Index

A

Academic support, of the individual right interpretation, 282–284

Access, restricting, 8–9

Accidents, firearms and, 70–71

Accuracy, of research data, 43

ADAM. See Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring

AddHealth. See National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health

Administrative samples, 37–41

Aggravated assault, 64–65

rates of aggravated assault by firearm involvement, 65

Aggregate crime, estimates of percentage change in, 145

Aggregation, of individual survey responses, 58–59

Aggregation bias, 166

AGVQ. See Attitudes Toward Guns and Violence Questionnaire

American Civil Liberties Union, 236

Analytic framework of illegal firearm acquisition, 82–87

general model, 82–86

intermediate effects of market interventions, 87

using the framework, 86–87

Analyzing estimates for robustness, 139–150

dummy variable model with common time pattern, 140–141

estimates of percentage change in aggregate crime, 145

estimates of percentage change in disaggregate property crimes, 148

estimates of percentage change in disaggregate violent crimes, 146–147

extending the baseline specification to 2000, 140–145

sensitivity of the results to controls, 145–150

trend model with common time pattern, 142–143

trend model with varying postlaw change durations, 150–151

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 13

ARIMA model, 228

Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM), 37, 40–41, 44, 48, 87

Ashcroft, John, 278

Assault weapons, banning to reduce criminal access to firearms, 96–97

Assaults

aggravated, 64–65

sexual, with firearm involvement, 66

Assessment

of individual-level studies, 183

subjective, of self-defense with a firearm, 117

Assessment of ecological studies, 163–170

ecological bias, 170

proxy measures of ownership, 164–170

substitution and confounders, 163–164



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Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review Index A Academic support, of the individual right interpretation, 282–284 Access, restricting, 8–9 Accidents, firearms and, 70–71 Accuracy, of research data, 43 ADAM. See Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring AddHealth. See National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health Administrative samples, 37–41 Aggravated assault, 64–65 rates of aggravated assault by firearm involvement, 65 Aggregate crime, estimates of percentage change in, 145 Aggregation, of individual survey responses, 58–59 Aggregation bias, 166 AGVQ. See Attitudes Toward Guns and Violence Questionnaire American Civil Liberties Union, 236 Analytic framework of illegal firearm acquisition, 82–87 general model, 82–86 intermediate effects of market interventions, 87 using the framework, 86–87 Analyzing estimates for robustness, 139–150 dummy variable model with common time pattern, 140–141 estimates of percentage change in aggregate crime, 145 estimates of percentage change in disaggregate property crimes, 148 estimates of percentage change in disaggregate violent crimes, 146–147 extending the baseline specification to 2000, 140–145 sensitivity of the results to controls, 145–150 trend model with common time pattern, 142–143 trend model with varying postlaw change durations, 150–151 Annie E. Casey Foundation, 13 ARIMA model, 228 Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM), 37, 40–41, 44, 48, 87 Ashcroft, John, 278 Assault weapons, banning to reduce criminal access to firearms, 96–97 Assaults aggravated, 64–65 sexual, with firearm involvement, 66 Assessment of individual-level studies, 183 subjective, of self-defense with a firearm, 117 Assessment of ecological studies, 163–170 ecological bias, 170 proxy measures of ownership, 164–170 substitution and confounders, 163–164

