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--> Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center CARL J.WESSEL and WALTER M.BEJUKI ABSTRACT. This paper will present a detailed account of the nature of the literature control problem and the historic development of manual systems as applied in the area of deterioration prevention. From the experiences of the Prevention of Deterioration Center, an analysis of the principles and problems in literature control will be drawn. Material for the analysis of this manual storage and retrieval system stems from an organization having an applied and technical library of approximately 30,000 documents. Decisions involved in going from a card catalog system, to an edge-punched card, to a Batten-type card encompass comparative costs, speed, personnel requirements, efficiency of retrieval, capacity for future growth, and similar problems. These, plus decisions on the size and type of dictionary of terms to be associated with the art and technology of deterioration prevention, shall serve to illustrate the evolutionary pathway traversed. A model Batten system is being constructed for a hitherto unindexed satellite collection of 2500 specifications in this field. It is expected that the knowledge gained from the model will assist in perfecting a system for the larger central collection. The significance of special concepts, such as data ranking, in a general theory of literature storage and retrieval will be considered. Background The Prevention of Deterioration Center is a nonprofit, scientific organization maintained jointly by the three United States armed services, by means of an Office of Naval Research contract, under the operating supervision of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. The principal CARL J.WESSEL and WALTER M.BEJUKI Prevention of Deterioration Center, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, D.C. The Prevention of Deterioration Center operates with the support of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force, under contract between the National Academy of Sciences and the Office of Naval Research.
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--> purpose of the Center is to collect and organize in one depository the latest research information on workable technics and scientific studies relating to deterioration prevention, and to serve in a consulting and advisory capacity on such matters for the military agencies, for other government groups, and for authorized persons not directly associated with the federal government. In the years since its inception in 1945, the Center has accumulated a comprehensive knowledge and facility not readily available elsewhere on this highly specialized subject. It is the purpose of this paper to show the evolutionary steps traversed by the literature control system of this Center during 14 years of development under periodic contract renewal circumstances. Initially a modest conventional indexing system, it moved to a more elaborate manual procedure involving edge-punched cards, direct coding, information classification and the sundry accoutre associated with such a technic. The present state of evolution is a studied effort to modernize information storage and retrieval, particularly from the viewpoint of increasing the comprehension and ability to collate information. This requires the evaluation of the requirements of the Center. Since the literature of deterioration is voluminous, the Center maintains a library staff to collect, catalog, and index pertinent technical data, and a publications group to summarize and condense incoming technical reports, of which some 30,000 have been accumulated to date. The functions of the PDC library are not unlike those of any library serving a consulting group in the technical field, although the subject matter is unusual, and characterized by a marked heterogeneity. The professional staff regularly scans approximately 150 journals pertinent to the field, including official society and trade journals, other subject matter journals, and a large variety of abstract services. These perusals generate in turn the need to examine, as the occasion requires, contributory publications. All reasonable efforts are made to process government reports on the subject of materials deterioration and its prevention, including those which originate as reports of contract work performed. Bibliographical rules are interpreted to fit the special needs of the publishing activities of the Center without sacrificing what we consider to be essential library standards. Through the central library of the National Academy of Sciences, the PDC library has access to books and journals belonging to the numerous government collections in Washington. The study of our information handling methods is well circumscribed in time. The art of deterioration prevention began as a discrete study area, in terms of the Center and the United States, when it was recognized by the armed forces in the early years of World War II that equipment with definite predictable life durations, when used in temperate climates, became inoperable
