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About the Authors T. Kent Kirk, Chair, is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin, and is retired from the U.S. Department of Agri- culture Forest Products Laboratory in Madison. He is best known for his research on the microbiological degradation of lignin. He and coworkers discovered the pathways and isolated the oxidative enzyme system by which this degradation is achieved in nature. Dr. Kirk also has made contribu- tions to the industrial application of fungi and their enzymes, primarily in the pulp and paper industry and in bioremediation of soil and water. He has served as a member and as chair of the National Research Council's Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and has served on other NRC committees. He was the 1985 recipient of the Marcus Wallenberg Prize for forest-related research, and was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1988. Dr. Kirk received his Ph.D. in Biochemistry and Plant Pathology from North Carolina State University in 1968, and completed postdoctoral training in organic and polymer chemistry in Sweden. John E. Carlson is Associate Professor of Molecular Genetics and Director of the Schatz Center for Tree Molecular Genetics in the School of Forest Resources at The Pennsylvania State University. His expertise is in molecular genetics and biotechnology, and he works primarily with forest species. Dr. Carlson's research includes studies on genetic diversity in natural popu- lations, the structure of plant genomes, and the micropropagation of Christ- mas trees. Dr. Carlson's group also conducts research on the molecular basis and modification of lignin synthesis in trees and the response of trees 235

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236 ABOUT THE AUTHORS to environmental stress. Dr. Carlson currently is Chair of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations study group on Genetics of Quercus (oak). He also has served as a scientific advisor for the Associa- tion of Southeast Asian Nations Forest Tree Center in Bangkok, Thailand, as well as with the National Laboratory of Forest Ecology at Harbin Uni- versity, China. He earned his Ph.D. in genetics from the University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign in 1983. Norman Ellstrand is Professor of Genetics in the Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside. He also is Director of its Biotechnology Impacts Center. Dr. Ellstrand's research focuses on applied plant population genetics with current emphasis on the consequences of gene flow from domesticated plants to their wild relatives, including the hybridization of transgenic crops with wild relatives. He has participated in several government and National Research Council meetings concerning genetically engineered organisms, including the 2002 NRC Committee on Environmental Effects Associated with Commercialization of Transgenic Plants. His honors range from a Fulbright Fellowship to Sweden to being chosen the first Distinguished Speaker at the United Kingdom's Ecological Genetics Group meeting. He received his Ph.D. in biology from the Univer- sity of Texas, Austin in 1978. Anne R. Kapuscinski is Professor in the Department of Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, University of Minnesota. She is recognized for her expertise in fish conservation genetics, biosafety assessment of geneti- cally engineered organisms, and impacts of aquaculture. Dr. Kapuscinski's research addresses effects of artificially propagated fish on the fitness and genetic diversity of wild relatives, measuring these effects for hatchery- released, farm-escaped and transgenic fish. Her laboratory also is research- ing temporal genetic trends in wild fish populations and organic aqua- culture. She received a U.S. Department of Agriculture Secretary Honor Award (1997) and a Pew Fellowship in Marine Conservation (2001) for her linkage of science to public policy regarding aquatic biotechnology and fish genetic conservation. Dr. Kapuscinski is the founding Director of the Insti- tute for Social, Economic, and Ecological Sustainability at the University of Minnesota, where she leads programs that engage government, academia, and the nongovernmental sector in sustainability and biotechnology issues. She served on the NRC Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine, the NRC Committee on Protection and Management of Pacific Northwest Anadromous Salmonids, and the independent Scientists' Working Group on Biosafety. Most recently, Dr. Kapuscinski was appointed to the Global Environmental Facility's Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel as a biosafety advisor, the Food and Drug Administration's Food Safety Committee, Subcommittee on

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ABOUT THE AUTHORS 237 Biotechnology, a Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research Study Panel on safe uses of gene technology, and a Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Consultation on food safety of genetically engineered fish. Kapuscinski earned her Ph.D. in fish- eries sciences in 1984 from Oregon State University. Thomas A. Lumpkin is Director General of the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center in Taiwan. He previously served as Chair of the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences at Washington State University, and Professor of Agronomy and of Asian Studies. He was Co-Chair of the Washington State University Advisory Council for International Affairs, and his research has concentrated on East Asian agriculture with a focus on China and Japan. Dr. Lumpkin has held a number of international consultancies concerning the agricultural sciences, including the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, and he is a former National Academy of Sciences Research Scholar in China. He has published numer- ous peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, and several books ranging from topics such as soybean genetics to management practices on the yield of paddy rice. Dr. Lumpkin holds a Ph.D. in agronomy from the University of Hawaii in 1983. David C. Magnus is Associate Professor of Pediatrics (Medical Genetics) and Co-Director of the Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics. He is recog- nized for his expertise in biology and bioethics, especially as applied to genetic technology and agricultural biotechnology. Dr. Magnus has pub- lished widely on the history and philosophy of biology and bioethics. He serves as Associate Editor of the American Journal of Bioethics and as an editorial advisor for the Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Dr. Magnus is a member of the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture's Advisory Committee on Bio- technology and Agriculture in the 21st Century. He has acted as a consult- ant for the National Conference of State Legislators on cloning, and as an expert consultant for the World Bank on food security and biotechnology. Dr. Magnus earned a Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1989. Daniel B. Magraw, Jr. is President of the Center for International Environ- mental Law (CIEL) in Washington, D.C. His expertise is in international law and public policy, including the regulation of genetically engineered organisms that are released into the environment. From 1992 to 2001, he served the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as Associate General Counsel and Director of the International Environmental Law Office, before joining CIEL, a public interest law organization that uses principles of ecology and justice to strengthen international environmental law. Mr. Magraw has published numerous articles and books concerning public

