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Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information

WASHINGTON, D.C. · NOVEMBER 16–21 · 1958

IN TWO VOLUMES

Sponsors of the Conference: National Science Foundation

National Academy of Sciences—National Research Council

American Documentation Institute

National Academy of Sciences—National Research Council

Washington, D.C. · 1959



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--> Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information WASHINGTON, D.C. · NOVEMBER 16–21 · 1958 IN TWO VOLUMES Sponsors of the Conference: National Science Foundation National Academy of Sciences—National Research Council American Documentation Institute National Academy of Sciences—National Research Council Washington, D.C. · 1959

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--> Copyright © 1959 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 59–60045 Printed in the United States of America

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--> ALBERTO F.THOMPSON DECEMBER 1, 1907 · JUNE 18, 1957

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--> IN MEMORIAM THE CONFERENCE owes more perhaps to Dr. Alberto F.Thompson than to any other individual, for he transformed the initial conception into a plan that others finally carried out. As Head of the Office of Scientific Information of the National Science Foundation he was deeply involved in the planning of the Conference, possibly too deeply, for he gave himself with boundless enthusiasm to all that interested him, regardless of limitations of time and health. An organic chemist, Dr. Thompson received his Ph.D. degree at Harvard, did post-graduate work at the University of Munich, and taught at the University of Minnesota and The Massachusetts Institute of Technology. As a major in the Manhattan District of the US Corps of Engineers during World War II, he worked on the development of the atomic bomb. He became Chief of the Technical Information Service of the US Atomic Energy Commission and in November, 1955, he joined the staff of the National Science Foundation. Among his achievements were publication of the National Nuclear Energy Series and the establishment of Nuclear Science Abstracts. His infectious good humor and the brilliant range of his interests (from limericks and model railroads to the works of Mozart and the cultivation of roses) won the affection of all, even of those who disagreed with him. Too energetic and too wise to see science in terms less than international, he saw the information problem on the same scale; yet he searched always for the most effective immediate measures. Operations research on the flow of scientific information received strong encouragement from him: he was deeply interested in mechanical translation and electronic data processing systems. At the same time, he had utmost respect for the physically simple retrieval systems. Alberto Thompson’s expectations for the Conference combined high hopes with New England practicality. We hope that the Conference succeeded in achieving what he would have wished: to inspire us with the vision of the future without letting us forget the realities of the present. GILBERT W.KING

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--> VOLUME ONE OPENING SESSION ADDRESS AREAS 1–4 VOLUME TWO AREAS 5–7 CLOSING SESSION INDEX

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--> CONFERENCE ORGANIZATION Conference Committee Wallace W.Atwood, Jr., Chairman and NAS-NRC Representative Burton W.Adkinson, NSF Representative Milton O.Lee, ADI Representative Charles I.Campbell, Program Committee Henry J.Dubester, Local Arrangements John C.Green, Exhibits Mary McC.Sheppard, Secretary Program Committee Charles I.Campbell, Chairman Helen L.Brownson, Area 1 Dwight E.Gray, Area 2 Joseph Hilsenrath, Area 3 Mary Elizabeth Stevens, Area 4 H.P.Luhn, Area 5 Lawrence F.Buckland, Area 6 Frank B.Rogers, Area 7

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--> Discussion Panel Chairmen Area 1 Philip M.Morse, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. Area 2 Elmer Hutchisson, American Institute of Physics, New York, N.Y. Area 3 Alexander King, European Productivity Agency, Paris, France Area 4 Eric de Grolier, Centre Français D’Échanges et de Documentation Techniques, Milan, Italy Area 5 Gilbert W.King, IBM Research Center, Yorktown Heights, N.Y. Area 6 John W.Tukey, Department of Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. Area 7 Verner W.Clapp, Council on Library Resources, Inc., Washington, D.C. Local Arrangements Committee Henry J.Dubester, Chairman Marion E.Bonniwell · Saul Herner · Rita G.Liepina Wyvona A.Lane · Madeline M.Berry Exhibits Committee John C.Green, Chairman Eugene E.Miller · Gerald J.Sophar · Don D.Andrews · Isaac Fleischmann