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--> in a matter of weeks when shipped to the tropic or polar regions. The Navy and Army, after some preliminary work on evaluating the extent and possible significance of the problem, established a Joint Army-Navy Deterioration Steering Committee under the National Defense Research Committee. Together with the necessary subcommittees, the organization set out to analyze the needs of the armed forces and to determine the means of satisfying those needs. Subsequent to the establishment of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, the Tropical Deterioration Information Center was instituted in 1943, using the services and facilities of the George Washington University. Acting initially in a trouble shooting capacity, the Joint Army-Navy Deterioration Steering Committee and the Tropical Deterioration Information Center proved by the end of World War II that their activities had a continuing usefulness. In 1945, therefore, the Office of Research and Invention (ORI) of the Navy Department recommended a more permanent organization. With the two existent groups, the wartime Joint Army-Navy Deterioration Steering Committee and the Tropical Deterioration Information Center as a basis, the latter was reorganized. The University group became the Prevention of Deterioration Center. This activity was governed by an ORI contract within the administration system of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. Subsequently the Army and later the Air Force added financial support to the ORI contract, supported initially only by the Navy, with ORI continuing to act as the contracting office. History of the storage and retrieval problem In addition to being of historical interest, the foregoing information contributes to the evolution of the philosophy of the literature storage and retrieval problem. The development of the art of information storage and retrieval has not kept pace with the need of personnel in this field. This, therefore, has created opportunities for people who have the need for information storage and retrieval or document control thrust upon them. An analysis of the attendance at this conference would probably indicate that the number of chemists, biologists, clinicians, lawyers, administrators, and others greatly exceeds that of people trained purely in the information field. The history of the approach to literature control therefore most often reflects the thinking of technical personnel in fields other than the library sciences. Good fundamental bases are often wanting, too, because in new areas of endeavor the sense of need for perpetuity is often unrecognized. What begins as a fairly mundane and discrete problem, involving the effect of moisture on a unit of electronic equipment, may end up as an information center involving a number of lifetime
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--> TABLE 1. Chronology of information handling, Prevention of Deterioration Center Date(s) Sponsor-source Information mobilization form Content retrieval method Prior to 1944 Joint Army-Navy Deterioration Steering Committee of the National Defense Research Committee No formal control of newly generated minutes of meetings, conferences and similar information. Outside reference collecting diffuse, uncentralized and personal to members of contributory committees No known formal method; individual memory recall 1944–1945 Tropical Deterioration Information Center 1. Information Center miscellaneous reports 2. Information Center reports 3. Tropical Deterioration Bulletin No. 1–24A Tropical Deterioration Bulletin No. 1–7A, Vol. II 4. Tropical Deterioration Bulletin Supplements 5. Tropicalization News No known indexes or other formal retrieval method Some evidence of an incipient system of categories being considered As above, two bibliographies in series of 14 reports, indexed, however, by subject Author and subject indexes issued 1946 Author and subject indexes issued 1946 Author and subject indexes issued 1946 No known formal method 1945 Prevention of Deterioration Center, National Academy of Sciences (NAS)-National Research Council (NRC); Office of Research and Invention Contract Prevention of Deterioration Abstracts Abstracted and indexed approximately 1/3 of reports received annually, continued categorical divisions; balance not retrievable in any systematic way 1946 PDC, NAS-NRC; Office of Naval Research Contract PDC Abstracts Index to abstracted reports 1949 PDC, NAS-NRC; Office of Naval Research Contract 1. PDC Abstracts 2. Edge-punched card system installed for both abstracted and unabstracted reports. Described by Curtis Brown, 1955 3. Fungicide file established as an edge-punched card system Index Through use of a direct code on 14 separate categorical files Indirect code based on modified American Chemical Society classification system 1956 PDC, NAS-NRC; Office of Naval Research Contract Supplementary or satellite file of pertinent non-commercial specifications established Indexed as an experimental group of documents prior to possible installation as a Peek-a-boo, field-punched card system 1957 PDC, NAS-NRC; Office of Naval Research Contract PDC Abstracts, supplemented with extracts or telegraphic treatment of hitherto undisseminated reports Conventional indexing supplemented with monoterm rubrics preparatory for subjecting information in Volume XV to Peek-a-boo treatment
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--> careers correlating knowledge from numerous and not obviously related disciplines. Conversely, not every problem is blessed by a coincidence of events which fertilize it into a growing, self-sustaining, entity. If there is to be ultimately a universal system of information storage and retrieval, its roots must lie in the recognition that knowledge should never be subjected to the vagaries of indecision in terms of perpetuity of the organization doing the work. Each mobilization of knowledge, be it that represented by a student processing his first thesis or some international agency dealing with a universal problem in infinite time, should command the respect entitling it to its place in the universal system. Only this guarantee can be sobering enough to induce a proper approach to producing and processing each endeavor in a serious intussusceptive manner. In Table 1 the outline of the development of information mobilization and recall methods at the Prevention of Deterioration Center is given. Examination of this table indicates that early in the history of this development the need for some control was recognized. The first elements of order