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238 ABOUT THE AUTHORS and private international law, and he has served as Chair of the Section of International Law and Practice of the American Bar Association. He holds a J.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law (1976), a BA (high honors in economics, 1968) from Harvard University, and served as a Professor of Law at the University of Colorado from 1983 to 1992. Eugene W. Nester, Professor of Microbiology at the University of Washing- ton, is recognized for his knowledge of molecular genetics. Nester is known for his creative and interdisciplinary approach to solving problems in bio- chemistry and molecular genetics. He was the first to demonstrate Agrobacterium Ti plasmid gene transfer into plants, and has contributed much to our current understanding of the mechanisms for incorporating foreign genes into plants. Given that Agrobacterium is the main mechanism used in biotechnology for introducing recombinant DNA into target organ- isms, Nester's research has been essential for optimizing this system of gene transfer for research and commercial purposes. In addition to earning several awards, such as the Australia Prize and the Cetus Award in Biotech- nology, Nester was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1994. He has served on several National Research Council committees, most notably on the 1989 Committee on Scientific Introduction of Genetically Modified Microorganisms and Plants into the Environment. John J. Peloquin is Group Leader for Protein Chemistry for the American Protein Corporation in Ames, Iowa. Previously, Dr. Peloquin was an Assis- tant Researcher V in the Departments of Entomology and Biochemistry at University of California, Riverside. Currently, his research interests include the identification, purification and industrial production of functional pro- teins from complex sources in addition to his previous study of insect symbiotic bacteria, and the genetic transformation of insects for eventual field release. He has authored or co-authored numerous peer-reviewed publications and book chapters concerning symbiotic extracellular bacte- ria, pink bollworm, transgenic insects, and other topics related to parasitol- ogy and heterologous gene expression. Dr. Peloquin has served as a con- sultant to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, as well as a study group member of the First International Workshop on Compara- tive Insect Genomics. He has worked to develop patents for inventions such as a pink bollworm expression system, as well as an electroelution device for nucleic acids and proteins. Dr. Peloquin earned his Ph.D. in vector biology from Texas A&M University in 1985. Allison A. Snow is Professor of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology at The Ohio State University. She is noted for her expertise in the micro- evolutionary processes of plant populations, including breeding systems,

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ABOUT THE AUTHORS 239 pollination ecology, and conservation biology. Currently, Dr. Snow's research focuses on whether crop-to-wild gene flow can lead to rapid evolu- tion in weeds. She has published widely in numerous peer-reviewed jour- nals, in addition to having published several technical reports and book chapters on topics such as transgenic plants, pollination ecology, and gene flow. Dr. Snow is a member of the National Research Council Committee on Agricultural Biotechnology, Health, and the Environment, and she served on the 1999 NRC Committee on Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants. She is also President-Elect of the Botanical Society of America, and is an Associate Editor for Environmental Biosafety Research. Dr. Snow received her Ph.D. in botany from the University of Massachusetts in 1982. Mariam B. Sticklen is a Professor in the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences at Michigan State University. She is known for her expertise in genetic engineering of cereals and turfgrasses. Dr. Sticklen has been exten- sively engaged in the genetic improvement of agricultural crops of developing countries, reducing applications of hazardous chemicals by gene discovery and cloning, and genetic engineering of turfgrasses and other gramineous plants, and production of ethanol and other biobased industrial products (including biodegradable plastic) in corn through genetic engineering. She has been a member of the Board of Trustees for the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics in India and Africa for six years. In 1991, she established a project titled "Agricultural Biotechnology for Sustainable Productivity," through the United States Agency for Inter- national Development. Dr. Sticklen has received many awards for her contributions, including the Michigan State University's Ralph Smuckler International Award. She currently owns six patents and has published two books and many peer-reviewed articles. Dr. Sticklen received a Ph.D. in horticulture from The Ohio State University in 1981. Paul E. Turner is Assistant Professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Yale University. Dr. Turner's research interests include virus ecology, hostparasite interactions, the evolution of infectious disease, and the evolution of sex. His laboratory is using microorganisms as model systems to address hypotheses in ecological and evolutionary theory. His other research interests include the role of sex and its conse- quences in virus evolution, game theory and virus interactions, evolution of plasmid transmission, and virus mediation of host apoptosis. Dr. Turner has published numerous peer-reviewed articles on topics in these areas, and he has spoken at several professional workshops and symposia in the U.S. and abroad. He earned his Ph.D. in zoology from Michigan State Univer- sity, with a certificate in ecology and evolution, in 1995.

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