Cover Image


View/Hide Left Panel

Type of Use

For an Individuala

For a Groupb


RDA: aim for this intake.

EAR: use to plan an intake distribution with a low prevalence of inadequate intakes.


AIc: aim for this intake.

AIc: use to plan mean intakes.


UL: use as a guide to limit intake; chronic intake of higher amounts may increase the potential risk of adverse effects.

UL: use to plan intake distributions with a low prevalence of intakes potentially at risk of adverse effects.

RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance

EAR = Estimated Average Requirement

AI = Adequate Intake

UL = Tolerable Upper Intake Level

a Evaluation of true status requires clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric data.

b Requires statistically valid approximation of distribution of usual intakes.

c For the nutrients in this report, AIs are set for all age groups for water, potassium, and sodium (and chloride on an equimolar basis to sodium). The AI may be used as a guide for infants as it reflects the average intake from human milk. Infants consuming formulas with the same nutrient composition as human milk are consuming an adequate amount after adjustments are made for differences in bioavailability. In the context of assessing groups, when the AI for a nutrient is not based on mean intakes of a healthy population, this assessment is made with less confidence. The use of other DRIs (the Estimated Energy Requirement [EER] and the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range [AMDR]) are described in another report in this series (IOM, 2002/2005).

hypertension—while a multifactoral diagnosis, hypertension is causally related to increased sodium intake.


Three major types of information gaps were noted: (1) a paucity of data for estimating average requirements for electrolytes and water in presumably healthy humans; (2) an even greater dearth of

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement