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BOX 8-1 Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes for Healthy Individuals and Groups

Type of Use

For an Individuala

For a Groupb

Assessment

EAR: use to examine the probability that usual intake is inadequate (if individual’s usual intake is at the EAR, then 50% probability that intake is inadequate).

EAR: use to estimate the prevalence of inadequate intakes within a group (% in a group whose intakes are inadequate = % whose intakes are below the EAR).

 

RDA: usual intake at or above this level has a low probability of inadequacy.

RDA: do not use to assess intakes of groups.

AIc: usual intake at or above this level has a low probability of inadequacy.

AIc: mean usual intake at or above this level implies a low prevalence of inadequate intakes.

UL: usual intake above this level may place an individual at risk of adverse effects from excessive nutrient intake.

UL: use to estimate the percentage of the population at potential risk of adverse effects from excess nutrient intake.

REFERENCES

Basiotis PP, Welsh SO, Cronin FJ, Kelsay JL, Mertz W. 1987. Number of days of food intake records required to estimate individual and group nutrient intakes with defined confidence. J Nutr 117:1638–1641.


Heitmann BL, Lissner L. 1995. Dietary underreporting by obese individuals—Is it specific or non-specific? Br Med J 311:986–989.


IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1994. How Should the Recommended Dietary Allowances Be Revised? Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.



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