will be found in the Tropical Deterioration Bulletin which divided the information into discrete areas of interest, reflecting in part the various committee organizations which were staffed separately by men from the textile, wood, leather, optical instrument, packaging, and similar fields. The biological aspect of the problem was conceded from the very beginning, and a section “Prevention of Growth of Organisms” under which subheadings of “Inorganic materials,” “Organic materials-cellulosic” appeared, was established in 1944. A Table of Contents first appeared in April 1945, and this recognized the area of “Finished Assemblies,” which included electrical and electronic equipment in addition to studies on optical instruments. This fundamental organization is still well reflected in the present 14 categories characteristic of the Prevention of Deterioration Abstracts today. In 1955 Curtis A.Brown, formerly of the staff of the Prevention of Deterioration Center, described the retrieval methods used at the Center in his paper presented at the Minneapolis ACS meeting. Brown contributed to the study “Two Approaches to the Retrieval of Information from a Special Library” of which specifically, “Part I: Application of a Simple Punched-Card System to a Special Information Center,” described Brown’s interpretation of the then existing system. The possible application of a Uniterm Coordinate Indexing system to a segment of the same files described by Brown, was discussed by Mortimer Taube as Part II of the above study. The Uniterm system approach to the Prevention of Deterioration Center task disclosed in a very practical way the most serious shortcoming of the punched card method as established at PDC. This is the fact that the edge-
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--> punched system is characterized by a limited number of descriptors, restricted to 1148 punching positions for the total system. On the other hand, an unrestricted or a maximum depth type of indexing as practiced by the uniterm approach which included specific materials, organisms, chemical names, and similar conceptual categories obviously was not handicapped by any fixed limitation of terms. The chosen documents generated approximately 3000 terms in the first 500 analyses with each document on an average contributing 25 uniterms. This volume yield of descriptors generated by only 2% of the total file, re-emphasized the capacity problem. Among the many attractive features of the uniterm approach, the most appealing was the abandonment of many of the restrictions, in terms of descriptors. The complete and nondiscriminate indexing as exemplified by the above trial in terms of descriptors or rubrics must be recognized, however, as a mixed blessing. The desire to get every possible concept from an article is inherent to a good indexer and is a commendable avarice. The indexing load as described by Taube was in no way embarrassing, in what we must consider a limited trial—limited being defined as the ratio of five hundred documents as compared with the total collection of 22,000 reports. Input time here, although not specifically defined in print, is probably greater than input time in terms of conforming to the fixed code of the edge-punched card. The advantages of deeper indexing need no champion. The limits of practicality, however, will not long be ignored, and posting through the supernumerary retrieval pathways bodes an increasingly greater burden. Assuming, too, that the 500 documents used in the trial were subjected to the posting procedure which involves dividing a card into ten vertical columns marked 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 and the document numbers placed into these respective stalls by their terminal digit characteristic, the rigors of collating, again minimal with but the derivatives of 500 documents, undoubtedly becomes quite overbearing psychologically, if not physically, as the existing rubrics become associated with more and more documents. It is essential to remember that indexing per se is comparatively a light task and is only the basis for the far more onerous task of posting and collating. The mental image of a pretty young lady, or a sedate one for that matter, coping with the alignment of numerous cards, wherein she is to recognize collated documents by similar terminal digits in a veritable sea of numbers, is quite distressing. It is not so distressing, however, that the desirability of providing her with a more suitable read out device is not apparent. The end would seem to justify the means if the means were just a little less fatiguing. It appeared then that the Center was on the horns of a dilemma—tempted by the fundamentally sound, deep indexing approach but intimidated by the overwhelming personnel problem and the pragmatic justification relative to em-
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--> bracing the “sin” of overengineering. Repeatedly, the edge-punched card, as used in a direct coding method, had been found to be too inadequate in its language capabilities. Originally conceived in a distinctive analytical way, the fundamental logic seemed comprehensive and sound. This involved seven cardinal philosophical considerations beginning with (1) environmental agents interacting with (2) materials of various types which are subject to (3) deterioration in different forms and degree thus in turn demanding various (4) corrective and preventive considerations, the value of which can be measured by (5) test methods which draw heavily on supportive (6) applied and theoretical studies on materials properties, mechanism of destruction, inhibition, and control, all of which come from established, contributory (7) literature consisting of reports, surveys, patents, bibliographies, etc. The scope of the system was further enhanced very early in the plan by creating what is