tassium intake cannot be directly compared with that of non-African Americans. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial tested the effects of a diet high in fruits and vegetables (and thus also higher levels of potassium, magnesium, and fiber) in both African Americans and non-African Americans (Appel et al., 1997; see Table 5-4). While blood pressure was reduced in both groups, only the reductions in African Americans achieved statistical significance. Such evidence must be interpreted cautiously because the diet emphasized several nutrients besides potassium. The potential for race or ethnicity to modify the effects of potassium on kidney stone formation and metabolic bone disease has not been well studied. Overall, there is insufficient evidence at this time to set different potassium recommendations based on race or ethnicity.
The health effects of potassium intake in infants are uncertain. Thus recommended intakes of potassium are based on an Adequate Intake (AI) that reflects a calculated mean potassium intake of infants principally fed human milk, or a combination of human milk and complementary foods.
Ages 0 Through 6 Months. Using the method described in Chapter 2, the AI for potassium for infants ages 0 though 6 months is based on the average amount of potassium in human milk that is consumed. A mean intake of 0.39 g/day of potassium is estimated based on the average volume of milk intake of 0.78 L/day (see Chapter 2) and an average concentration of potassium in human milk of 0.5 g/L during the first 6 months of lactation (see Table 5-9). An AI of 0.4 g/day of potassium is set for infants 0 through 6 months of age, after rounding.
Ages 7 Through 12 Months. The potassium intake for older infants can be determined by estimating the intake from human milk (concentration × 0.6 L/day) and complementary foods (see Chapter 2). Potassium intake (n = 51) from complementary foods was estimated to average 0.44 g/day based on data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII) (see Appendix Table E-4). The average intake from human milk is approximately 0.3 g/