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Chechnya from Conflict to Stability: Problems of Posiconffict Reconstruction* Held November 27-28, 2000, the conference was organized by the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences in coopera- tion with the Fund for Humanitarian Assistance to the Chechen Republic and with supportfrom the Milan Concern. Participating in the conference were about 100 scholars, policy specialists, and representatives of various government de- partments and agencies and of the mass media. More than half of the participants and speakers were representatives of Chechen society, which makes the conference particularly significant. The following main statements and recommendations were made at the conference. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. The problems involved in restoring the Chechen Republic as an economic, sociocultural, and political self-governing society-territory in the federal Russian state are enormous in scope. Persistent efforts are needed, including on the part of scholars, in order to resolve the conflict and facilitate reconstruction. The following are essential elements in build- ing a knowledge base: (a) monitoring of the situation in the Chechen Republic and other associated problems; (b) an increase in resources for research related to conflict and postwar reconstruction; and (c) coordina- *Tishkov, V. A., ed. 2000. Recommendations made at the Scientific-Practical Conference, Moscow, November 27-28, 2000. Translated by Kelly Robbins. 189
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190 APPENDIX B lion of expert efforts and recommendations made, as well as the timely presentation of these recommendations to government agencies and the public. Support should be given to the proposal to create a scholarly expert council on problems of conflict resolution and reconstruction in the Chechen Republic, which could operate under the auspices of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). It is also recommended that a North Caucasus Division of the Ethnic Monitoring and Conflict Early Warning Network be created to analyze the situation with regard to interethnic relations and conflicts. 2. Coordination is needed with regard to the efforts of organs of state power and administration: presidential structures, the government and legislative organs of the Russian Federation and of the Provisional Ad- ministration of the Chechen Republic, other regional authorities, and the representative of the president of the Russian Federation in the Southern Federal District. The efforts of the Russian government minister respon- sible for the problems of the Chechen Republic should be used to facilitate this coordination and to provide for more active cooperation with public organizations interested in peace and stability in the Chechen Republic. 3. More public monitoring is needed concerning measures to restore the economic and societal life and to provide other assistance to the Chechen Republic. A monthly informational bulletin should be created by the government of the Russian Federation to publicize the course of financing and execution of reconstruction work, the situation in the re- public, and other issues. As for state television and radio broadcasting, special informational programs are needed, including programs aimed at the population of the Chechen Republic. These programs should be pro- duced with the involvement of the Provisional Administration of the Chechen Republic and public organizations, including those representing Chechen society outside Chechnya. It is essential that an effective and professional television broadcasting system be created in the Chechen Republic. 4. Given the great role of the mass media in society and the broad international resonance of the events in Chechnya, special attention must be paid to (a) the ideological aspects of the struggle against armed sepa- ratism; (b) support for peace-oriented and loyal elements of the Chechen population; (c) the lessening of anti-Chechen sentiments in Russian soci- ety; (d) neutralization of foreign propaganda hostile to Russia; and (e) provision of objective information to international public opinion on the situation in the Chechen Republic. 5. From politics, economics, and ecology to medicine and psychology, the restoration of the Chechen Republic can only be a matter for the common efforts of all of Russian society to solve the problems of recon- struction. The key question is the readiness and mobilization of the
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APPENDIX B 191 Chechens themselves to rebuild a peaceful life. The president of the Rus- sian Federation should address the people of the country, including the population of Chechnya, regarding issues of settling the conflict and elimi- nating its consequences. A declaration must be made on the intention of the state and of Russian society to do everything to overcome the conse- quences of the conflict and restore normal life in Chechnya. The federal authorities must guarantee the residents of Chechnya that there will be no return to the rule of bandits in the republic and that the process of restor- ing legitimate order is irreversible. 6. It must be stated that self-determination of the Chechen people will be ensured, including statehood status for the Chechen Republic and a high level of independence with regard to internal governance. Demon- stratively trampling Chechen self-determination is unnecessary. The resi- dents of Chechnya must have the confidence that their sovereignty will be preserved and that the foundations of civil governance and just order will be restored in accordance with the expression of popular will within the framework of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and taking into account the cultural and religious traditions of the population. 7. It is necessary to carry through to its conclusion the process of forming governmental structures in the Chechen Republic, with particu- lar emphasis on establishing trust and cooperation between military and civilian structures during the special regime period and under the Provi- sional Administration. In the aim of involving the maximum number of residents in the reconstruction process, it is essential to recreate, strengthen, and protect organs of local self-government. To this end, elec- tions to local organs of self-government should be conducted on the basis of federal legislation. The elected local authorities will be able to counter the armed fighters and will be an important partner for military and civilian organs of power at the federal and republic levels. 8. Organs of power at the local (village) level should be given the right to regulate basic life subsistence matters and to disburse budgetary and social payments in direct subordination to republic-level organs of power, bypassing region (raion)-level administrations. Local authorities that are elected, protected, and provided with resources are the founda- tion for the process of rebuilding civil governance in the republic. 9. At the current stage, leaders at the region (radon) level must be appointed with consensus from the leaders of local organs of self-govern- ment, and they must have the functional responsibilities and authority to ensure the proper work of regional units of law enforcement structures, healthcare, and infrastructure. 10. The task of reconstruction must be formulated as a task of rebuild- ing the social and economic infrastructure. For this purpose, efforts and resources must be focused not only on the state economy, but also on