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Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review Attitudes Toward Guns and Violence Questionnaire (AGVQ), 210 Attributable risk, 198–200 Australia, gun buy-backs in, 96 Autopsies. See Psychological autopsy studies Ayres and Donohue’s results, 134–135, 136 B Background checks, conducted by FBI, 52n Banning assault weapons, to reduce criminal access to firearms, 96–97 Bartley-Fox gun law (Massachusetts), 226–229 BATF. See Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Behavioral interventions, 201–214 firearms prevention programs, 202–209 outcome measures, 203, 208–211 quality of the research, 213–214 study design, 211–213 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 164, 195 BJS. See Bureau of Justice Statistics Black and Nagin’s results, 129, 132–133 Boston Gun Project, 10, 236–240 Brady Centers to Prevent Gun Violence, 213 Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, 93–94 Breyer, Stephen, 287 BRFSS. See Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (BATF), 4, 51, 56, 74, 240 firearms trace data, 79–80 Firearms Tracing Center, 38 investigation data, 80–82 Youth Crime Gun Interdiction Initiative, 39, 79–80 Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), 51, 79, 93, 101 Buy-backs. See Gun buy-backs C CAP. See Child access prevention laws Carrying of guns, mandatory penalties for unlawful, 226–229 Case-control studies association of suicide and gun ownership, 196–200 attributable risk, 198–200 Causality framework, 6 direct, 153 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3, 13, 21, 51, 195 National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 47 Channels, for firearms trafficking, 81 Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire, 292 Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad v. Chicago, 288 Chicago-Kent Law Review, 284 Child access prevention (CAP) laws, 9, 217–219 Clinton administration, 39 “Cluster” method, 138n Commerce Clause attack, 297 Committee to Improve Research Information and Data on Firearms, 1, 13, 139 control variable analysis, 273–274 “Response to Wilson’s Dissent,” 18, 272–275 trend model analysis, 274–275 Comprehensiveness in developing useful research data, 44–45 context, 45 scope, 44–45 Conceptual framework for firearms and suicide, 153 Conclusions, 2–3, 14, 234–235, 241. See also Recommendations Control variables and specification committee control variable analysis, 273–274 in statistical analyses of right-to-carry laws, 128–135 Convenience samples, 37–41 Correlation coefficient, between a proxy and gun ownership rates, 165 Correlation framework, spurious, 153 Crime, hypothetical rates by year, 301 Criminal access to firearms handgun acquisition, 78 interventions to reduce, 89–98 Criminal encounters, stages and outcome of potential, 107

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Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review Criminal justice interventions enhanced sentences for criminal use of firearms, 223–230 gun courts, 221–222 problem-oriented policing to prevent firearm-related crime, 230–241 to reduce firearm-related violence, 9–10, 18, 221–241 Criminal use of firearms, 78 sources of firearm data on, 26–29 Cross-sectional studies, 154–162 of associations between firearms prevalence and suicide in the U.S., 156–161 of gun laws and suicide, 184, 186–189 international studies, 161–162 U.S. studies, 155–161 Curse of dimensionality, 305 D Data, 20–42, 122–123 interpreting, 82 observational, 299 quality of, 16 revised new sets of, 126–127, 139 revised original sets of, 122, 125–126 Data Elements for Emergency Department Systems (DEEDS), 47 Data for measuring firearms violence and ownership, 18–52 general objectives for developing useful research data, 42–48 a patchwork of data sets, 20–42 sources of, 15–16 Data on firearms ownership, use, and markets, 34–42 administrative and convenience samples, 37–41 proxy measures of ownership, 41–42 surveys, 34–37 Data on violence and crime, 20–34 National Crime Victimization Survey, 21, 30 National Incident-Based Reporting System, 32–33 National Violent Death Reporting System, 33–34 selected sources of firearm data, 22–31 Uniform Crime Reports, 31–32 Data recommendations, 3–5 emerging data systems on violent events, 3 methodological approaches, 4–5 ownership data, 4 Data systems, 194–195 David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 13 DEEDS. See Data Elements for Emergency Department Systems Defensive gun use (DGU), 6–7, 103–114 comparing sampling design of the NCVS and NSDS, 104 coverage in, 105–108 recommendations on, 6–7 response problems in firearms use surveys, 108–114 Demand, for illegal firearm acquisition, 84–85 Denning, Brannon P., 286 Deterrence and defense recommendations, 6–7 defensive gun use, 6–7 right-to-carry laws, 7 Deterrence approach, applications of pulling-levers focus, 240–241 DGU. See Defensive gun use Dimension reduction, 308n Dimensionality, curse of, 305 Direct causality framework, 153 Disaggregate property crimes, estimates of percentage change in, 148 Disaggregate violent crimes, estimates of percentage change in, 146–147 Dissent, 18, 269–271 Committee’s response to Wilson’s, 18, 272–275 Distribution of firearms ownership, 59 District of Columbia handgun ban to reduce criminal access to firearms in, 97–98 Personal Protection Act, 279 Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) program, 40 Due Process Clause, of the Fourteenth Amendment, 288 DUF. See Drug Use Forecasting program Duggan’s results, 128–129 Dummy variable model, 123–124, 130–133 with common time pattern, 123, 126–127, 140–141 with “region-interacted time pattern model,” 123 Duncan v. Louisiana, 288

