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Excel 4.0 spreadsheet and used to generate the dataset of estimated water and sodium requirements at varying energy expenditure levels and temperatures. Environmental and individual assumptions are listed below. These data were then plotted using Sigma Plot 9.0 to generate a graphical display.

ASSUMPTIONS

  • Individual

    • 70-kg person

    • Height = 170 cm

    • Walking velocity = 5 km/h

    • 0% grade

    • Clothing = 1.0 (cotton)

  • Environmental

    • Partly cloudy day

    • Wind speed = 1 m/sec

    • Relative humidity = 50%

    • Outdoor

    • Water vapor pressure = 19.094 mm Hg

    • Load = 0 kg

    • Dry bulb temperature = 30°C

    • Black globe temperature = 45°C

  • Physiological

    • Skin body temperature = 35.0°C

    • Rectal body temperature = 36.5°C

    • Initial heart rate = 60 bpm

    • Rest (N)

    • Exposure I = 720 min (= 12 h)

    • Exposure II = 720 min (= 12 h)

    • Exposure III (min) = 0

    • Exposure IV (min) = 0

  • 1.0 L/d minimal requirements for survival:

  • Sodium concentration of sweat (≈ 35 mmol/L), that of a partially acclimated person



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