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Urinary Na and Ca excretion were positively correlated in young men and women

Significant linear relationship between urinary Na and urinary Ca observed for both normal (n = 88) and osteoporotic (n = 132) postmenopausal women

Significant positive correlation between urinary Na and Ca in men and women

Urinary Na and Ca excretion were associated at moderate and high intakes of Ca but not low intakes in elderly men and women

No association between Na intake and BMD in men and women

Urinary Na found to be the most important determinant of urinary Ca excretion for 8- to 13-yr-old girls

Urinary Ca (mmol/d) = 0.01154 × urinary Na (mmol/d) + 0.823, whereas Ca intake had relatively little impact

No association with bone mass

Urinary Na excretion was significantly and negatively correlated with change (decrease) in bone density at the hip bone (−0.003 × urinary Na + 6.33) and interocanter site (−0.003 × urinary Na + 7.86) in postmenopausal women

Urinary Na correlated with urinary deoxypyridinoline and urinary Ca in men and women

Urinary Na correlated with bone mineral content and density, but the association disappeared when adjusted for other confounders, especially body weight Urinary Ca excretion increased by 0.77 mg/23 mg of Na excreted in individuals with Ca oxalate kidney stones

Relative risk for renal stones increased with increased intake of Na

Q1 = 1.6 g/d Na, RR = 1.0

Q2 = 2.3 g/d Na, RR = 1.08

Q3 = 2.8 g/d Na, RR = 1.15

Q4 = 3.6 g/d Na, RR = 1.10

Q5 = 4.9 g/d Na, RR = 1.30

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