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Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review E Ecological bias, 170 Ecological studies of associations between firearms prevalence and suicide in the U.S., 156–161 Ecological studies of gun ownership and the overall risk of suicide, 154–170 across time, 162–163 assessment of ecological studies, 163–170 cross-sectional associations, 154–162 Efficacy of self-defense with a firearm, 114–119 empirical evidence, 115–117 firearms and fatalities, 117–119 probability of injury and loss among victims by means of self-protection, 115 subjective assessments, 117 Emerson, Timothy Joe, 276 Empirical evidence, of self-defense with a firearm, 115–117 Empirical research, contribution to judicial scrutiny, 297–298 Endpoint. See Updated sample endpoint Enforcement and law, sources of firearm data on, 28–31 Enhanced sentences for criminal use of firearms, 223–230 mandatory penalties for unlawful carrying of guns, 226–229 sentencing enhancements for firearm-related crimes, 223–226 Estimates analyzing for robustness, 139–150 modeling of the fraction of homeless in a city, 307 nonparametric, 305–306 of relations among crime rates, the explanatory variables, and adoption of right-to-carry laws, 304–308 Explanatory variables choosing, 299–304, 308 and hypothetical crime rates by year, 301 External validity, in firearms use surveys, 111–113 F Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 4, 11, 21 background checks conducted by, 52n Supplemental Homicide Reports, 32, 64 Federal courts of appeals, and the Second Amendment, 284 Federal firearms licensees (FFLs), 38–39, 73–74, 81–82, 85, 89–91 scofflaws among, 90 Felons, and firearm possession, 77–78, 294n FFLs. See Federal firearms licensees Findings, 2–3, 14, 234–235, 241 Firearm availability and ownership, 56–59. See also Guns aggregation of individual survey responses, 58–59 distribution of firearms ownership across geographic regions, 59 estimated number and per capita ownership of firearms in the U.S., 57 production-based estimates, 56–57 survey-based estimates, 57–58 Firearm data criminal use of firearms, 26–29 firearm-related injury/death, 22–25 firearms and youth, 28–29 firearms industry and retail, 24–27 firearms ownership, 30–31 law and enforcement, 28–31 selected sources of, 22–31 Firearm injury prevention programs, 18, 201–220 behavioral interventions, 201–214 firearms safety technology, 214–220 Firearm involvement rate of robbery by, 66 rates of aggravated assault by, 65 Firearm possession, felons and, 77–78, 294n Firearm prevalence, psychological autopsy studies of, 173–181 Firearm-related crimes, sentencing enhancements for, 223–226 Firearm-related harm, 59–71 and accidents, 70–71 murder victimization rates by race, 63 and nonfatal injuries, 64–66 nonfatal injuries by intent, 60 overall firearm-related deaths, 60

