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ADVANCED EN ERG ETIC MATERIALS Committee on Advanced Energetic Materials and ManufacturingTechnologies Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAl RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAl ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. DSWA01-98-C-0075 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Defense Special Weapons Agency Since 1998 the Defense Threat Reduction Agency]. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agency that provided support for the project. International Book Standard Number: 0-309-09160-8 (book) International Book Standard Number: 0-309-53055-5 (PDF) Available in limited quantities from: Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design Keck Center of the National Academies 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 bmaed@nas.edu http://www. nations l-academ ies.org/bmed Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers lo the Naiion on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON ADVANCED ENERGETIC MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES RONALD L. ATKINS, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (retiredy, Ridgecrest, California, Chair DAVID E. BENDER, Aerojet, Sacramento, California THOMAS B. BRILL, University of Delaware, Newark PHILIP M. HOWE, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico MALCOLM F. NICOL, University of Nevada at Las Vegas JIMMIE C. OXLEY, University of Rhode Island, Kingston ANITA M. RENLUND, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico ALBERT A. SCIARRETTA, CNS Technologies, Springfield, Virginia JEAN'NE M. SHREEVE, University of Idaho, Moscow ROBERT B. WARDLE, ATK Thiokol Propulsion, Brigham City, Utah Liaison to the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design ROBERT J. EAGAN, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico Staff TONI MARECHAUX, Board Director CUNG VU, Study Director (until December 2000) SHARON YEUNG DRESSEN, Study Director (until November 2002) EMILY ANN MEYER, Research Associate TERI THOROWGOOD, Research Associate JUDY ESTER, Senior Project Assistant (until April 2002) v

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BOARD ON MANUFACTURING AND ENGINEERING DESIGN PAMELA A. DREW, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington, Chair CAROL ADKINS, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico THOMAS W. EAGAR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ROBERT FONTANA, JR., Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, Alameda, California PAUL B. GERMERAAD, Intellectual Assets, Inc., Saratoga, California ROBERT HATHAWAY, OshRosh Truck Corporation, Oshkosh, Wisconsin RICHARD L. KEGG, Milacron, Inc. (retiredy, Cincinnati, Ohio PRADEEP KHOSLA, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania JAY LEE, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee JAM ES MATTICE, U n iversa I Tech nology Corporation, Dayton, Oh lo MANISH MEHTA, National Center for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, Michigan ANGELO M. NINIVAGGI, JR., Plexus, Nampa, Idaho H.M. REININGA, Rockwell Collins, Cedar Rapids, Iowa LARRY RHOADES, Extrude Hone Corporation, Irwin, Pennsylvania JAMES B. RICE, JR., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ALFONSO VELOSA 111, Gartner, Inc., Portland, Oregon JACK WHITE, Altarum, Ann Arbor, Michigan JOEL SAMUEL YUDKEN, AFL-CIO, Washington, D.C. Staff TONI MARECHAUX, Director vl

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Preface Advanced energetic materials are a critical technology for the defense of the United States. While many of these materials are routinely manufactured as commodities, several new concepts and formulations have great promise for both evolutionary and revolutionary applications. The Department of Defense is concerned with prioritization of scarce resources as well as maintaining and improving the knowledge base in this area. To help address these concerns, the Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Science and Technology and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (formerly the Defense Special Weapons Agency) requested that the National Research Council, through the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, conduct a study to investigate and assess the scope and health of U.S. research and development efforts in energetic materials. The Committee on Advanced Energetic Materials and Manufacturing Technologies (see Appendix A) was charged with the following tasks: Review U.S. research and development in advanced energetics being conducted by the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy's national laboratories, industry, and academia from a list provided by the sponsor of the study. Review papers and technology assessments of non-U.S. work in advanced energetics. Assess important parameters, such as validity, viability, and the likelihood that each of these materials can be produced in quantity. Identify barriers to scale-up and production, and suggest technical approaches for addressing potential problems. Suggest specific opportunities, strategies, and priorities for government sponsorship of technologies and manufacturing process development. The committee conducted five information-gathering meetings at which it received presentations from the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, and the Central Intelligence Agency and from academic and industrial organizations (see Appendix B. "Meeting Agendas"~. Additionally, committee members visited a representative group of advanced development and production sites. The committee effort focused on the following six major technical areas, defined by the study's sponsor. Each is addressed in a separate chapter, following the Executive Summary and an introductory Chapter 1. vii