primarily a taxonomy of materials. This established the 14 satellite files in the constellation which was our PDC edge-punched card system. These satellite files are: Biological agents and pesticides Ceramics, cements, glass, and plaster Electrical and electronic equipment Lacquers, paints, and varnishes Leather Lubricants, fuels, and hydraulics fluids Metals Optical instruments and photographic equipment Packaging and storage Paper Plastics, resins, rubbers, and waxes Textiles and cordage Wood Weather and climate Even with this studied attempt to gain versatility, supplemented further by the use of descriptive phrases and words written in on the card, there were too often times when the beast was both deaf and dumb. Gradually undedicated spaces were used to increase the vocabulary of the quasi-automaton, but the privilege of continuing to do this ad infinitum would, within the foreseeable future, be available no longer. The desirability of an open-ended system became very apparent. To add to this the very intriguing ability to collate, if and when the occasion demanded, was soon accepted by the Center as an evolutionary step to be recognized and abetted. Independently of the Center, other investigators of the comparative merits of existing manual systems had been considering respective advantages and disadvantages, and when our edge-punched card system was selected as a guinea pig, we welcomed the exploration. Probably by way of comparative trial to evaluate extension or promotion of possibilities relative to their own needs, the Office of Naval Research offered a set of questions to both our system and the Uniterm system in 1955, and although the question-answering
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--> ability of both systems was sustained, no detailed analysis or comparison of the two methods has been published. Similar tests, however, in other areas with other collections have indicated that any comparable systems so tested usually give the proponents of the vying methods considerable thought-provoking data and indications of potential improvement areas, within the system each is championing. That this was true of our position became apparent after the comparative trial. What information we gained indicated that our performance in terms of question-answering ability was competitive. This was not satisfaction enough. Our growing sense of disaffection was not altered. The necessity to reword or interpret the questions, handling large numbers of cards, the feeling of insecurity concomitant with turning the system over to strangers less familiar with it than we, all helped to fix our determination to move into some more flexible manual information storage and retrieval method. Improving the system by abandoning a direct code and substituting an indirect one was never seriously considered, primarily because we believed this would further isolate the information in terms of utility for untrained users, coders, indexers, and administrators. We suspected too, that dealing with an indirect code would have an unfavorable effect on handling time, thereby increasing costs. The Prevention of Deterioration Center is most rigidly bound by the economics associated with a group cataloguing documents at about 200 a month. This average is rising, and the basic figures reported by Brown in 1955 no longer hold. At that time the increase per year was represented by approximately 2000 reports; however, in the last quarter of 1957 alone, 999 documents passed through the hands of our accession librarian. Table 2 gives a somewhat expanded statistical version of the accessions activity at the Center through the last four years. Peak years such as 1956, wherein several special studies were carried out are reflected in the number of documents involved. This indicates the inherent flexibility that any literature handling system must have, while recognizing the rigor of a fixed annual budget, staff, and facilities. We have accepted as an approximate measure of work load the tenet that processing a document for the storage and retrieval function is probably at least as time-consuming as conventional library cataloguing procedures. At no time have we considered abandoning the typical library practices of cataloguing and supplementary information control through title and author index approaches. Our desire relative to conventional cataloguing is to increase the specificity of the total information system by supplementing the catalog with an input and output system for more detailed information units. The function of the Center as a technical document lending institution is believed to be soundly founded in classical librarianship. Although the relationship between processing time
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--> TABLE 2. Documents accession data, four-year period, Prevention of Deterioration Center Year Ordered Received Catalogued 1954 1st quarter 750 547 567 2nd quarter 695 490 482 3rd quarter 617 417 544 4th quarter 728 435 379 Total 1972 164/month 1955 1st quarter 1048 798 512 2nd quarter 1011 761 677 3rd quarter 1302 881 604 4th quarter 1110 871 505 Total 2298 192/month 1956 1st quarter 1022 769 836 2nd quarter 1040 875 707 3rd quarter 879 731 793 4th quarter 846 691 541 Total 2877 240/month 1957 1st quarter 785 664 515 2nd quarter 792 706 621 3rd quarter 805 641 498 4th quarter 999 790 612 Total 2246 187/month Average 196/month and costs, comparing the library cataloguing of documents with information storage and retrieval handling, is not known, the cataloguing data are considered to be a realistic measure of work volume since at any given time, the ratio of handling times in each operation, cataloguing vs. information system input time, is a discrete number. The fluid condition in work methods relative to our evolving information storage and control methods makes this an unsuitable area for relative cost estimates, whereas the more standardized library procedures lend themselves better to accounting methods. For these reasons we generally measure our work load in terms of library rather than information system activity. Basic concepts in available systems The stimulus of the comparison between two systems as indicated above served to crystallize many of the questions that had arisen from time to time as to what might constitute a better information storage and retrieval system. Here the dynamic flux of the state of this art was both an aid and a hindrance. In looking about for a tailor-made system that would service our needs, there