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--> PREFACE ON BEHALF OF ALL THOSE who for the past three years have devoted considerable time and effort in preparation for the International Conference on Scientific Information, it is my privilege to present herewith the Proceedings. Certain members of the American Documentation Institute, among them Milton O.Lee, originally conceived the idea for this type of conference. They wanted to bring together on an international level scientists and information specialists for discussion of current research progress and problems concerned primarily with the storage and retrieval of scientific information. Ultimately these aims and ideas were developed until there resulted this Conference, jointly sponsored by the American Documentation Institute, the National Science Foundation, and the National Academy of Sciences—National Research Council. The American Documentation Institute is a private organization, supported by membership dues. After a modest beginning in 1937 it grew in size and stature until today its membership includes some 300 individuals professionally engaged in working with information and documentation in one capacity or another. In 1947 the Institute became the United States national member of the International Federation for Documentation. The National Science Foundation, an independent agency of the Federal Government, was established in 1950 by Act of Congress. Its main functions are to support basic research and education in the sciences and to foster the exchange of scientific information. The chief executive officer of the Foundation is the Director. Final responsibility for establishing Foundation policy lies with the 24-member National Science Board whose distinguished members are appointed by the President of the United States with the approval of the Senate. The Foundation is playing an increasingly significant role in strengthening the scientific capabilities of the country. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, non-profit organization established in 1863 and dedicated to the furtherance of science for the general welfare. Its membership is comprised of more than 550 leading scientists of this country. Its congressional charter provides that the Academy advise the Government on scientific matters. In 1918 the National Research Council was established by executive order of the President of the United States as part of the National Academy of Sciences, and has since given the organization its

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--> INTRODUCTION THE PROCEEDINGS of the International Conference on Scientific Information, which are published here, will be better understood if it is explained how the Conference aim was defined and how the program was arranged to advance that aim. During the spring and summer of 1956, an informal Preliminary Planning Committee met nearly every week to define the scope of the Conference and to devise a plan for carrying it out. Chairman of the Preliminary Planning Committee was Milton O.Lee, American Physiological Society. Members included: Scott Adams, National Institutes of Health; Samuel Alexander, National Bureau of Standards; Robert F.Bray, The Library of Congress; Helen L.Brownson, National Science Foundation; Charles I.Campbell, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council; Verner W.Clapp, Council on Library Resources, Inc.; J.E.Cummins, Australian Scientific Liaison Office; Dwight E.Gray, National Science Foundation; John C.Green, Department of Commerce; Joseph Hilsenrath, National Bureau of Standards; William T.Mason, Department of Commerce; Frank B.Rogers, National Library of Medicine; Mary Elizabeth Stevens, National Bureau of Standards; and Mortimer Taube, Documentation, Inc. A provisional Secretariat was established at this time with Alberto F.Thompson of the National Science Foundation as Executive Secretary and Mary McC.Sheppard of the Academy-Research Council as his assistant. Many others from this country and abroad met with the Committee at various times to give counsel and guidance. After preliminary plans and working documents were developed, an ad hoc committee composed of 50 distinguished scientists and information specialists, under the chairmanship of Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation, was convened on November 11, 1956, at the request of the Academy-Research Council, to review the proposed Conference plans, its aims and scope, and to determine whether such a Conference was warranted. At the recommendation of this ad hoc committee, planning for the Conference proceeded. The proposed content of each of the seven areas of discussion in the Conference was outlined in detail, and the following criteria for acceptable papers were established: Papers will deal with work that has not been published or presented at any open meeting. Work will be considered to have been published if it has been repro-

