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response, and estimate of exposure) and evaluates the risk; this step also includes a characterization of the degree of scientific confidence that can be placed in the Tolerable Upper Intake Level

Risk management

Process by which risk assessment results are integrated with other information to make decisions about the need for, method of, and extent of risk reduction; in addition, it considers such issues as the public health significance of the risk, the technical feasibility of achieving various degrees of risk control, and the economic and social costs of this control

Salt sensitivity

The extent of blood pressure change in response to a reduction in salt intake; the term “salt-sensitive blood pressure” applies to those individuals or subgroups who experience the greatest reduction in blood pressure from a given reduction in salt intake


Standard deviation


Standard error


Standard error of the mean


Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (in-bred strain of rats)


Total body water


Trials of Hypertension Prevention-Phase II: a clinical trial that tested the effects of sodium reduction and weight loss, alone or combined, as a means to prevent hypertension

Total water

Includes drinking water, water in beverages, and water that is part of food


Uncertainty factor; the number by which the NOAEL (or LOAEL) is divided to obtain the Tolerable Upper Intake Level; the size of the UF varies depending on the confidence in the data and the nature of the adverse effect


Tolerable Upper Intake Level; a category of Dietary Reference Intakes; the amount of a nutrient that is the highest level of daily intake likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects for al-

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