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--> were none found that could be accepted without reservation. The marginal punch-card system by now had been evaluated against time and, although fundamentally sound, was being found somewhat uncomfortably pinching in its limitations associated with capacity where no indirect code was involved. The need to handle a continually greater number of cards was proving a strain on the nervous and muscular system not only of ourselves, but even on some of the early proponents of this routine.1 The limited capabilities of the edge-punched card in respect to collating information too had been placed on the balance and found lacking. An extension or revision of the edge-punched-card system seemed to be precluded. The change to a system involving high machine costs was considered only in passing and was only considered seriously from the aspect that ultimate growth of our system could conceivably demand, in the future, a machine method. Today the machine method ranks high in importance of consideration primarily because current practices in manual systems should be, in as much as it is conceivably possible, such that ultimate absorption into a machine system can be accomplished with optimal efficiency. The move from man to machine, at present is apparently governed by the physical and time limitations of man in terms of work volume. All other things being considered equal, in the several competitive systems available today, given an economical machine that would reduce the physical burden of handling an ever growing number of 5 by 8 edge-punched cards, this system would probably be ideal for certain type information system performance requirements. No allowances should be entertained, however, which will bar it from absorption into or interpretation by a universal approach. Of the various possibilities that suggested themselves to us, all within the realm of manual methods, gradually the Batten or Peek-a-boo approach became our principal interest. Here there seemed to be numerous advantages which on the surface appeared to contribute to our aspirations for a more versatile, less trying method. The major difficulty in the Peek-a-boo approach apparently resides, in common with other punch-card systems, in the demands associated with the art of indexing. Batten, pioneer in this field, in his appraisal of this method points out clearly the difficulties in this respect, stressing the fact that indexing was in his studies considered as an art and not a science, and with the passage of time others have pointed out that this continues to be the principal difficulty. J.W.Perry has succinctly summarized these difficulties in discussing aspect cards in the book Documentation and Information Retrieval, co-authored by him and Allen Kent. The parallelism between needs at the Imperial Chemical Industry at the time 1 J.W.Perry, personal communication.
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--> of Batten’s work in 1939 and patent literature control expresses well the difficulties common to many information groups and the Prevention of Deterioration Center. His analysis showed: Inadequacy of classical indexing systems, particularly because they do not lend themselves to rejection of unwanted material by nontechnical personnel. Fully mechanized systems are too expensive. Classification pattern changes with time. Hollerith (IBM) or Powers (Remington Rand) cards, suggest a fixed lace-work pattern for a given set of facts, but as the collection grows, the capacity of cards is exceeded and a costly reorganization and a retraining with the use of technical personnel become inevitable. Reflective consideration of this problem finally led him to the conclusion that there was a need for a simple apparatus that would be open in the sense that it could absorb an infinite increase in items. The system should be capable of handling diverse material and permit fine classification from a great number of points of view. This suggested a concept of “one item, one card,” as opposed to one document for each card. In the Batten system the information is considered and indexed from point of view of topic, class, subclass, subject, name, or property, and for each of these items a punchable card is provided. The card is divided into a large number of frames which are numbered by marginal coordinates. Each frame represents a patent “document.” As various aspects of each document are noted, the proper position on each card is punched. This process is continued until all the documents have been dealt with and the spaces on the card have been filled. This results in a series of cards perforated in such a way as to characterize the contents of each document. By superimposing selected cards one on the other in a stack, the visible perforation throughout the entire stack will be obtained. Wherever the frames represent patent specifications having the selected characteristics, the coordination or collation of the selected criteria or rubrics becomes apparent through the uninterrupted light path through coincident punches, thus yielding a tailored answer to a tailored question. In addition, this system provides answers of the yes or no, fit or not fit type question. Batten notes further the special problems in indexing patents. He brings out the demanding exactness of the legal type of language, the necessity for having unambiguous terminology. In the classification of the information in the patents, considerable thought was given to the sorting system which would be used throughout the procedure. It is strongly emphasized that no mechanical aids can compensate for a defective classification scheme, although the converse is true. There is a basic need for a stock set of characteristics to be used for coding. This set is subjected
