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Meal

Food/Beverage Consumed

Energy (kcal)

Water (mL)

 

Iced tea, brewed, decaffeinated (16 oz)

5

472

Coffee, black, unsweetened, decaffeinated (8 oz)

9

236

Total for meal

663

1,231

Total water from food

 

891

Total water from beverages

 

2,849

(≈ 12 cups)

Daily total

2,219 kcal

3,740

NOTE: This diet meets the Adequate Intake or the Recommended Dietary Allowance for adult men and women for all nutrients for which one has been established (for fiber, it meets the ratio of 14 g/1,000 kcal) and provides energy nutrients within the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges. Nutrient totals may not equal the sum of the parts, due to rounding. Vegetables prepared without salt. Food composition data: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 16.

DATA SOURCE: ENVIRON International.

AI for Women

19–30 years

2.7 L/day of total water. This includes approximately 2.2 L (9 cups) as total beverages, including drinking water.

31–50 years

2.7 L/day of total water. This includes approximately 2.2 L (9 cups) as total beverages, including drinking water.

Older Adults and the Elderly Ages 51+ Years

Evidence Considered in Setting the AI

Renal Concentrating Ability. Renal concentrating ability is well known to decline with age in humans (Dontas et al., 1972; Lindeman et al., 1966; Rowe et al., 1976). In several studies the maximal urine osmolality, when measured following 12 to 24 hours of dehydration, was inversely related to age (Dontas et al., 1972; Lindeman et al., 1966). In one study, the maximal urine osmolality was 1,109 mOsmol/kg in 31 subjects 20 to 39 years old, compared with 1,051 mOsmol/kg in 48 subjects 40 to 59 years old and 882 mOsmol/kg in 18 subjects 60 to 79 years old (Rowe et al., 1976). It is interesting to note that the age-related decline in concentrating



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