notes that young children and very sedentary individuals, including the elderly, have energy requirements below 2,000 calories, which underscores the importance of nutrient density in the food consumed by these individuals.

Saturated Fatty Acids, Trans Fatty Acids, and Cholesterol

GUIDING PRINCIPLE 7. The Daily Values (DVs) for saturated fatty acids (SFA), trans fatty acids (TFA), and cholesterol should be set at a level that is as low as possible in keeping with an achievable health-promoting diet.

The macronutrient report (IOM, 2002a) recommends that saturated fatty acids (SFA), trans fatty acids (TFA), and cholesterol intakes should be as low as possible “while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet” (pp. 8-1, 8-2, 9-1). In support of this approach the macronutrient report cites research indicating that SFA, TFA, and cholesterol are not required in the diet. The macronutrient report also presents results of regression analyses of various studies that indicate that any incremental increase in intake of these fats correspondingly increases blood total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the risk of coronary heart disease (IOM, 2002a). The committee recommends the application of the DV approach for SFA, TFA, and cholesterol. Use of % DVs for these food components would provide a meaningful perspective about their presence in food so that individuals can compare products and make food choices that are consistent with the guidance in the macronutrient report and with the public health goals of NLEA. Inclusion of these food components in the Nutrition Facts box is based on the reduction in risk of chronic disease, and thus for the current nutrition labeling, the reference values for SFA and cholesterol are DRVs.

The committee considered how best to recommend translating the scientific information on SFA, TFA, and cholesterol contained in the DRI report into reference values for the Nutrition Facts box. Since the DRI report did not establish an EAR, an AI, or an AMDR for SFA, TFA, or cholesterol because their presence in the diet meets no known nutritional need, there are no DRI values that can be readily used as the basis for the DVs. Therefore, to establish DVs for these chronic disease-related food components, the committee recommends the use of food composition data, menu modeling, and data from dietary surveys to estimate minimum intakes consis-



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