industrial branch in its concrete specialization, abstracts being much better as a basis for retrospective search and for securing an additional point of view. In the given case, German patent classification, which is at the same time valid for Czechoslovakia, was emphasized. It is also possible to use the International Patent Classification, so that such a bulletin may be of a more universal type. In this case, a sixth point of view is coming in as an addition to the system consisting of five files. Such a system is considerably better and more economical than the system actually used by the SÚVN. Supplementary data The whole system is based on microfilms of the original specifications. In practice, in addition to the microfilm, the original specification is available. This is particularly advantageous for U.S. patents obtained in the form of the original specifications. These types have to be clearly distinguished in the file. For this reason, we use a signalling designation with stamped letters. When there is no note whatsoever on the card, only an abstract of the patent or the patent application is available. The mark “M” indicates the availability of an abstract plus the microfilm of the original specification or application. The mark “PAT” indicates the availability of both the abstract and the original literature. In addition, originals are arranged according to the individual countries in the order of accession and in the order of the patent numbers for each country. These are put into special binders. If both the microfilm and the original specification are available, the marks “M,” “PAT” are used.

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--> In addition, gazettes may be lent from the Government libraries, and for U.S. patents, the microfilm edition of the Official Gazette supplied by the Micro Photo Inc., 1700 Shaw Avenue, Cleveland 12, Ohio, may be used. This edition has been ordered by our Center from 1940 on. REFERENCES 1. See the author’s report in “Sborník referátů přednesených na konferenci pracovníků závodních technických knihoven a studijných oddělení Ministerstev strojírenství v Brne 30.–31.ledna 1956—lépe využívat poznatků vědy a techniky, 1956, Praha ÚTEIN. 2. JANICKI, W. Über die Kunst des Recherchierens. Schweiz. Tech. Z. 47, (1950), čís. 24, str. 383–391. 3. FRANK, O. Literaturnachweis und Literaturrecherchen, Stuttgart, Dorotheen-Verlag, 1953. APPENDIX I List of periodicals and abstracting journals Abridgements of Patent Specifications Group II, III, IV, V, VIII, XXXVI A.C.E.C. Revue Amatérske rádio American Documentation Analytical Abstracts Analytical Chemistry Angewandte Chemie Annalen der Physik Aplikace matematiky Application and Industry Archiv der elektrischen Uebertragung Archiv für Elektrotechnik Archiwum Elektrotechniki Aslib Proceedings ASTM Bulletin ATM Auszüge aus den Patentanmeldungen Beama Journal Bell Laboratories Record Bell. Syst. Techn. Journal Bezpečnost a hygiena práce Bibliografia elettrotecnica Bibliotekar Biuletyn kablowy Byulleteń NIIKP British Plastics British Plastics Federation Abstracts Bulletin AIM Bulletin de la Société Francaise des Électriciens Bulletin des SEV Bulletin VÚKI Cábles et Transmissions CEIG Berichte Chemical Abstracts Chemical and Engineering News Chemické listy Chemické zvesti Chemický průmysl Chemische Technik Chemisches Zentralblatt Chemistry and Industry CIGRÉ Communication and Electronics Corrosion Corrosion prevention and control Čsl.časopis pro fysiku Der Bibliothekar Deutsche Elektrotechnik Deutsche Farbenzeitschrift Digest on Dielectrics Direct Current Dokumentation Doklady AN SSSR Draht Ékspress-informaciya élektrotekhnika Electric Light and Power Electrical Communication Electrical Engineering Electrical Engineering Abstracts Electrical Manufacturing Electrical Power Engineer Electricité Élektrichestvo Élektricheskie stantsii Elektrizitätswirtschaft Élektrosvyaź Elektrotechnik Elektrotechnický obzor