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--> TABLE 5. Keywords and frequency of occurrence in the category of “Metals,” Issues 1 to 5 inclusive, Volume XV, Prevention of Deterioration Abstracts Keyword Entries Acetylation 1 Acids 1 Acrylonitrile rubber 1 Adhesion 1 Adsorption 1 Aeration 1 Aging 1 Agricultural 1 Aircraft 7 Alkalies 1 Alkalinity 1 Allotropy 2 Alloy 1 Alloying 1 Alloying additives 2 Alloying agents 7 Alloying metal (element, additive) 2 Altitude 1 Aluminum 36 Aluminum alloy (s) 17 Amines 3 Anodes 6 Anodes (sacrificial) 1 Anodizing 5 Anticorrosive additives 16 Anticorrosive treatment (s) 5 Antifouling 1 Antifreeze 1 Antitarnish 1 Application (s) 9 Aqueous solution(s) 2 Asbestos 1 Asbestos-cement 1 Atmosphere 1 Atmospheric pollution 1 Austenitic 1 Automotive engines 1 Awnings 1 Bacteria 2 Bactericides 1 Ballast 1 Batteries 1 Benzophenones 1 Beryllium 1 Bibliography 1 Bis (5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-methane 1 Bitumens 3 Boilers 1 Bolts 1 Boron 1 Brass 4 Bridges 1 Brine See Salt water Bronze 1 Butadiene rubber 1 Butyl rubber 1 Cable(s) 5 Cable sheath 1 Cadmium 2 Calcium silicate 1 Cans See Containers Carbon black 2 Carbon dioxide 1 Casings See Shields Casting 1 Cathodic protection 24 Cavitation 1 Cellulose resins 1 Cement 2 Ceramics 1 Cermets 1 Chemical 1 Chemical composition 1 Chemical plating 1 Chemical resistance 2 Chemical structure 2 Chemicals 2 Chlorinated rubber 1 Chlorination 1 Chlorine 1 Chlorophyll 1 Chromallizing See Chromizing Chromate(s) 9 Chromate treatments 1 Chromic acid 2 Chromium 8 Chromium alloys 1 Chromium compounds 1 Chromizing 3 Cladding 2 Climate 4 Coal tar 2 Coatings 29 Cobalt alloys 2 Coloration 1 Columbium 1 Combustion products 1 Commercial 2 Commercial paper 4 Commercial publication 1
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--> Keyword Entries Communication systems 1 Compendium 3 Compilation 1 Components 2 Compound 1080 1 Concrete 4 Condensation 1 Condenser tubes 1 Container (s) 2 Contaminants 5 Conversion coating See Anticorrosive treatments Cooling systems 1 Cooling towers 1 Copper 19 Copper alloys 7 Copper compounds (organic) 1 Copper-8-quinolinolate 1 Corronizing 1 Corrosion 78 Corrosion inhibitors 2 Corrosion resistance 7 Corrosion resistant 2 Cost(s) 10 Cotton 1 Couples 1 Coupling 3 Cracking 1 Creep 1 Creosote 1 Crevice corrosion 1 Crystallography 2 Cycling 1 Cylinders 2 Decking 1 Deformation 1 Dehumidification 2 Detergents 1 Dichlorophene 1 Dielectric failure 1 Diesel engines 1 Discontinuities 2 Douglas-fir 1 Dow See Anodizing Duck 1 Dust 2 Dyes 1 Economics 1 Electrical contacts 1 Electrical drainage 1 Electrical resistance 1 Electrode potential 2 Electrolytes 3 Electroplate 5 Electroplating 5 Enamels 1 Encasements 1 End uses 3 Engines 3 Epoxy resins 2 Equipment 1 Erosion 2 Exhaust gases 1 Fabrication 1 Farm equipment 1 Fastenings 2 Fatigue 2 Fenders See Shields Ferricyanides 1 Ferrous metals 21 Fertilizer 1 Film(s) 5 Flame spraying 2 Fluorine compounds (inorganic) 1 Foreign 13 Fretting corrosion 1 Fuel ash 1 Fuels 1 Fungi 1 Fungicides 1 Galling 1 Galvanic corrosion 2 Galvanized coatings 1 Galvanizing 2 Galvanizing See Zinc Gas lines 1 Gases (liquid) 1 Gasoline 1 Germany 1 Design 5 Glass 2 Glass textiles 1 Gophers 1 Graphite 1 Grease 1 GR-S 1 HAE See Anodizing Halogen compounds 1 Halogens 1 Hardness 1 Hardware 1 Heat transfer 1 High pressure 1 High temperature (s) 20 Holidays See Discontinuities Hot water 1
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--> Keyword Entries Houses 1 Humidity 2 Humidity (water vapor) 4 Hydrochloric acid 2 Hydrogen peroxide 1 Hydrogen sulfide 2 Impurities 1 Inconel 1 Industrial 3 Inspection 1 Insulation 1 Insulation (heat) 1 Intergranular corrosion 2 Intermetallics 1 Iridite See Anodizing Iron 11 Iron alloy (s) 2 Iron oxide (s) 2 Irrigation 2 Israel 2 Joining 1 Joints 1 Kanegen See Nickel alloys Kerosine 1 Lacquers 1 Laminates 3 Lead 5 Lead alloys 3 Light 1 Light stabilizers 1 Lime 1 Limnoria 1 Linings 2 Lithium 1 Low temperature (s) 5 Magnesia 1 Magnesium 13 Magnesium alloy (s) 7 Magnetic 1 Maintenance 4 Marine 7 Marine borers 1 Marine fouling 1 Mechanical properties 2 Mechanism (s) 15 Mercury compounds 1 Metal(s) 19 Metallizing 2 Microstructure 1 Migration (silver) 1 Mollerizing 1 Molybdate 2 Molybdenum 3 Monel 1 Naphthenate 1 Neoprene 2 Nephroe See Nickel alloys Nickel 8 Nickel alloys 5 Nomenclature 2 Nuts 1 Oil(s) 4 Oil resistance 1 Okun See Solder or putty Oxalate 1 Oxidation 7 Oxide (s) 6 Oxidizing agent 1 Packaging 6 Paint(s) 6 Paper 2 Passivation 6 Patent 11 Permeability 1 Pertechnetate 2 pH 2 Phenolic resins 2 Phosphate 2 Phosphates 3 Phosphorus compounds (organo) 1 Photoactivity 1 Piers 3 Pigment(s) 6 Piling(s) 5 Pipe(s) 20 Piston guides 1 Pistons 1 Pitting 3 Plastics 2 Platinum 1 Poisons 1 Poland 1 Polarization 1 Poles 1 Pollution 1 Polyester resin 3 Polyethylene 2 Polyvinyl chloride 1 Potting resin 1 Powder 1 Pressure treatment 1 Primer 1 Progress report 2 Putty 1 Pyridine derivs. 1 8-Quinolinol 1