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Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review Firearm-related injury/death, 60 criminal justice interventions to reduce violence in, 18, 221–241 and self-defense, 117–119 sources of firearm data on, 22–25 Firearm-related suicides, number and rate of, 67 Firearm Suppression Program (FSP), for St.Louis youth, 235–236 Firearms and homicides, 61–64 firearm-related murder victimization rates by race, 63 international, 55 offenders, 64 victims, 62–63 weaponry in homicide, 61–62 Firearms and nonfatal injuries, 64–66 aggravated assault, 64–65 rape and sexual assaults, 66 robberies, 65–66 Firearms and self-harm, 66–69 nonfatal self-harm, 69 suicide, 66–69 Firearms and suicide, 18, 66–69, 152–200 conceptual framework, 153 cross-sectional studies of gun laws and, 184 difference made by a gun law, 184–192 ecological studies of gun ownership and the overall risk of suicide, 154–170 individual-level studies of association between, 171–184 international, 55 interrupted-time-series studies of, 188–191 interventions to reduce, 8–10 likelihood of, 196–198 measures of association in case-control studies, 196–200 number and rate of firearm-related, 67 recommendations, 192–196 relationship with household gun ownership, 167 by selected age groupings, 70 time series studies of gun laws and suicide, 185–192 Firearms and youth, sources of firearm data on, 28–29 Firearms commerce, legal and illegal, 73–77 Firearms diverted through trafficking channels, volume of, 81 Firearms flows, 75 Firearms industry and retail, sources of firearm data on, 24–27 Firearms Owners Protection Act, 16n, 50 Firearms ownership distribution of, 59 estimated number and per capita in the U.S., 57 sources of data on, 30–31 Firearms prevention programs, 202–209 Firearms research, standards and methods for, 16–18 Firearms safety technology, 214–220 child access prevention laws, 217–219 locking technology, 215–217 Firearms trace data, BATF, 79–80 Firearms Tracing Center, 38 Firearms use surveys, replication and recommendations in, 113–114 Firearms violence and ownership, data for measuring, 18–52 sources of data for research on, 15–16 First Amendment principles, 292, 296 Fourteenth Amendment, Due Process Clause of, 288 Frameworks. See also Analytic framework of illegal firearm acquisition; Conceptual framework for firearms and suicide; Direct causality framework; Reverse causality framework; Spurious correlation framework; “Third factor” confounder framework and illegal firearm acquisition, 86–87 FSP. See Firearm Suppression Program Fundamental rights, 295n G Gallup Poll, 57, 162 General Social Survey (GSS), 3, 34–35, 43–44, 57, 164 Gillespie v. City of Indianapolis, 284 Ginsburg, Ruth Bader, 287 GSS. See General Social Survey Gun buy-backs in Australia, 96 to reduce criminal access to firearms, 95–96

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Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review Gun buyers, screening to reduce criminal access to firearms, 93–95 “Gun control,” and the Second Amendment, 14–15 Gun Control Act of 1968, 37–38 Gun courts, 221–222 Gun dealers, regulation of, to reduce criminal access to firearms, 89–92 Gun laws. See also individual laws cross-sectional studies of, 184 the difference made by, 184–192 mandatory penalties for unlawful carrying of guns, 226–229 quasi-experimental studies of, 192–193 Gun ownership associations with suicide rates across time, 162–163 proxy measures of, 41–42, 164–170, 194 Gun purchasers, recent, risk of suicide among, 181–183 Gun sources BATF firearms trace data, 79–80 BATF investigation data, 80–82 interpreting the data, 82 for offenders obtaining firearms, 77–82 survey research, 77–79 volume of firearms diverted through trafficking channels, 81 Guns limitation of sales, to reduce criminal access to firearms, 92–93 used to defend against criminals, 18, 102–119 vintage of, 88–89 Guns & Ammo (magazine), 155, 160, 165 H Handgun acquisition by criminals, 292 sources and methods of, 78 Harris Poll, 57 Harvard Injury Control Research Center Survey (HICRC), 164 Harvard School of Public Health, Injury Control Research Center, 3, 33, 50 Hatch, Orrin, 279 Helland and Tabarrok’s results, 137 Hickman v. Block, 278 HICRC. See Harvard Injury Control Research Center Survey Homeless people, estimating a model of the fraction of in a city, 307 Homicide rates by country, 54–56 international comparisons, 54 international firearms homicide and suicide rates, 55 U.S. rates, 56 Homicides, firearms and, 61–64 Household gun ownership, relationship with suicides using a firearm, 167 Hunters, 12–13 Hybrid variable model, 132–133 I ICECI. See International Classification of External Causes of Injury Illegal firearm acquisition demand for, 84–85 interventions aimed at, 18, 72–101 model of, 82–86 supply of, 85–86 Illegal firearms commerce, 73–77 Inaccurate response, in firearms use surveys, 109–110 Incorporation question, 287–288 Indianapolis, Indiana, directed patrol project in, 232–233 Individual-level studies assessment of, 183 improving, 195–196 Individual-level studies of association between firearms and suicide, 171–184 assessment of, 183 next steps, 183–184 psychological autopsy studies of firearm prevalence, 173–181 risk of suicide among recent gun purchasers, 181–183 Individual right interpretation of the Second Amendment, 280–288 academic support of, 282–284 the federal courts of appeals and, 284 the incorporation question, 287–288 the U.S. Supreme Court and, 284–287 Individual survey responses, aggregating, 58–59 Infants, and firearm possession, 294n “Infringements” on the Second Amendment right, 292–294