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--> duced for general distribution in any form or if copies have been deposited in libraries where they are available to the public. Papers will be directed to specialists in the field covered. Only sufficient background information will be included to serve as an adequate framework for new work described in the papers. More general background material will be indicated by references. Papers dealing with systems and methods will describe these at length only when they have not been described previously. If new methods or systems are involved, these will be described in sufficient detail to enable other qualified workers to duplicate the procedures and the results. There will be sufficient information to enable qualified readers to judge the validity of results in objective terms. Theoretical papers will clearly explain the factual basis from which theoretical conclusions have been drawn and will point the way to experimental methods of verifying predictions which follow from such theoretical conclusions. These criteria, together with the definitions of the Discussion Areas, which will be found at the opening of each section in these volumes, were provided to all prospective authors. Early in 1957, a formal policy committee was created with Milton O.Lee, representing the American Documentation Institute; Wallace W.Atwood, Jr., representing the Academy-Research Council; Alberto F.Thompson, representing the National Science Foundation; and Eugene Power and J.E.Cummins named as members-at-large. Also established at this time was a Program Committee with responsibility for reviewing and selecting papers in accordance with the scope and criteria for papers, for appointing discussion panel members, and for making arrangements for the Conference program proper. Charles I.Campbell, The Rockefeller Institute, was named Chairman. Other members of the Committee, selected from the preliminary planning group, and their respective areas of responsibility were: Area 1, Helen L.Brownson; Area 2, Dwight E.Gray; Area 3, Joseph Hilsenrath; Area 4, Mary Elizabeth Stevens; and Area 7, Frank B.Rogers. Two new members were added: H.P. Luhn of the IBM Research Center who accepted the responsibility for Area 5, and Lawrence F.Buckland of Itek Corp., for Area 6. Miss Madeline M.Berry of the National Science Foundation was of very great assistance to the committee, especially in developing the program for Area 5. All those connected with the Conference were saddened by the death of Alberto F.Thompson in June, 1957. During the reorganization which followed, a Conference Committee was established early in 1958 with Wallace W.Atwood, Jr., of the Academy-Research Council becoming Chairman and Mary McC.Sheppard continuing as Secretary. Thomas O.Jones, Acting Head of the Office of Scientific Information, provided valuable help as a Com-

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--> mittee member from June to December, 1957, when Burton W.Adkinson became Head of the Office of Scientific Information and thus became the Foundation’s representative on the ICSI policy committee. About this time Eugene Power resigned because of the pressure of other activities, and J.E.Cummins resigned when he accepted a position with the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna. Others named to the Committee in 1958 were: John C. Green, Department of Commerce, in charge of exhibits; and Henry J.Dubester, The Library of Congress, in charge of local arrangements. The Committee structure thereafter remained unchanged. Because of the narrowly defined scope of the Conference and the intention rigorously to select contributions, it was believed to be wise to consider outlines of proposed papers well in advance of the preparation of papers themselves. We hoped in this way to avoid at least part of the grief of declining to accept papers that had been, in a sense, solicited. During 1957, therefore, an immense amount of correspondence was carried on by the members of the Program Committee and the Secretariat with somewhat under a thousand potential authors of papers in nearly every country of the world. All decisions on papers were taken by the Committee jointly, though we often sought the guidance of referees. We were forced in some cases to decline very sound contributions that concentrated on aspects of the scientific problem that had been excluded from the program explicitly or implicitly. From the approximately 150 papers that were given formal consideration, 75 papers were selected. These papers served as stimulating and valuable points of departure for the discussions of the Conference. We may hope that through their publication here they may provide a basis for further progress in research throughout the world. CHARLES I.CAMPBELL

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--> CONTENTS VOLUME ONE         Opening Session Address SIR LINDOR BROWN   3 AREA 1 Literature and Reference Needs of Scientists: Knowledge now available and methods of ascertaining requirements         Proposed Scope of Area 1   13     Study on the Use of Scientific Literature and Reference Services by Scandinavian Scientists and Engineers Engaged in Research and Development ELIN TÖRNUDD   19     The Transmission of Scientific Information: A User’s Analysis J.D.BERNAL   77     An Operations Research Study of the Dissemination of Scientific Information MICHAEL H.HALBERT and RUSSELL L.ACKOFF   97     Information and Literature Use in a Research and Development Organization I.H.HOGG and J.ROLAND SMITH   131     Methods by which Research Workers Find Information R.M.FISHENDEN   163     Determining Requirements for Atomic Energy Information from Reference Questions SAUL HERNER and MARY HERNER   181     Systematically Ascertaining Requirements of Scientists for Information JIŔÍ SPIRIT and LADISLAV KOFNOVEC   189     How Scientists Actually Learn of Work Important to Them BENTLEY GLASS and SHARON H.NORWOOD   195     Planned and Unplanned Scientific Communication HERBERT MENZEL   199     The Use of Technical Literature by Industrial Technologists CHRISTOPHER SCOTT   245     Requirements of Forest Scientists for Literature and Reference Services STEPHEN H.SPURR   267     The Information-Gathering Habits of American Medical Scientists SAUL HERNER   277