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92 APPENDIX B support for and development of private economic initiative. Nonstate economic entities on the territory of the Chechen Republic should be exempt from the payment of budgetary taxes and fees during the recon- struction period. 11. A special issue is that of measures to change the public climate after the harsh and difficult war. Positive peace is possible, not just the end of war. The country needs to see to the health and life prospects of not only the federal soldiers who served in military actions and their families, but also those in Chechen cities and villages who are today fooled by primitive sermonizing, who have lost their loved ones and homes, who are wounded or sick. The pacified participants in the civil war can find common tasks and interests, from education and work to sports and cul- tural activities and a joint association that could deal with the needs of survivors of wartime trauma. 12. The population must provide an example of reconciliation by snowing sympathy and providing concrete assistance. Many Russian families have good, usable items, extra books and textbooks, as well as money, all of which are needed by those who have suffered from the war in Chechnya. A Russia-wide campaign to assist Chechnya is urgently needed. It is impossible to remain on the sidelines and continue making mutual accusations or seeking those to blame for the war. The Chechens are waiting for reconciliation, as is the rest of Russia. 13. Active work with children is essential. Chechen children and teen- agers need kind care and equal treatment with regard to schools in Mos- cow or other Russian cities. Material and psychological aid is needed by Chechen children and teenagers both in Chechnya and outside its bor- ders. This is a question of equipping schools; providing medical-psycho- logical help, clothing, and food; facilitating enrollment in military train- ing schools; and so forth. 14. Joint civil initiatives are needed on the part of Chechen, North Caucasian, and Russia-wide social forces and institutions, which would include people of various professions and ages (doctors, social and cul- tural workers, agronomists, engineers, scientists, and scholars). Without such efforts, it will be impossible to solve the problems of rebuilding the republic solely through the efforts of soldiers and policemen along with the traumatized and socially disoriented local residents. 15. Social therapy is needed to return various categories of the popu- lation to peaceful labor and peaceful life. Besides the lost lives and de- struction, the most difficult result of the war and of the period of govern- ment by Dudaev and Maskhadov is the demodernization of Chechen society along with the destruction of institutions of social control. Such a situation did not exist in Chechnya before 1991, when the adult popula- tion worked honestly and lived by the same laws and rules as the entire
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APPENDIX B 193 country. Chechnya maintained certain customs, its own culture and lan- guage, as did other peoples of Russia, but in their behavior, Chechens were no different from other citizens. The image of "other" (hostile or romanticized) was created in the years of conflict. This image is a creation of the war and must be destroyed. 16. It is necessary to restore not only the systems that support people's life needs, but also the very foundations of societal life. The main empha- sis must be placed on men and women of middle age. One should not idealize the role of teip [clan] structures (largely mythical) and religious figures (largely self-styled) in restoring the social order. 17. In addition to rebuilding authority and order, the main difficulty lies in overcoming the postwar apathy among the population towards rebuilding the seemingly irreparable ruins. Postconflict apathy is a wide- spread syndrome. It is overcome by means of initial rewarded successes. It is for this reason that Grozny must be rebuilt, since, just as everywhere else, the urban life of Chechnya is the basis for the life of modern society. 18. The citizens of Chechnya must be given renewed confidence that it is they, and not outside forces, who must and can resolve their own problems. To this end, the weakened society must be protected against outside manipulators. Foreign ideologues, including Chechen emigrants, will continue the war against the "empire" and for the "freedom of Chechnya." Authoritative Chechen leaders (political figures, scientists and scholars, businessmen, cultural figures, and others) are obligated to unite in working to establish peaceful life in the Chechen Republic. Such a unified association must stand as a representative of Chechen society on the international arena as well. 19. In restoring the educational system, the basic emphasis must be placed on pre-school and elementary education. In institutions of higher education, departments not requiring a high level of technical equipment should be restored, and courses should be established and widely offered for those who in recent years have been deprived of the opportunity to receive a normal education. After preparatory courses, most young people should be sent to other regions of the country to obtain their secondary and higher education. This will make it possible to remove employment pressures and reduce the base of potential fighters. Education has the same significance for formation of a nonviolent population as the pres- ence of a middle class of property owners. 20. Strict rules regarding treatment of the population must be af- firmed in the army and other federal military and civilian structures oper- ating in Chechnya. A "dry law" is necessary for armed forces personnel during the period of their service in Chechnya (in Bosnia, Russian peace- keepers are able to observe the ban on alcohol use). Humane relations and
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194 APPENDIX B international legal norms must be observed with regard to all categories of the noncombatant population. 21. Convincing and energetic judicial investigations must be pursued with regard to persons guilty of serious crimes. Information needs to be provided regarding the course of investigations of terrorist acts and crimes against the civilian population, the filing of charges against terrorists, or the start of criminal trials. 22. Measures of moral action are needed for Russian politicians, jour- nalists, and public activists who are openly calling for the restoration of Chechen independence. These appeals represent appeals for the continu- ation of bloodshed. They are of an amoral character with respect to the majority of the population of Chechnya and they have a destructive im- pact on the army. Debates in the mass media must be refocused toward discussion of problems of postwar reconstruction and postwar trauma. 23. Wide-scale measures are needed in the international arena to de- fend the actions of the Russian government and to explain the situation in Chechnya. As yet, Russian diplomats and scholars have not played a great role; they are either absent from many international structures or take a passive position. Information for the outside world must be pre- pared in foreign languages, and the activities of the foreign media on this issue must be followed. 24. More coverage should be given to the life and activities of Chechens in Chechnya and outside its borders as part of the Russian community. Representation of them as noble savage people should be halted, showing instead how Chechens are building their lives and fight- ing against bandits. Special attention is merited for coverage of the entre- preneurial activities of Chechens, which are both successful and useful for the country. Support for this sort of business should also be provided by the authorities at various levels. Chechnya is a fundamental problem of nationwide significance. It is a test of the new Russia's ability to correct its own tragic mistakes and respond to external threats. If we pass this test, peace will come to the Chechen Republic, and this means to all of Russia as well.