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--> Keyword Entries Radiation 1 Railway equipment 1 Rain 1 Reactors 3 Reducing agent 1 Reinforcement (s) 2 Relaxation 1 Research 96 Resin 1 Resistivity 1 Review 60 Rivets 1 Roofing 1 Rubber 2 Rubber (synthetic) 1 Salt solutions 1 Salt spray 2 Salt water 1 Scale 1 Scaling 1 Sea water 15 Sealing 1 Seizing 2 Service life 1 Sheathing 1 Sheaths 1 Sheet 1 Shields 1 Ships 5 Shrouding 1 Silicon 3 Silicones 1 Siliconizing 2 Silver 6 Silver alloy 1 Slushing compounds 2 Sodium benzoate 1 Sodium hypochlorite 1 Sodium nitrite 2 Soil 10 Soil corrosion 1 Solder(s) 3 Solutions 1 Solvents 2 Sound Waves 1 Specifications 1 Sprays 1 Stabilizers 1 Stain 1 Stainless steel 25 Stannic chloride 1 Statistics 1 Steam 1 Entries Steam See Water and High temperature Stearic acid 1 Steel 37 Storage 2 Stray currents 1 Stress 2 Stress corrosion 7 Stress cracking 1 Structural materials 1 Structures 2 Strychnine 1 Sulfur 1 Sulfuric acid 2 Surface preparation 2 Surface treatments 7 Tabulation 1 Tank cars 1 Tankers 3 Tantalum 1 Tape(s) 3 Tarnish 1 Tarnish See Stain Temperature 1 Termites 1 Ternary systems 1 Test(s) 21 Test equipment 6 Textiles 1 Theory 13 Thermosensitive 1 Thiokol rubber 1 Thorium 1 Thread 1 Tin 5 Tin-lead 1 Titanium 9 Titanium alloys 1 Tow reels 1 Transport 1 Transportation 1 Tropical 2 Tropics 1 Tubing 2 Tungstate 2 Ultraviolet light 1 Underground 6 Urban 2 Urea-formaldehyde resin 1 USSR 1 Utensils 1 Vanadium pentoxide 1 Vapor phase inhibitors 1
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--> Keyword Entries Vat dying 1 Vehicles 1 Velocity 1 Vessels 1 Vibration 2 Villanova Cycling Machine See Test equipment; corrosion inhibitors Vinyl chloride 1 Vinyl chloride polymers 1 Vinyl resins 3 Vulcanizing agents 1 Water 17 Water systems 1 Waterproofing agents 1 Wear 2 Weather 1 Weather resistance 1 Weathering 2 Welding 2 Welds 2 Whiskers 1 White rust 1 Wire 2 Wood 2 Wood preservatives 1 Wrappings 1 Wrought metal 1 Zinc 22 Zinc chromate 1 Zinc compounds (organic) 1 Zinc oxide 1 Zirconium 1 Zirconium alloys 2 TABLE 6. Quantitative generation of keywords in “Plastics” category. Issues 1 to 5 inclusive, Prevention of Deterioration Abstracts Number of reports (Approximately 67 sheep and 49 goats) 114 Number of keywords generated 316 Number of keywords generated per 100 reports 277 Total number of entries 815 Average number of keywords per report 7.15 TABLE 7. Frequency of keyword occurrence, category “Plastics.” Issues 1 to 5 inclusive, Volume XV, Prevention of Deterioration Abstracts Frequency of occurrence Number of keywords Frequency of occurrence Number of keywords 1 196 11 3 2 45 13 1 3 12 14 3 4 13 17 1 5 8 18 1 6 4 19 1 7 7 27 1 8 4 30 1 9 2 49 1 10 3
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--> TABLE 8. Unedited keywords and frequency of occurrence in the category of “Plastics” Issues 1 to 5 inclusive, Volume XV, Prevention of Deterioration Abstracts. Keyword Entries Abrasion 1 Abrasion resistance 1 Absorption 1 Acids (organic) 1 Acrylic rubber 1 Acrylonitrile polymers 3 Adhesion 1 Adhesive (s) 7 Age resistance 1 Aggregates 1 Aging 9 Aircraft equipment 1 Aluminum silicate 1 Amines 1 Ammunition 1 Animal glue 1 Anticorrosive additives 1 Anticorrosive coatings 3 Antimony compounds (organic) 1 Antioxidant(s) 10 Antiozonants 10 Antiozonants (candidates) 1 Application 2 Arctic 1 Asphalt 1 1/2 Atomic radiation 1 Automotive components 2 Autopolymerizing 1 Bacteria 1 Bactericide 1 Belts 1 Benzoic acid 1 Bibliography 1 Birch 1 Blooming 1 Book 2 Brittleness 1 Butyl rubber 4 Butyl rubber, brominated 1 Cables 1 Calcium carbonate 1 Camphor 1 Carbon black 2 Casein 1 Cellulose 1 Cellulose acetate 1 Cellulose acetate butyrate 1 Cellulose resins 1 Chemical modification 1 Chemical reactions 1 Chemical resistance 10 Chemical structure 2 Chlorosulfonated polyethylene See Hypalon Chlorotrifluoroethylene See Fluorothene Cladding 1 Coatings 11 Color 1 Commercial 5 Containers 1 Corona 1 Corrosion resistance 1 Cost 1 Cracking 3 Creep 1 Curing 2 Degradation 1 Depolymerization 1 Desert 1 Diester oils 1 Dimensional stabilization 1 Discoloration 1 Douglas fir 1 Durability 1 Dynamic properties 1 Economics 1 Elastomers 14 Electric insulation 1 Electrical properties 2 End use (s) 4 Epoxy-polysulfide resin 1 Epoxy resin(s) 7 Esters 1 Extenders 1 Extreme temperature 1 Extrusions 1 Fabrics 1 Fasteners 1 Ferrous metals 1 Fillers 5 Film(s) 5 Fire resistance 1 Fireproofing 2 Fittings 2 Flexibility 1 Flexural strength 1 Fluorine compounds (organo) 6 Fluorocarbons 2 Fluoroelastomers 1
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--> Keyword Entries Fluorosilicone rubber 1 Fluorothene 1 Foam(s) 2 Formic acid 1 Formulation 2 Fortisan 1 Fuel resistance 4 Fungi 3 Fungitoxics 1 Fungus resistance 1 Fungusproofing 1 Gaskets 1 Gasoline 1 Glass 1 Glass fabric 2 Glass fiber(s) 2 Glossary 1 Greaseproofing 1 GR-S 13 High temperature (s) 27 High temperature resistance 1 Humidity 4 Hycar 1 Hydraulic fluids 1 Hydrolysis 1 Hypalon 5 Inert atmospheres 1 Infrared 2 Inhibitors 1 Interface agents 1 Irrigation ditches 1 Isoprene 1 Joints 2 Jungle 1 Laminates 7 Leather 2 Leather substitute 1 Light 4 Light resistance 1 Light stabilizers 1 Liners 1 Low temperature (s) 6 Lubricants 1 Magnesia 1 Marine 1 Mathematics 1 Mechanical properties 4 Mechanisms 4 Melamine-formaldehyde resin 1 Melamine resin 1 Metal halides 1 Metals 2 Microbicides 1 Microorganisms 1 Migration 1 Moldings 1 Molds 1 Neoprene 3 Nitric acid 1 Nitrile rubber 4 Nitrogen dioxide 1 p-Nitrophenol 1 Nomenclature 1 Nutrition 1 Nylon 5 Oak 1 Oil resistance 8 Olefins 2 Oxalic acid 2 Oxidants 1 Oxidation 5 Oxygen 2 Ozone 11 Ozone cracking 1 Ozone resistance 4 Ozonization 1 Packaging 2 Paintings 1 Paper 3 Patent 18 Pentachlorophenol 1 Permeability 1 Phenol-formaldehyde resin 1 Phenolic resins 6 Phenols 3 Phosphorus compounds (organo) 1 Photochemistry 1 Photodegradation 1 Photometry 1 Pigments 1 Pine 1 Pipe 7 Plasticizers 4 Plastics 9 Plywood 2 Polyester(s) 1 Polyester resins 3 Polyethylene 14 Polymerization 1 Polymers 8 Polystyrene 1 Polysulfide copolymers 1 Polysulfide polymers 2 Polysulfide rubber 1 Polysulfide-silicone polymers 1 Polytetrafluoroethylene 2
