Crits-Christoph, P., Siqueland, L., Blaine, J.D., Frank, A., Luborsky, L., Onken, L.S., Muenz, L., Thase, M.E., Weiss, R.D., Gastfriend, D.R., Woody, G.E., Barber, J.P., Butler, S.F., Daley, D., Bishop, S., Najavits, L.M., Lis, J., Mercer, D., Griffin, M.L., Moras, K., Beck, A. (1997). The National Institute on Drug Abuse Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54(8), 721-726.


DeLeon, G. (1984). The therapeutic community: Study of effectiveness. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Dole, V.P., and Nyswander, M.E. (1965). A medical treatment for diacetylmorphine (heroin) addiction. Journal of the American Medical Association, 193, 646-650.


Fischer, B., Rehm, J., Uchtenhagen, A., and Kirst, M. (2002). Compulsory treatment—what do we know and where should we go? European Addiction Research, 8(2), 52-53.


Galanter, M., Keller, D.S., Dermatis, H., and Egelko, S. (2000). The impact of managed care on substance abuse treatment: A report of the American Society of Addiction Medicine. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 19(3), 13-34.

Greenstein, R.A., O’Brien, C.P., Woody, G., Long, M., Coyle, G., Grabowski, J., and Vittor, A. (1981). Naltrexone: A short-term treatment alternative for opiate dependence. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 8(3), 291-300.


Hall, S.M., Humfleet, G.L., Rues, V.I., Munoz, R.F., Hartz, D.T., and Maude-Griffin, R. (2002). Psychological intervention and antidepressant treatment in smoking cessation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(10), 930-936.

Hays, J.T., Wolter, T.D., Eberman, K.M., Croghan, I.T., Offord, K.P, and Hurt, R.D. (2001). Residential (inpatient) treatment compared with outpatient treatment for nicotine dependence. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 76(2), 124-133.

Hubbard, R.L., Craddock, S.G., Flynn, P.M., Anderson, J., and Etheridge, R.M. (1997). Overview of 1-year follow-up outcomes in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS). Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 11(4), 261-278.

Hurt, R.D., Sachs, D.P.L., Glover, E.D., Offord, K.P., Johnston, J.A., Dale, L.C., Khayralla, M.A., Schroeder, D.R., Glover, P.N., Sullivan, R., Croughan, I.T., and Sullivan, P.M. (1997). A comparison of sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation. New England Journal of Medicine, 337(17), 1195-1202.

Hurt, R.D., Ebbert, J.O., Hays, J.T., and Dale, L.C. (2003). Pharmacologic interventions for tobacco dependence. In A.W. Graham (Ed.), Principles of addiction medicine, 3rd ed. Chevy Chase, MD: American Society of Addiction Medicine.


Inciardi, J.A., Martin, S.S., and Butzin, C.A. (in press). Five-year outcomes of therapeutic community treatment of drug-involved offenders after release from prison. Crime and Delinquency.


Johnson, B.A., Ait-Daoud, N., Bowden, C.L., DiClemente, C.C., Roache, J.D., Lawson, K., Javors, M.A., and Ma, J.Z. (2003). Oral topiramate for treatment of alcohol dependence: A randomized controlled trial. Lancet, 361(9370), 1677-1685.


Khantzian, E.J. (1985). The self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders: Focus on heroin and cocaine dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142(11), 1259-1264.

Kosten, T.R., and O’Connor, P.G. (2003.) Management of drug and alcohol withdrawal. New England Journal of Medicine, 348(18), 1786-1795.

Krystal, J.H., Cramer, J.A., Krol, W.F., Kirk, G.F., and Rosenheck, R.A. (2001). Naltrexone in the treatment of alcohol dependence. New England Journal of Medicine, 345(24), 1734-1739.


Leshner, A.I. (1997). Addiction is a brain disease, and it matters. Science, 278(5335), 45-47.

Leshner, A.I. (1999). Science-based views of drug addiction and its treatment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282(14), 1314-1316.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement