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the AI as their goal for intake of water, potassium, and sodium chloride. Guidance for using AIs for labeling was recently developed (IOM, 2003).

Using the Tolerable Upper Intake Level in Planning for Individuals

In this report, a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) was set only for sodium. Thus individuals should plan their intakes to remain below the UL for sodium. Guidance for how to incorporate ULs when establishing dietary values for nutrition labels was recently proposed (IOM, 2003).

PLANNING NUTRIENT INTAKES OF GROUPS

Using the Adequate Intake in Planning for Groups

Planning a group median intake that meets the Adequate Intake (AI) should, by definition, be associated with a low prevalence of inadequacy when the AI is set as the median intake of a healthy group and the group being planned for has characteristics similar to the group used to establish the AI (IOM, 2000). If the AI is not set as the median intake of a healthy group (e.g., the AIs for sodium and potassium were not set in this way), one would have less confidence that the prevalence of inadequacy would be low if the group’s median intake met the AI.

Using the Tolerable Upper Intake Level in Planning for Groups

In order to minimize the proportion of the population at potential risk of adverse effects from excessive nutrient intake, the distribution of usual intakes should be planned so that the prevalence of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is acceptably low (IOM, 2003). Since a large majority of the population has usual intakes of sodium above the UL, this will necessitate a dramatic reduction in population sodium intakes.

NUTRIENT-SPECIFIC CONSIDERATIONS

Water

The Adequate Intake (AI) for total (drinking water, beverages, and food) water set in this report is derived from the median total water intakes from U.S. dietary survey data expressed as absolute amounts (liters/day), and varies by age and gender. For example,



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