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--> Keyword Entries Polyvinyl chloride 7 Polyvinylidene chloride 1 Potting compound 2 Primers 1 Process 1 Progress report 17 Pumps 1 Radiation 2 Radiation (nuclear) 1 Reinforcement 2 Research 49 Residues 1 Resins 2 Resorcinol-formaldehyde resin 1 Resorcinol resins 1 Review 19 Rheology 1 Rodents 1 Rubber 30 Rubber (chlorinated) 2 Rubber hydrochloride 1 Rubber (raw) 1 Salicylic acid 1 Salt water 1 Screening 1 Sea water 1 Seals 2 Shellac 1 Shock resistance 1 Silastic See Silicone rubber Silicone copolymers 1 Silicone-polysulfide polymers 1 Silicone rubber 3 Silicones 5 Siloxanes 1 Smoke 1 Sodium benzoate 2 Specifications 2 Spectroscopy 1 Splicing 1 Stability 1 Stabilizers 7 Staining 1 Standards 1 Steel 2 Storage 3 Stress 1 Stress relaxation 1 Structures 1 Styrene 1 Styrene-butadiene copolymers 2 Styrene-butadiene rubber 1 Styrene resin 1 Sulfides 1 Sulfur 2 Sulfur compounds (organo) 1 Sulfuration 1 Summary 1 Swelling 1 Symposium 2 Synthesis 11 Tanks 1 Tar 1 Techniques 1 Teflon See Polytetrafluoroethylene Temperate 2 Temperature 3 Temperature extremes 5 Temperature resistance 1 Test(s) 14 Theory 1 Thiadiazole (derivs.) 1 Thiokol 2 Thymol 1 Tin compounds (organo) 4 Tire(s) 8 Tire treads 1 Triallyl cyanurate 1 Tropical 1 Ultraviolet 3 Underground 1 Urea (derivs.) 1 Urea-formaldehyde resin 1 Urea resins 2 Urethan 1 Urethan polymers 1 Urethan rubber 1 Vacuum 1 Vinyl chloride 2 Vinyl chloride polymers 2 Vinyl chloride resin 1 Vinyl halide resins 1 Vinyl resin (s) 4 Viscosity 1 Vulcanizing agent (s) 6 Water 2 Water vapor 2 Waterproofing 4 Wax 7 Weapons 1 Wear 1 Weather 8 Weather resistance 1 Windshields 1 Wood 2 Wood preservatives 1
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--> mental, quantitative information is not readily available. Our establishment of the field punched-card coordinate system with its mustering in of rubrics gives us the opportunity to do this for our Center. General applicability may follow. It is pleasant to realize that already our descriptive vocabulary is far superior to our previous code. The truer reflection of our analysis is especially satisfying because to date we have not had to increase staff and adoption of the system has enabled us to include telegraphic extracts of all retained documents and to provide our information seekers with a service far more comprehensive than any hitherto offered. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Sincere thanks are expressed to Mrs. Grace Chapman, Supervisor, Prevention of Deterioration Abstracts, for data appearing in Tables 3 to 8 inclusive, to Miss Faith Bissell, PDC librarian, to Mr. William J.Wood, Jr., formerly Editor at the Center, for his indexing accomplishments in the specifications file, and to the entire staff for their valuable assistance in preparation of this report. BIBLIOGRAPHY BLOOMFIELD, MASSE. Evaluation of coordinate indexing at the Naval Ordnance Test Station. Am. Document. 8, 22–25. (1957). BROWN, CURTIS L. Two approaches to the retrieval of information from a special library. Part I. Application of a simple punched-card system to a special information center. PEAKES, GILBERT L., ALLEN KENT, and JAMES W.PERRY, Editors, Advances in Documentation and Library Science, Vol. 1: Progress Report in Chemical Literature Retrieval. Interscience, New York, 1957, pp. 121–142. BROWN, WILLIAM FULLER, JR., and GLEN ONEAL, Jr. Library searches with punched-card machines. Science 123, 722–723 (1956). CASEY, ROBERT S., and JAMES W.PERRY, Editors. Punched Cards: Their Applications to Science and Industry. Reinhold, New York, 1951. CONNOR, JOHN M. The need for documentation to government specifications. Special Libraries 47, 152–155 (April 1956). Documentation, Inc., Washington, D.C. Application of the uniterm System and the Association of Ideas to a Special Library File, by Mortimer Taube. August 1955. (Technical Report 10). FINDLAY, W.P.K. The use of perforated cards for preliminary identification of fungi. Brit. Mycol Soc. Trans. 31(1/2), 106–111 (1957). GAMBLE, DEAN F. A coordinate index of organic compounds. (Paper presented before Chemical Literature Division, 127th Meeting American Chemical Society, Cincinnati, Ohio, March 31, 1955.) GARRETT, G.T., and O.OSMON, Jr. New punched card system will help you organize corrosion data. Chem. Eng. 64(6), 342, 344, 346, 348 (1957). GULL, C.D. Implications for the storage and retrieval of knowledge. Library Quart. 25,333–343 (1955).
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--> MATHAY, W.L., and R.B.HOXENG. A classification and filing system for corrosion literature. Corrosion 12(11), 72–76 (1956). Microcite, an aid to more effective referencing. Nat. Bureau of Standards (U. S.) Tech. New Bull. 41, 141–142 (1957). Multidimensional indexing speeds instrument-document search at the National Bureau of Standards. Chem. Processing 19(4),96–97 (1956). NELSON, W.L. Technical filing system. Oil Gas J. 54(25), 111 (1955). OPLER, ASCHER, and TED R.NORTON. New speed to structural searches. Chem. Eng. News 34, 2812–2814, 2816 (1956). PERRY J.W., and ALLEN KENT. Documentation and Information Retrieval. Interscience, New York, 1957, pp. 126–127. STERN, JOSHUA. National Bureau of Standards instrument reference service. Can. Chem. Processing 39(10), 111–112 (1955). TAUBE, M. Application of the uniterm System and the Association of Ideas to a Special Library File. U.S. Armed Forces Technical Information Agency document; AD 93969. WARHEIT, I.A. Evaluation of library techniques for the control of research materials. Am. Document. 7, 267–275 (1956). WELT, ISAAC D. Subject indexing in a restricted field. Science 123, 723–724 (1956). WILDHACK, WILLIAM A., JOSHUA STERN, and JULIAN SMITH. Documentation in instrumentation. Am. Document. 5, 223–237 (1954).
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Representative terms from entire chapter: