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The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs
TABLE F-1 Some Perspective on the Size of the Current Hydrogen and Gasoline Production and Distribution Systems in the United States
9 million tons per year
150 million tons per year of gasoline equivalent
~200,000 miles of petroleum and product
~19 2,600 psi hydrogen trucks to deliver the equivalent of one gasoline tank truck
SOURCE: EIA (2002).
Approximately 24 percent of U.S. energy demand in 2001 was satisfied by natural gas. Over 90 percent was produced domestically, with almost all of the rest imported from Canada (EIA, 2003). Natural gas is found in underground reservoirs, often in combination with petroleum, and is accessed by wells similar to oil wells. Once it is brought to the surface, natural gas is processed to remove impurities, and a mercaptan is added to provide the “rotten egg” smell that facilitates easy detection of leaks. Natural gas is then compressed and transmitted to storage facilities and end users.
FIGURE F-1 World fossil energy resources. SOURCE: IPCC (2001b).