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-->     Use of Scientific Periodicals D.J.URQUHART   287     Summary of Discussion   301 AREA 2 The Function and Effectiveness of Abstracting and Indexing Services         Proposed Scope of Area 2   317     An Evaluation of Abstracting Journals and Indexes MAURICE H.SMITH   321     Analytical Study of a Method for Literature Search in Abstracting Journals PAUL S.LYKOUDIS, P.E.LILEY, and Y.S.TOULOUKIAN   351     The Relation Between Completeness and Effectiveness of a Subject Catalogue C.S.SABEL   377     Cost Analysis of Bibliographies or Bibliographic Services MALCOLM RIGBY and MARIAN K.RIGBY   381     The Efficiency of Metallurgical Abstracts NERIO GAUDENZI   393     Subject Slanting in Scientific Abstracting Publications SAUL HERNER   407     The Importance of Peripheral Publications in the Documentation of Biology MILDRED A.DOSS   429     Current Medical Literature: A Quantitative Survey of Articles and Journals ESTELLE BRODMAN and SEYMOUR I.TAINE   435     A Combined Indexing-Abstracting System ISAAC D.WELT   449     A Unified Index to Science EUGENE GARFIELD   461     Lost Information: Unpublished Conference Papers F.LIEBESNY   475     International Cooperation in Physics Abstracting B.M.CROWTHER   481     International Cooperative Abstracting on Building: An Appraisal A.B.AGARD EVANS   491     Cooperation and Coordination in Abstracting and Documentation OTTO FRANK   497     On the Functioning of the All-Union Institute for Scientific and Technical Information of the USSR Academy of Sciences A.I.MIKHAILOV   511     Summary of Discussion   523

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--> AREA 3 Effectiveness of Monographs, Compendia, and Specialized Centers: Present trends and new and proposed techniques and types of services         Proposed Scope of Area 3   541     Review Literature and the Chemist DENNIS A.BRUNNING   545     The Place of Analytical and Critical Reviews in Any Growing Biological Science and the Service They May Render to Research ISABELLA LEITCH   571     Recent Trends in Scientific Documentation in South Asia: Problems of Speed and Coverage P.SHEEL   589     Scientific Documentation in France J.WYART   605     Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization MAREK CIGÁNIK   613     Summary of Discussion   649 AREA 4 Organization of Information for Storage and Search: Comparative characteristics of existing systems         Proposed Scope of Area 4   665     Conventional and Inverted Grouping of Codes for Chemical Data EUGENE MILLER, DELBERT BALLARD, JOHN KINGSTON, and MORTIMER TAUBE   671     The Evaluation of Systems Used in Information Retrieval CYRIL CLEVERDON   687     Experience in Developing Information Retrieval Systems on Large Electronic Computers ASCHER OPLER and NORMA BAIRD   699     Printing Chemical Structures Electronically: Encoded Compounds Searched Generically with IBM-702 W.H.WALDO and M.DE BACKER   711     Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center CARL J.WESSEL and WALTER M.BEJUKI   731     Retrieval Questions from the Use of Linde’s Indexing and Retrieval System FRED R.WHALEY   763     Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval R.C.WRIGHT and C.W.J.WILSON   771     Summary of Discussion   803