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--> Elektrotechnika Elektrotechnik und Maschinenbau Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift Ausg.A Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift Ausg.B Energetik Energetika (ČSR) Erdöl und Kohle Engineering Index (card service) Erfindungs- und Vorschlagswesen Farbe und Lack Felten Guilleaume Rundschau Frequenz General Electric Review Hospodářské noviny Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Industrie de Vernice Informatsionnyǐ byulleteń novoǐ inostrannoi nauchno-tekhnicheskoǐ literatury i tekhnicheskikh katalogov zarubezhnykh firm Informatsionnyi ukazatel standardov Informatsionno-tekhnicheskii sbornik Industrie des Plastiques Modernes Insulation Izvestiya AN SSSR, otd.khim.nauk Journal für praktische Chemie Journal IEE Journal of American Chemical Society Journal of Applied Chemistry Journal of Applied Physics Journal of Documentation Journal of Chemical Physics Journal of Metals Journal of Polymer Science Journal of Research of the National Bureau Standards Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Journal of Scientific Instruments Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society Journal of the Inst. of Petroleum Journal Oil and Colour Chemists Association (London) Kabelnaya tekhnika Kauchuk i rezina Kautschuk und Gummi Khimicheskaya nauka i Khimicheskaya Khimiya i khimicheskaya tekhnologiya Knihovnik Knižnica Kolloidnyǐ zhurnal Kunststoffe Lístková bibliografia KVŠT Magyar Hiradástechnika Magyar Kémiai Folyóirat Magyar Kémikusok Lapja Makromolekulare Chemie Matematicko-fysikální časopis Matematicko-příodovědecké rozhledy Materials and Methods Materie Plastiche Mesures & Contrôle Industriel Microchimica Acta Mining elect, and mech. Engineer Modern Plastics Nachrichtentechnik Nachrichten für Dokumentation Nachrichtentechnische Zeitschrift Nová technika Nuclear Science Abstracts Nucleonics Official Digest of the Federation of Paint and Varnish Production Clubs Official Gazette Paint and Varnish Production Paint Manufacture Peintures, Pigments, Vernis Physics Abstracts Plaste und Kautschuk Post Office Electrical Engineering Journal Power Power Apparatus and Systems Prilozheniye k zhur.ES “Energetika za rubezhom” Proceeding IEE, Pt.A Proceeding IEE, Pt.B Proceeding IEE, Pt.C Production Promyshlennaya énergetika Przeglad Elektrotechniczny Przeglad Telekommunikacyjny Przemysl Chemiczny Railway Signaling and Communications Referativnyǐ zhurnal-élektrotekhnika Referativnyǐ zhurnal-fizika Referativnyǐ zhurnal-khimiya Referativnaya informaciya Reports Brit.Elect.Res.Assoc. Resins, Rubbers, Plastics Revue de la Documentation Revue générale de l Électricité Revue Générale du Caoutchouc Review of current literature relating to the paint., colour, varnish and allied industry Rubber Abstracts Rubber Age Rubber Age and Synthetics Rubber Chemistry and Technology Rubber World Sciencia Electrica Schweizer Archiv für angewandte Wissenschaft und Technik Sdělovací technika Slaboproudý obzor Siemens-Zeitschrift

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--> Special Libraries SPE-Journal Strojárenská výroba Strojírenství Strojnoelektrotechnický časopis Technik der Lackisolation Technická práca Technické noviny (slov.) Technické noviny (czec.) Technische Mitteilungen PTT Technisches Zentralblatt Abt. Elektrotechnik Technisches Zentralblatt Abt. Maschinenwesen Transactions IPI Transactions IRI Transactions of the South African Institute of Electr. Engineers Transactions of the Faraday Society Uspekhi khimii U.S. Government Research Reports Vynálezy a normalisace VDE Fachberichte Vestnik svyazi Vestnik elektropromyshlennosti Villamosság Westinghouse Engineer Wire and Wire Products Wiadomości Elektrotechniczne Zavodskaya laboratorya Zeitschrift für physikalische Chemie Zentralblatt der Ungarischen Technik Zhurnal analiticheskoǐ kchimii Zhurnal i teoreticheskoǐ fiziki Zhurnal fizicheskoǐ khimii Zhurnal obshcheǐ khimii Zhurnal technicheskoǐ fiziki

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