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New energetic materials synthesis and development (Chapter 2), Thermobaric explosives (Chapter By, Reactive materia is (Cha pter 4), Nanomixtures and nanocomposites (Chapter by, Advanced gun propellants (Chapter 6), and Exotic physics (Chapter 7~. Chapter 8 presents the major conclusions and recommendations of the study. Findings and recommendations on the respective technical areas are presented in Chapters 2 through 7. A supplement to this report contains information that was determined by the U.S. government to contain technical data whose export is restricted by the Arms Export Control Act. Requests for the supplement should be made to ODUSD(S&T)/WS, Suite 9030' 1777 N. Kent St., Arlington, VA 22209. The scope of this study covered a broad range of materials. The committee is indebted to the experts who took the time to share their knowledge and insights. The committee also greatly appreciates the support and assistance of National Research Council staff members Sharon Young Dressen and Emily Ann Meyer in the development of this report. Ronald L. Atkins, Chair Committee on Advanced Energetic Materials and ManufacturingTechnologies . . . v///

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Robert Austin, Princeton University George Dieter, University of Maryland John W. Fischer, Naval Aviation, Science, and Technology Office George Lester, Consultant Fred Michel, Consultant Hyla Napadensky, Napadensky Energetics, Ltd. (retired) James O'Bryon, O'Bryon Group La I itha Ra maswa my, U n iversity of Ma ryla nd Alfred G. Stern, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Frank H. Stillinger of Princeton University. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. IX

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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION NEW ENERGETIC MATERIALS Current Research Focus, 8 Transition Barriers, 9 Current CHNO/F Energetic Materials Research, 10 Cu rrent Transition to Applications, 14 Findings and Recommendations, 15 THERMOBARIC EXPLOSIVES Current Focus, 16 Background and Current Research, 16 Transition Barriers, 18 Findings and Recommendations, 18 4 REACTIVE MATERIALS Introduction, 20 Findings and Recommendations, 22 NANOMIXTURES AND NANOCOMPOSITES Introduction and Current Research Activities, 24 Transition Challenges, 25 Ma n ufactu ri ng a nd Tra nsition Ba rriers, 26 Findings and Recommendations, 27 6 ADVANCED GUN PROPELLANTS Current Research Focus, 28 Current Gun Propellants, 29 Advanced Gun Propellant Research, 30 Findings and Recommendations, 34 xl 1 5 8 16 20 24 28

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EXOTIC PHYSICS Cu rrent Resea rch Efforts, 35 Findings and Recommendations, 36 8 MAJOR CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS APPEN DIXES A BIOG RAPH ICAL SKETCH ES OF COM M ITTEE M EM BERS B MEETING PRESENTATIONS AND SITE VISITS C ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS xii 35 37 40 45 49

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List of Tables and Figures TABLES 6-1 6-2 FIGURES 1-1 4-3 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 Comparison of HMX and HNFX, 11 Comparison of Formulations for Propellant Materials, 29 Theoretical Benefits of Systems Using DANPE, 33 Molecular structures of selected energetic materials, 7 Damage done by inert fragments to the guidance component of a missile, 21 Damage done by reactive fragments to a guidance component identical to that shown in Figure 4-1, 21 Damage done to a missile body by a warhead's inert fragments, 21 Damage done to the same target shown in Figure 4-3 by a warhead's reactive fragments, 21 Calculated impetus and flame temperature for conventional (nitrocellulose (NC] and nitrate esters ENE]) and thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) propellants, 30 Typical layered geometries of TPE propellants, 31 Pressure time trace from the firing of a 120-mm gun using layered TPE propellant, 31 Typical test setup for a pendulum test used to evaluate advanced layered propellant, 32 Slab extrusion using a twin screw extruder, 34 . ., A/

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