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Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review Injury Control Research Center, 33, 50 Institute for Social Research, 45 Institute of Medicine, 219 International Classification of Diseases coding system, 46–47 International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI), 47 International firearms homicide and suicide rates, 55 International studies comparisons in homicide rates, 54 cross-sectional associations, 161–162 Interrupted-time-series studies, of gun laws and suicide, 98, 188–191, 228 Interventions to reduce criminal access to firearms, 89–98. See also Behavioral interventions; Criminal justice interventions, to reduce firearm-related violence; Market-based interventions banning assault weapons, 96–97 District of Columbia handgun ban, 97–98 gun buy-backs, 95–96 in illegal firearm acquisition, 89–98 limiting gun sales, 92–93 regulating gun dealers, 89–92 screening gun buyers, 93–95 Interventions to reduce illegal firearm acquisition, 18, 72–101 analytic framework, 82–87 offenders obtaining firearms, 73–82 substitution, 88–89 Interventions to reduce violence and suicide, 8–10 criminal justice interventions, 9–10 prevention programs and technology, 9 recommendations on, 8–10 restricting access, 8–9 Investigation data, BATF, 80–82 J Joyce Foundation, 13 Judicial scrutiny of challenged gun control regulations, 276–298 contribution of empirical research to, 297–298 restrictions on an individual Second Amendment right, 288–297 rise of an individual right interpretation of the Second Amendment, 280–288 Justice Research and Statistics Association, 33n K Kansas City Gun Project, 231–232 L Law and enforcement, sources of firearm data on, 28–31 Legal and illegal firearms commerce, 73–77 firearms flows, 75 Limitation of gun sales, to reduce criminal access to firearms, 92–93 Locking technology, 215–217 Lott, John, 120, 269 Lott’s results, 125–127, 269–275 dummy variable model with common time pattern, 126–127 in statistical analyses of right-to-carry laws, 125–127 trend model with common time pattern, 128–129 M Mandatory penalties, for unlawful carrying of guns, 226–229 Market-based interventions, 8 and illegal firearm acquisition, 87 intermediate effects of, 87 McClure-Volkmer Act, 16n, 50 Mental unsoundness, and firearm possession, 294n Methodological approaches, 4–5 description of, 121–125 for firearms research, 16–18 Methods, of handgun acquisition by criminals, 78 Model of illegal firearm acquisition, 82–86. See also Trend model analysis demand, 84–85 supply, 85–86 Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey, 4, 36, 45 Monte Carlo design, 169 Moody’s results, 127

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Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review Moore v. City of East Cleveland, 295n MTF. See Monitoring the Future Murder rates, by weapon type, 62 Mustard, David, 120 N National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 47 National Crime Survey, 103 National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 21, 30, 36, 43–46, 59n, 61, 65–66, 74, 103–106, 109–112, 115–117 sampling design of, 104 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), 59n, 60, 69 National Firearms Act of 1934, 286 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, 36 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), 3, 21, 32–34, 45–46, 48–50 National Institute of Justice, 13, 51, 101, 215, 227, 240 ADAM survey, 37, 40–41, 44, 48, 87 National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health (AddHealth), 181 National Opinion Research Center (NORC), 34, 162 National Research Council, 3, 16, 108n, 116n, 234, 239, 269 National Review (magazine), 306 National Rifle Association (NRA), 13, 278, 301 National Self-Defense Survey (NSDS), 35, 103–113, 117 sampling design of, 104 National Study of Private Firearms Ownership (NSPFO), 111n, 112 National Survey of Private Gun Ownership, 86 National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), 3, 21, 33–34, 45, 47–50, 195 National Vital Statistics System (NVSS), 45–46, 59 NCVS. See National Crime Victimization Survey Needham Lifestyle Survey, 164 NEISS. See National Electronic Injury Surveillance System New York Police Department’s street crime unit, 233–234 NIBRS. See National Incident-Based Reporting System Nixon v. Shrink Missouri Government PAC, 297 Nonfatal injuries firearms and, 64–66 number and rate of overall and firearm-related, by intent, 60 Nonfatal self-harm, 69 Nongun suicide, 155 Nonparametric estimation, 305–306 Nonresponse, in firearms use surveys, 110–111 NORC. See National Opinion Research Center Nordyke v. King, 278, 284 NRA. See National Rifle Association NSDS. See National Self-Defense Survey NSPFO. See National Study of Private Firearms Ownership NVDRS. See National Violent Death Reporting System NVSS. See National Vital Statistics System O Observational data, 239, 299 Offenders, 64 Offenders obtaining firearms, 73–82 gun sources, 77–82 in illegal firearm acquisition, 73–82 legal and illegal firearms commerce, 73–77 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 202 Office of Science and Technology, 215 Operation Ceasefire, 9–10, 236–241 Outcomes measures of, 203, 208–211 of potential criminal encounters, 107 Ownership data, 4, 41–42, 164–170, 194 P Palko v. Connecticut, 288 Patchwork of data sets, 20–42 data on firearms ownership, use, and markets, 34–42 data on violence and crime, 20–34

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Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review Patterns of firearm-related violence, 18, 53–71 firearm availability and ownership, 56–59 firearm-related harm, 59–71 homicide rates by country, 54–56 Penalties, mandatory, for unlawful carrying of guns, 226–229 Personal Protection Act, in the District of Columbia, 279 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, police gun suppression patrols in, 233 Planned Parenthood v. Casey, 296 Plassmann and Tideman’s results, 134 Plassmann and Whitley’s results, 135–136 Police Foundation, 75, 86 Police gun suppression patrols, in Pittsburgh, 233 Policing gun violence hot spots, 230–235 Indianapolis, Indiana, directed patrol project, 232–233 Kansas City Gun Project, 231–232 lessons learned, 234–235 New York Police Department’s street crime unit, 233–234 police gun suppression patrols in Pittsburgh, 233 Policing violent gun offenders, 235–241 Boston Gun Project and Operation Ceasefire, 236–239 lessons learned, 241 other applications of the pulling-levers focused deterrence approach, 240–241 St. Louis youth Firearm Suppression Program, 235–236 supply-side programs, 239–240 Policy studies, recommendations for needed, 196 Potential criminal encounters, stages and outcome of, 107 Presser v. Illinois, 287 Prevalence rates, 37 Prevention laws, preventing child access, 217–219 Prevention programs, and technology, 9 Primary sampling units (PSU), 58 Probability, of injury and loss among victims by means of self-defense with a firearm, 115 Problem-oriented policing to prevent firearm-related crime, 230–241 policing gun violence hot spots, 230–235 policing violent gun offenders, 235–241 Production-based estimates, 56–57 Project Exile, 9–10, 225–226 Project Safe Neighborhoods, 221 Property crimes, disaggregate, 148 Proxy measures of gun ownership, 41–42, 164–170, 194 correlation coefficient between a proxy and gun ownership rates, 165 Monte Carlo design, 169 and suicides using a firearm to household gun ownership, 167 PSU. See Primary sampling units Psychological autopsy studies, of firearm prevalence, 173–181 “Pulling-levers” focused deterrence approach, applications of, 237, 240–241 Q Quality of data, 16 of the research, 213–214 Quasi-experimental studies of gun laws and suicide, 192–193 R RAND Corporation, 235 Rape, with firearm involvement, 66 “Rare outcome assumption,” 197 “Reasonable” infringements, on the Second Amendment right, 295–297 Recommendations, 3–5, 192–196 data systems, 194–195 defensive gun use, 6–7 emerging data systems on violent events, 3 on firearms, criminal violence, and suicide, 5–6 on firearms use surveys, 113–114 further policy studies needed, 196 improved individual-level studies, 195–196 methodological approaches, 4–5 ownership data, 4

