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This booklet is based on the Space Studies Board report New Fror~hers ir' the Solar System: Ar' Ir~tegra ted Exploratior' Strategy (available online at ~. Details about obtaining copies of the full report, together with more information about the Space Studies Board and its activities, can be found at . New Frontiers ir' the Solar System was authored by the Solar System Exploration Survey. SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORATION SURVEY MICHAEL l.S. BELTON, Belton Space Exploration Initiatives, Chair CAROLYN PORCO, Space Science Institute, Vice Chair MICHAEL A'HEARN, University of Maryland lOSEPH A. BURNS, Cornell University RONALD GREELEY, Arizona State University NAMES W. HEAD III, Brown University WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, fR., Carnegie Institution of Washington ANDREW INGERSOLL, California Institute of Technology DAVID lEWITT, University of Hawaii fOHN F. MUSTARD, Brown University ANDREW NAGY, University of Michigan DIMITRI A. PAPANASTASSIOU, let Propulsion Laboratory ROBERT T. PAPPALARDO, University of Colorado MITCHELL SOGIN, Marine Biological Laboratory THOMAS YOUNG, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) The Space Studies Board is a unit of the National Research Council of the National Academies, which serve as independent advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. Support for this publication was provided by the The Presidents' Circle Communication Initiative of the National Academies. The Space Studies Board acknowledges Brian Dewhurst, Bethany Ehlmann, and David H. Smith for drafting the text of this booklet. Cover design by Penny Margolskee; booklet design by Anne Rogers. Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Contents Europa Geophysical Explorer Mars Sample Return and Precursor Missions Kuiper Belt-Pluto Explorer South Pole-Aitien Basin Sample Return Jupiter Polar Orbiter with Probes Venus In Situ Explorer of Bib ~ ~ Comet Surface Sample Return lb Large Synoptic Survey Telescope Missions Recommended by the SSE Survey Other Mission Concepts with Future Potential Future Mars Missions Final Thoughts 1 6 8 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 26 I::::: :::::::::::::::::: - ~: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::x /:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::\ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::\ ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: t t ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: I l ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::: :,( ~;::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ~id::::::::::::::::::::::::::,.;,'

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A montage of some of the diverse planetary bodies explored by spacecraft in the last 40 years.