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--> VOLUME TWO     AREA 5 Organization of Information for Storage and Retrospective Search: Intellectual problems and equipment considerations in the design of new systems         Proposed Scope of Area 5   817     The Basic Types of Information Tasks and Some Methods of Their Solution V.P.CHERENIN   823     Subject Analysis for Information Retrieval B.C.VICKERY   855     The Construction of a Faceted Classification for a Special Subject D.J.FOSKETT   867     On the Coding of Geometrical Shapes and Other Representations, with Reference to Archacological Documents J.C.GARDIN   889     Subject-Word Letter Frequencies with Applications to Superimposed Coding HERBERT OHLMAN   903     The Analogy between Mechanical Translation and Library Retrieval M.MASTERMAN, R.M.NEEDHAM, and K.SPÄRCK JONES   917     Linguistic Transformations for Information Retrieval Z.S.HARRIS   937     Linguistic and Machine Methods for Compiling and Updating the Harvard Automatic Dictionary A.G.OETTINGER, W.FOUST, V.GIULIANO, K.MAGASSY, and L.MATEJKA   951     The Feasibility of Machine Searching of English Texts VICTOR H.YNGVE   975     Semantic Matrices G.PATRICK MEREDITH   997     Interlingual Communication in the Sciences JOSHUA WHATMOUGH   1027     An Overall Concept of Scientific Documentation Systems and Their Design E.J.CRANE and C.L.BERNIER   1047     The Possibilities of Far-Reaching Mechanization of Novelty Search of the Patent Literature G.J.KOELEWIJN   1071     Descriptive Documentation CHARLES G.SMITH   1097     Variable Scope Search System: VS3 JACOB LEIBOWITZ, JULIUS FROME, and DON D.ANDREWS   1117

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-->     The Haystaq System: Past, Present, and Future HERBERT R.KOLLER, ETHEL MARDEN, and HAROLD PFEFFER   1143     A Proposed Information Handling System for a Large Research Organization W.K.LOWRY and J.C.ALBRECHT   1181     Information Handling in a Large Information System P.R.P.CLARIDGE   1203     Tabledex: A New Coordinate Indexing Method for Bound Book Form Bibliographies ROBERT S.LEDLEY   1221     The Comac: An Efficient Punched Card Collating System for the Storage and Retrieval of Information MORTIMER TAUBE   1245     Summary of Discussion   1255 AREA 6 Organization of Information for Storage and Retrospective Search: Possibility for a general theory         Proposed Scope of Area 6   1273     The Structure of Information Retrieval Systems B.C.VICKERY   1275     The Descriptive Continuum: A “Generalized” Theory of Indexing FREDERICK JONKER   1291     Algebraic Representation of Storage and Retrieval Languages R.A.FAIRTHORNE   1313     A Mathematical Theory of Language Symbols in Retrieval CALVIN N.MOOERS   1327     Abstract Theory of Retrieval Coding CLIFFORD J.MALONEY   1365     Maze Structure and Information Retrieval GERALD ESTRIN   1383     Summary of Discussion   1395 AREA 7 Responsibilities of Government, Professional Societies, Universities, and Industry for Improved Information Services and Research         Proposed Scope of Area 7   1415     Responsibilities for Scientific Information in Biology: Proposal for Financing a Comprehensive System MILTON O.LEE   1417

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-->     Responsibility for the Development of Scientific Information as a National Resource HAZEL MEWS   1429     Differences in International Arrangements for Financial Support of Information Services N.F.GRELL   1435     Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work GEORGE S.BONN   1441     Training the Scientific Information Officer A.B.AGARD EVANS and J.FARRADANE   1489     Training for Scientific Information Work in Great Britain B.I.PALMER and D.J.FOSKETT   1495     The ICSU Abstracting Board: The Story of a Venture in International Cooperation G.-A.BOUTRY   1503     Creation of an International Center of Scientific Information PAUL BOQUET   1517     An International Institute for Scientific Information WALDO CHAMBERLIN   1523     Summary of Discussion   1535 Closing Session: Summary of Area Discussions   1549 Financial Support   1563 Exhibitors   1565 Roster of Registrants   1567 Index   1607