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variability may be most applicable to nutrients for which requirements are related to energy expenditure.

Pregnancy and Lactation

Recommendations for pregnancy and lactation may be subdivided because of the many physiological changes and changes in nutrient needs that occur during these life stages. In setting EARs and AIs for these life stages, however, consideration is given to adaptations to increased nutrient demand, such as increased absorption and greater conservation of many nutrients. Moreover, nutrients may undergo net losses due to physiological mechanisms regardless of the nutrient intake such as seen with calcium in lactation (IOM, 1997). Thus, for some nutrients, there may not be a basis for EAR or AI values that are different during these life stages than they are for other women of comparable age.

Reference Heights and Weights

Use of Reference Heights and Weights

Reference heights and weights are useful when more specificity about body size and nutrient requirements are needed than that provided by life stage categories. For example, while the EAR may be developed for the 4- to 8-year-old age group, a small 4-year-old child may be assumed to require less than the EAR for that age group, whereas a large 8-year-old may require more than the EAR. Based on the model for establishing RDAs, however, the RDA (and an AI) should meet the needs of both.

In some cases, where data regarding nutrient requirements are reported on a body-weight basis, it is necessary to have reference heights and weights to transform the data for comparison purposes. Frequently, where data regarding adult requirements represent the only available data (e.g., on adverse effects of chronic high intakes for establishing Tolerable Upper Intake Levels [ULs]), extrapolating on the basis of body weight or size becomes a possible option to providing ULs for other age groups. Thus, for this and other reports, when data are not available, the EAR or UL for children or for pregnant women may be established by extrapolation from adult values on the basis of body weight. It should be noted that, depending on the nutrient, the value may also be extrapolated based on relative energy expenditure.



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