answered committee members’ many questions. We are also thankful to Susan Weiss, who ably served as the NIDA project officer for this study.

At the National Research Council, Christine Hartel was instrumental in guiding and supporting the committee throughout its work. Wendy Keenan served as the skilled, professional, and always helpful senior project assistant, making invaluable contributions to the committee’s work.

Finally, we thank the individual committee members. They volunteered their time and expertise working efficiently and cordially. They provided an exemplar of how an interdisciplinary process should work: debating ideas on their merit, sharing insights from various viewpoints, and being consistently respectful of each others’ expertise.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Warren K. Bickel, Department of Psychiatry, Ira Allen School, University of Vermont; Peter J. Cohen, Georgetown University Law Center and Physician Health Committee, Medical Society of the District of Columbia; Dorothy K. Hatsukami, Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota; Steven Hyman, Office of the Provost, Harvard University; Walter Ling, Department of Psychiatry and Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California at Los Angeles; Eric Nestler, Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas; Charles P. O’Brien, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania; Harold Pollack, Department of Health Management and Policy, University of Michigan School of Public Health; and David J. Rothman, Center for the Study of Society and Medicine, Columbia University.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Herbert D. Kleber, Department of Psychiatry and Division on Substance Abuse, Columbia University, and Bernard Lo, Program in Medical Ethics, University of California at San Francisco. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent



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