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TABLE S-4 Criteria and Dietary Reference Intake Values for Sodium and Chloride

Life Stage Group

Criterion for AI for Sodium

0 through 6 mo

Average consumption of sodium from human milk

7 through 12 mo

Average consumption of sodium from human milk and complementary foods

1 through 3 y

Extrapolation of adult AI based on energy intake

4 through 8 y

Extrapolation of adult AI based on energy intake

9 through 13 y

Extrapolation of adult AI based on energy intake

14 through 18 y

Extrapolation of adult AI based on energy intake

19 through 50 y

Intake level to cover possible daily losses, provide adequate intakes of other nutrients, and maintain normal function

51 though 70 y

Extrapolated from younger adults based on energy intake

> 70 y

Extrapolated from younger adults based on energy intake

Pregnancy

 

14 through 50 y

Same as for nonpregnant women

Lactation

 

14 through 50 y

Same as for nonlactating women

a AI = Adequate Intake. The observed average or experimentally determined intake by a defined population or subgroup that appears to sustain a defined nutritional status, such as growth rate, normal circulating nutrient values, or other functional indicators of health. The AI is used if sufficient scientific evidence is not available to derive an Estimated Average Requirement. The AI is not equivalent to a Recommended Dietary Allowance.

Concerns have been raised that a low level of sodium intake adversely affects blood lipids, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease risk. However, at the level selected for the AI, the preponderance of evidence does not support this contention. A potential indicator of an adverse effect of inadequate sodium is an increase in plasma renin activity. However, in contrast to the well-accepted benefits of blood pressure reduction, the clinical relevance of modest rises in plasma renin activity as a result of sodium reduction is uncertain.

The AI for chloride is set at a level equivalent on a molar basis to that of sodium, since almost all dietary chloride comes with the sodium added during processing or consumption of foods. For example, the AI for chloride for younger adults is 2.3 g (65 mmol)/day of chloride, which is equivalent to 3.8 g/day of sodium chloride.



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