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Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review proxy measures of gun ownership, 194 research, 5–10 right-to-carry laws, 7 “Region-interacted time pattern model,” dummy variable model with, 123 Regulation of gun dealers, to reduce criminal access to firearms, 89–92 Renton v. Playtime Theatres, 297 Replication, in firearms use surveys, 113–114 Representativeness, of research data, 42–43 Research data. See also Empirical research; Studies; Survey research accuracy, 43 comprehensiveness, 44–45 general objectives for developing useful, 42–48 representativeness, 42–43 standardization in developing useful, 45–47 timeliness, 48 Research recommendations, 5–10 deterrence and defense, 6–7 firearms, criminal violence, and suicide, 5–6 interventions to reduce violence and suicide, 8–10 RESET test, 307 Response problems in firearms use surveys, 108–114 external validity, 111–113 inaccurate response, 109–110 nonresponse, 110–111 replication and recommendations, 113–114 “Response” to Wilson’s “Dissent,” 18, 272–275 committee control variable analysis, 273–274 committee trend model analysis, 274–275 published studies, 273 Restricted access, 8–9 Restrictions on an individual Second Amendment right, 288–297 “infringements,” 292–294 “reasonable” infringements, 295–297 scope of, 289–292 Reverse causality framework, 153 Revised new data sets, 126–127, 139 Revised original data sets, 122, 125–126 Richmond, Virginia, Project Exile, 9–10, 225–226 Right-to-carry (RTC) laws, 7, 18, 120–151, 269–271 analyzing estimates for robustness, 139–150 description of the data and methods, 121–125 statistical analyses of, 125–139 statistical issues in the evaluation of effects of, 18, 299–308 Risk attributable, 198–200 of suicide among recent gun purchasers, 181–183 Robberies, 65–66 rate of, by firearm involvement, 66 Robustness, analyzing estimates for, 139–150 RTC. See Right-to-carry laws S Safety technology, 214–220 Samples. See also Updated sample endpoint administrative and convenience, 37–41 Sampling design, comparing the NCVS and NSDS, 104 Scalia, Antonin, 286 Scofflaws, among FFLs, 90 Scope in developing useful research data, 44–45 of the Second Amendment right, 289–292 Screening of gun buyers, to reduce criminal access to firearms, 93–95 Second Amendment right, 276–298 the federal courts of appeals and, 284 “gun control” and, 14–15 individual right interpretation of, 280–288 “infringements” on, 292–294 U.S. Supreme Court and, 284–287 Self-defense with a firearm, 18, 102–119 defensive gun uses, 103–114 efficacy of, 114–119 Self-harm, firearms and, 66–69 Sentencing enhancements, for firearm-related crimes, 223–226 Sexual assaults, with firearm involvement, 66 Shall-issue laws, 120n SHR. See Supplemental Homicide Reports

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Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review Silveira v. Lockyer, 278 Souter, David, 287 Specification search, 307 Spurious correlation framework, 153 St. Louis youth Firearm Suppression Program (FSP), 235–236 Stages, of potential criminal encounters, 107 Standard errors, in statistical analyses of right-to-carry laws, 137–139 Standardization in developing useful research data, 45–47 Data Elements for Emergency Department Systems, 47 International Classification of External Causes of Injury, 47 Standards, for firearms research, 16–18 STAR. See Straight Talk about Risks Statistical analyses of right-to-carry laws, 125–139 control variables and specification, 128–135 Lott’s results, 125–127 standard errors in, 137–139 summary of selected studies, 130–133 trend in the logarithm of the violent crime rate, 135 updated sample endpoint, 135–137 Statistical issues in the evaluation of the effects of right-to-carry laws, 18, 299–308 choosing the explanatory variables, 299–304 estimating the relation to crime rates and the explanatory variables, 304–308 Stevens, John Paul, 287 “Stopping rule,” 172 Straight Talk about Risks (STAR), 213 Studies design of, 211–213 policy, 196 published, 273 Subjective assessments, of self-defense with a firearm, 117 Substitution, 8 and confounders, 163–164 in illegal firearm acquisition, 88–89 Suicide rates. See also Firearms and suicide associations with gun ownership across time, 162–163 by firearm involvement, 68 quasi-experimental studies of, 192–193 by race, 69 Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHR), 32, 64 Supply, of illegal firearms, 85–86 Supply-side programs, 239–240 Survey research, 34–37, 77–79, 113–114 aggregation of individual responses, 58–59 coverage of defensive gun use surveys, 105–108 survey-based estimates, 57–58 T Technology of firearms safety, 214–220 of locking, 215–217 and prevention programs, 9 “Third factor” confounder framework, 153 Thomas, Clarence, 286 Time series studies of gun laws and suicide, 185–192 cross-sectional studies of gun laws and suicide, 186–189 interrupted-time-series studies of gun laws and suicide, 188–191 quasi-experimental studies of gun laws and suicide, 192–193 Timeliness, of research data, 48 Trafficking channels, volume of firearms diverted through, 81 Trend model analysis, 92, 132–133 committee, 274–275 with common time pattern, 128–129, 142–143 with varying postlaw change durations, 150–151 Triad model, 124–125 U UCR. See Uniform Crime Reports Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), 21, 31–32, 44–46, 59n, 61, 65, 136–137 United States v. Cruikshank, 287 United States v. Emerson, 276–279, 284 United States v. Miller, 285–286 University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, 45 Unlawful carrying of guns, mandatory penalties for, 226–229

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Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review Updated sample endpoint, in statistical analyses of right-to-carry laws, 135–137 U.S. Census Bureau, 46, 80 U.S. Constitution. See First Amendment principles; Fourteenth Amendment; Second Amendment right U.S. cross-sectional associations, studies of, 155–161 U.S. Department of Justice, 37 U.S. homicide rates, 56 V Victims, 62–63 Vintage, of guns, 88–89 Violence, interventions to reduce, 8–10 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, 96 Violent crimes, disaggregate, 146–147 Violent events, emerging data systems on, 3 Volume of firearms diverted, through trafficking channels, 81 W Weaponry in homicide, 61–62 murder rates by weapon type, 62 Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS), 63n Wilson’s “Dissent,” 18, 269–271 Committee response to, 18, 272–275 WISQARS. See Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System World Health Organization, 47 Y YCGII. See Youth Crime Gun Interdiction Initiative Youth, firearms and, 28–29 Youth Crime Gun Interdiction Initiative (YCGII), 39, 79–80 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 45, 195