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Officials and Specialists from the North Caucasus Consulted in Rostov-on-Don October 10-~1, 2000 PARTICIPANTS FROM THE SOUTHERN FEDERAL DISTRICT Abdul-Gamid Kurbanovich Aliev, Director, Regional Center of Ethnopolitical Investigations, Dagestan Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences; PhD (Philosophy) Maya Artashesovna Asivatsaturova, Assistant Professor, Pyatigorsk Branch of the North Caucasus Academy of Public Administration; PhD (History) Hasan Mukhtarovich Dumanov, Adviser to the President of Kabardin- Balkar Republic on Connections with Sociopolitical Organizations and Unities Aleksandr Borisovich Dzadziev, Senior Researcher, Center of Social and Humanitarian Investigations, Vladikavkaz Institute of Management; Head of the North Ossetia Department of the Assembly of the People of Russia, Vladikavkaz Institute of Management Petr Matsevich Ivanov, Chair, Presidium of the Kabardin-Balkar Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Director, Institute of Informatics and Problems of Regional Management Marina Fedorovna Kurakeeva, Minister on the Affairs of Nationalities of Karachaevo-Cherkessia 195
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196 APPENDIX B Hussein Sagidovich Kushkhov, Representative of Ministry of Nationalities, Kabardin-Balkar Republic Ismail Bulachevich Munaev, Representative, Ministry on the Affairs of Federation and Nationalities of the Russian Federation, Chechen Republic Tatiana Mikhailovna Polyakova, Dean of the Law Faculty, Adygeisky State University; Ethnological Monitoring Network Expert Ruslan Zakreivich Sagov, Representative of the Ministry on the Affairs of Federation and Nationalities of the Russian Federation, Republic of Ingushetia Mikhail Valentinovich Savva, City Administration of the Krasnodarsky Krai Asiyat Mukhmedovna Shkhacheva, Representative of the Ministry on Federations and Nationalities of the Russian Federation Vitaly Victorovich Smirnov, Head of the Department of the Apparatus of the President's Special Representative of the Russian Federation in the Republic of North Ossetia and the Republic of Ingushetia, Vladikavkaz Alim Inzrelovich Tetuev, First Deputy Minister, Ministry of Nationalities, Kabardin-Balkar Republic PARTICIPANTS FROM THE ROSTOV REGION Nikolai Stepanovich Avdulov, Director, Scientific Research Institute of the Caucasus, North Caucasus Scientific Center of Higher Schools Victor Vladimirovich Chernous, Head, Center of Political Forecasts Igor Prokopievich Dobaev, Consultant, North Caucasus Academy of Public Administration; PhD (Political Science) Vladimir Georgievich Ignatov, Rector and Professor; North Caucasus Academy for Public Administration Victor Alekseevich Kharchenko, Representative of the Ministry on the Affairs of Federation and Nationalities of the Russian Federation, Rostov Oblast; Ethnological Monitoring Network Expert Larissa Lvovna Khoperskaya, Adviser to the Representative of the President in the Southern Federal District; Professor; PhD (Political Science); Ethnological Monitoring Network Expert Nikolai Pavlovich Kutyrev, Assistant Professor, North Caucasus Academy of Public Administration; PhD (History) Valentina Lavrentievna Marinova, Head, Department on National and Public Relations Aleksandr Vasilievich Ponedelkov, Vice Rector on Scientific Work and Work with Regions; Professor; PhD (Political Science)
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APPENDIX B Ivan Nikolaevich Sidorenko, Assistant Professor, North Caucasus Academy of Public Administration Aleksandr Mikhailovich Starostin, Chief Specialist on Science and Work with the Regions, North Caucasus Academy of Public Administration; Assistant Professor Yury Grigorievich Volkov, Director, Institute for the Preparation and Advancement of Qualification of Humanities and Social Science Teachers of Rostov State University; Professor 197
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Representative terms from entire chapter: