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D
U.S. Dietary Intake Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994

TABLE D-1 Mean and Selected Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Total Water (mL): United States, NHANES III, 1988–1994

Sex/Age Categorya

n

Mean

Percentile

1st

5th

10th

Both sexes, 2–6 mo

784

1,112

443

607

707

Both sexes, 7–12 mo

809

1,324

525

768

861

Both sexes, 1–3 y

3,172

1,420

509

701

822

Both sexes, 4–8 y

3,247

1,779

1,069

1,235

1,332

Standard error

 

26

160

128

109

M, 9–13 y

1,188

2,535

1,211

1,495

1,669

Standard error

 

54

121

110

101

M, 14–18 y

891

3,400

1,765

2,118

2,333

Standard error

 

88

303

269

242

M, 19–30 y

1,872

3,908

1,849

2,260

2,517

Standard error

 

65

140

130

121

M, 31–50 y

2,495

3,848

1,632

2,094

2,380

Standard error

 

57

63

58

55

M, 51–70 y

1,872

3,551

1,606

2,024

2,281

Standard error

 

64

74

55

54

M, 71+ y

1,186

2,994

1,422

1,768

1,979

Standard error

 

45

64

53

46

F, 9–13 y

1,181

2,240

1,003

1,268

1,429

Standard error

 

49

70

61

58

F, 14–18 y

937

2,498

957

1,270

1,466

Standard error

 

66

80

74

74



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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate D U.S. Dietary Intake Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994 TABLE D-1 Mean and Selected Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Total Water (mL): United States, NHANES III, 1988–1994 Sex/Age Categorya n Mean Percentile 1st 5th 10th Both sexes, 2–6 mo 784 1,112 443 607 707 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 809 1,324 525 768 861 Both sexes, 1–3 y 3,172 1,420 509 701 822 Both sexes, 4–8 y 3,247 1,779 1,069 1,235 1,332 Standard error   26 160 128 109 M, 9–13 y 1,188 2,535 1,211 1,495 1,669 Standard error   54 121 110 101 M, 14–18 y 891 3,400 1,765 2,118 2,333 Standard error   88 303 269 242 M, 19–30 y 1,872 3,908 1,849 2,260 2,517 Standard error   65 140 130 121 M, 31–50 y 2,495 3,848 1,632 2,094 2,380 Standard error   57 63 58 55 M, 51–70 y 1,872 3,551 1,606 2,024 2,281 Standard error   64 74 55 54 M, 71+ y 1,186 2,994 1,422 1,768 1,979 Standard error   45 64 53 46 F, 9–13 y 1,181 2,240 1,003 1,268 1,429 Standard error   49 70 61 58 F, 14–18 y 937 2,498 957 1,270 1,466 Standard error   66 80 74 74

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 856 1,047 1,313 1,564 1,786 2,384 1,051 1,260 1,544 1,833 2,027 2,588 1,032 1,320 1,703 2,141 2,492 3,238 1,513 1,742 2,005 2,274 2,453 2,826 76 35 49 130 200 389 2,001 2,439 2,964 3,523 3,901 4,715 82 61 77 143 200 342 2,743 3,282 3,928 4,617 5,086 6,102 180 100 150 337 488 858 3,019 3,709 4,577 5,548 6,232 7,763 101 73 88 181 267 493 2,920 3,632 4,527 5,574 6,340 8,122 50 54 78 128 178 325 2,765 3,387 4,148 5,018 5,643 7,065 56 58 91 129 187 424 2,377 2,895 3,502 4,136 4,559 5,453 35 34 64 116 158 260 1,734 2,132 2,623 3,181 3,582 4,497 52 47 65 96 139 312 1,841 2,331 2,958 3,722 4,301 5,688 70 52 80 172 287 673

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate Sex/Age Categorya n Mean Percentile 1st 5th 10th F, 19–30 y 1,885 2,838 1,034 1,399 1,628 Standard error   41 64 55 48 F, 31–50 y 2,906 3,101 1,202 1,589 1,829 Standard error   43 56 52 46 F, 51–70 y 2,002 3,024 1,281 1,649 1,877 Standard error   49 96 56 49 F, 71+ y 1,317 2,617 1,227 1,540 1,729 Standard error   35 70 59 52 Pregnant 341 3,118 1,363 1,692 1,904 Standard error   139 183 146 151 Lactating 98 3,791 1,600 2,173 2,500 Standard error   171 233 214 207 P/L 434 3,277 1,527 1,924 2,163 Standard error   122 183 167 157 All individuals 27,744 3,006 968 1,343 1,589 Standard error   24 16 21 19 All individuals (+P/L) 28,178 3,011 971 1,347 1,594 Standard error   24 15 22 19 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTE: Total water intake reflects the sum of plain drinking (tap) water and the water content of all foods and beverages consumed. Data are limited to individuals who provided a valid response to the question “How much plain drinking water do you usually drink in a 24-hour period? Include only plain tap or spring water,” and who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months and children 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method to provide estimates of usual intake. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy or lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy or lactating status were excluded from the analysis.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 2,077 2,687 3,435 4,244 4,795 5,979 39 40 60 99 133 219 2,280 2,898 3,690 4,582 5,276 7,038 34 46 48 82 127 325 2,316 2,898 3,594 4,333 4,832 5,899 56 50 93 94 139 391 2,082 2,536 3,064 3,609 3,969 4,715 41 34 52 90 122 196 2,341 2,966 3,736 4,530 5,053 6,167 161 200 201 272 309 835 3,076 3,753 4,463 5,127 5,537 6,333 199 194 193 222 261 371 2,610 3,182 3,839 4,511 4,953 5,869 139 130 155 225 288 446 2,087 2,791 3,662 4,659 5,423 7,247 21 34 37 51 79 143 2,093 2,797 3,667 4,662 5,423 7,235 21 37 38 51 80 143 DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics (2003).

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate TABLE D-2 Mean and Selected Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Drinking Water (mL): United States, NHANES III, 1988–1994 Sex/Age Categorya n Mean Percentile 1st 5th 10th Both sexes, 2–6 mo 784 115 0 0 0 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 809 172 0 0 0 Both sexes, 1–3 y 3,172 383 0 0 0 Both sexes, 4–8 y 3,247 615 120 203 261 Standard error   21 6 9 10 M, 9–13 y 1,188 1,096 67 191 292 Standard error   53 15 23 28 M, 14–18 y 891 1,393 64 215 346 Standard error   57 16 27 31 M, 19–30 y 1,872 1,389 43 165 282 Standard error   49 7 14 18 M, 31–50 y 2,495 1,292 34 146 255 Standard error   42 4 10 14 M, 51–70 y 1,872 1,255 43 171 289 Standard error   49 6 14 19 M, 71+ y 1,186 1,208 76 234 361 Standard error   45 11 18 22 F, 9–13 y 1,181 1,015 49 153 244 Standard error   48 12 20 23 F, 14–18 y 937 1,130 24 65 234 Standard error   50 6 28 76 F, 19–30 y 1,885 1,156 26 121 221 Standard error   34 4 12 17 F, 31–50 y 2,906 1,229 26 121 222 Standard error   24 2 8 11 F, 51–70 y 2,002 1,276 42 188 318 Standard error   35 8 17 21 F, 71+ y 1,317 1,122 62 218 343 Standard error   27 11 18 21 Pregnant 341 1,414 140 323 464 Standard error   98 149 173 174 Lactating 98 1,557 250 502 672 Standard error   136 254 237 213 P/L 434 1,442 119 305 449 Standard error   75 29 40 52 All individuals 27,744 1,139 26 122 218 Standard error   17 1 5 7 All individuals (+P/L) 28,178 1,144 27 124 221 Standard error   16 1 5 7 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a valid response to the question “How much plain drinking water do you usually drink in a 24-hour period? Include only plain tap or spring water,” and who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months and children 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method to provide estimates of usual intake. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy or lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy or lactating status were excluded from the analysis.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0 59 148 237 473 887 0 118 237 473 473 946 118 237 473 946 1,183 1,892 382 558 786 1,041 1,218 1,607 13 18 27 41 53 86 530 918 1,471 2,132 2,607 3,670 37 49 68 98 125 196 659 1,173 1,889 2,728 3,325 4,652 37 45 69 131 190 344 580 1,106 1,894 2,867 3,581 5,208 24 37 65 116 160 276 537 1,031 1,767 2,671 3,333 4,835 22 32 54 102 147 267 578 1,055 1,715 2,480 3,020 4,217 27 39 62 105 143 238 647 1,075 1,626 2,230 2,640 3,509 31 43 59 86 109 167 465 838 1,372 2,014 2,481 3,548 29 40 63 103 139 236 467 924 1,557 2,391 2,757 4,262 58 50 101 156 134 285 484 941 1,596 2,373 2,931 4,179 24 32 45 74 103 181 492 974 1,692 2,571 3,212 4,666 17 23 32 57 85 163 621 1,099 1,742 2,467 2,968 4,041 29 37 46 64 82 131 617 1,017 1,511 2,036 2,386 3,120 25 28 33 46 58 93 774 1,246 1,873 2,582 3,078 4,160 157 116 143 306 450 802 1,011 1,468 2,005 2,558 2,920 3,666 164 139 214 364 484 764 773 1,267 1,922 2,661 3,175 4,298 72 70 113 159 213 416 466 905 1,560 2,366 2,956 4,294 11 16 22 34 47 83 470 911 1,567 2,373 2,961 4,296 11 15 22 34 47 82 DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics (2003).

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate TABLE D-3 Mean and Selected Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Drinking and Beverage Water (mL): United States, NHANES III, 1988–1994 Sex/Age Categorya n Mean Percentile 1st 5th 10th Both sexes, 2–6 mo 784 873 59 303 475 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 809 932 163 335 516 Both sexes, 1–3 y 3,172 1,007 237 399 479 Both sexes, 4–8 y 3,247 1,264 663 803 879 Standard error   28 90 83 68 M, 9–13 y 1,188 1,923 736 975 1,126 Standard error   54 65 68 70 M, 14–18 y 891 2,716 1,222 1,551 1,748 Standard error   78 252 219 192 M, 19–30 y 1,872 3,176 1,268 1,628 1,859 Standard error   67 94 92 89 M, 31–50 y 2,495 3,089 1,054 1,466 1,729 Standard error   59 85 76 77 M, 51–70 y 1,872 2,761 1,000 1,350 1,572 Standard error   60 54 51 49 M, 71+ y 1,186 2,212 834 1,123 1,304 Standard error   44 47 41 38 F, 9–13 y 1,181 1,709 635 833 961 Standard error   46 60 55 51 F, 14–18 y 937 2,015 532 832 1,023 Standard error   61 67 61 59 F, 19–30 y 1,885 2,321 678 1,025 1,235 Standard error   39 65 62 62 F, 31–50 y 2,906 2,523 791 1,107 1,315 Standard error   40 37 30 31 F, 51–70 y 2,002 2,392 782 1,121 1,335 Standard error   45 47 45 45 F, 71+ y 1,317 1,959 723 981 1,142 Standard error   33 43 41 40 Pregnant 341 2,445 898 1,189 1,378 Standard error   123 145 155 158 Lactating 98 3,058 2,058 2,342 2,496 Standard error   171 1,150 852 684 P/L 434 2,597 981 1,315 1,526 Standard error   110 126 119 115 All individuals 27,744 2,376 590 906 1,108 Standard error   24 15 15 16 All individuals (+P/L) 28,178 2,380 592 909 1,111 Standard error   24 15 15 15 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTE: Plain drinking and beverage water intake reflects the sum of plain drinking (tap) water and the water content of all beverages consumed (including water from foods reported in a beverage combination). Data are limited to individuals who provided a valid response to the question “How much plain drinking water do you usually drink in a 24-hour period? Include only plain tap or spring water,” and who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months and children 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method to provide estimates of usual intake. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy or lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy or lactating status were excluded from the analysis.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 649 848 1,054 1,308 1,495 2,019 684 886 1,125 1,419 1,592 2,083 673 906 1,262 1,638 1,918 2,545 1,028 1,226 1,448 1,705 1,860 2,251 56 38 33 86 109 232 1,421 1,822 2,315 2,850 3,217 4,016 69 58 64 99 143 286 2,113 2,587 3,171 3,840 4,325 5,434 141 95 129 302 460 877 2,321 2,970 3,802 4,750 5,427 6,976 80 68 86 158 228 422 2,231 2,883 3,705 4,694 5,426 7,114 79 65 79 132 189 349 2,002 2,576 3,307 4,174 4,812 6,286 50 56 77 121 164 291 1,651 2,113 2,665 3,248 3,640 4,467 33 36 60 105 142 233 1,220 1,587 2,063 2,608 3,000 3,904 43 43 65 109 147 247 1,371 1,828 2,454 3,236 3,827 5,218 49 49 78 178 274 538 1,601 2,152 2,876 3,625 4,163 5,369 66 39 92 120 140 338 1,728 2,303 3,062 3,987 4,688 6,384 32 37 58 78 138 432 1,741 2,254 2,883 3,617 4,145 5,320 45 50 59 97 119 196 1,453 1,868 2,365 2,892 3,245 3,994 37 34 42 73 101 172 1,757 2,287 2,957 3,709 4,243 5,457 148 141 157 270 403 805 2,758 3,054 3,353 3,625 3,789 4,100 404 184 370 659 843 1,200 1,933 2,477 3,130 3,821 4,289 5,288 111 115 142 200 255 405 1,528 2,146 2,954 3,908 4,623 6,442 17 21 33 43 66 128 1,532 2,151 2,959 3,912 4,625 6,436 18 22 31 42 62 125 DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics (2003).

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate TABLE D-4 Mean and Selected Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Food Water (mL): United States, NHANES III, 1988–1994 Sex/Age Categorya n Mean Percentile 1st 5th 10th Both sexes, 2–6 mo 784 240 0 0 0 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 809 392 6 83 128 Both sexes, 1–3 y 3,172 414 55 121 159 Both sexes, 4–8 y 3,247 521 230 301 342 Standard error   10 7 8 9 M, 9–13 y 1,188 609 264 339 385 Standard error   20 49 44 38 M, 14–18 y 891 689 346 426 474 Standard error   25 119 102 89 M, 19–30 y 1,872 732 279 384 447 Standard error   16 11 21 29 M, 31–50 y 2,495 761 264 372 439 Standard error   13 22 21 19 M, 51–70 y 1,872 788 257 372 444 Standard error   17 26 26 25 M, 71+ y 1,186 777 247 352 419 Standard error   21 24 25 27 F, 9–13 y 1,181 531 278 339 375 Standard error   10 66 57 49 F, 14–18 y 937 488 183 250 290 Standard error   21 37 34 31 F, 19–30 y 1,885 515 230 296 335 Standard error   9 43 37 33 F, 31–50 y 2,906 574 175 261 314 Standard error   10 11 10 10 F, 51–70 y 2,002 631 228 316 370 Standard error   11 15 14 13 F, 71+ y 1,317 656 266 361 417 Standard error   11 32 28 24 Pregnant 341 666 236 329 386 Standard error   31 21 21 22 Lactating 98 723 251 350 412 Standard error   60 27 35 41 P/L 434 672 382 453 495 Standard error   29 166 140 122 All individuals 27,744 629 203 294 349 Standard error   4 10 9 8 All individuals (+P/L) 28,178 630 205 295 350 Standard error   4 10 9 8 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTE: Food water intake reflects the water content of all foods consumed (excluding water from foods reported in a beverage combination). Data are limited to individuals who provided a valid response to the question “How much plain drinking water do you usually drink in a 24-hour period? Include only plain tap or spring water,” and who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months and children 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method to provide estimates of usual intake. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy or lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy or lactating status were excluded from the analysis.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 31 189 354 553 723 1,119 236 347 493 651 861 1,296 260 379 522 694 841 1,183 416 507 609 717 790 944 9 9 11 14 17 29 469 579 715 870 982 1,241 28 17 33 73 108 201 562 673 798 923 1,004 1,170 61 29 53 113 156 253 563 707 873 1,049 1,167 1,417 30 17 26 37 37 50 566 731 924 1,121 1,251 1,519 16 13 16 26 33 52 578 748 952 1,181 1,342 1,693 22 17 19 34 46 80 552 733 953 1,189 1,349 1,695 26 20 32 44 65 158 440 521 610 699 755 870 33 13 25 53 72 113 366 464 582 714 807 1,014 25 21 27 48 68 120 409 501 606 712 780 920 23 11 19 40 55 89 415 545 701 869 985 1,233 8 9 13 21 29 52 473 607 763 923 1,029 1,248 11 11 17 24 29 44 519 643 779 909 992 1,155 16 11 19 33 43 65 495 638 807 981 1,096 1,335 25 31 39 49 57 77 532 691 879 1,076 1,207 1,484 52 64 76 89 102 141 570 662 763 863 927 1,056 84 36 63 142 198 322 454 597 768 950 1,074 1,351 645101428 455 598 769 950 1,074 1,349 6 5 5 10 14 28 DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics (2003).

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate TABLE D-5 Mean and Selected Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Potassium (mg): United States, NHANES III, 1988–1994 Sex/Age Categorya n Mean Percentile 1st 5th 10th Both sexes, 2–6 mo 793 995 339 506 591 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 827 1,543 521 736 878 Both sexes, 1–3 y 3,309 1,970 590 869 1,071 Both sexes, 4–8 y 3,448 2,189 1,576 1,741 1,832 Standard error   22 508 381 308 M, 9–13 y 1,219 2,622 1,335 1,653 1,836 Standard error   53 192 155 136 M, 14–18 y 909 3,125 2,319 2,533 2,653 Standard error   110 1,140 868 707 M, 19–30 y 1,902 3,374 2,270 2,554 2,715 Standard error   56 405 320 267 M, 31–50 y 2,533 3,432 1,505 1,954 2,215 Standard error   43 114 106 88 M, 51–70 y 1,942 3,314 1,252 1,733 2,022 Standard error   55 68 60 56 M, 71+ y 1,255 2,918 1,258 1,661 1,897 Standard error   45 107 85 80 F, 9–13 y 1,216 2,243 1,182 1,454 1,608 Standard error   60 50 83 88 F, 14–18 y 949 2,120 796 1,086 1,264 Standard error   67 106 112 109 F, 19–30 y 1,901 2,233 1,310 1,547 1,681 Standard error   31 206 163 136 F, 31–50 y 2,939 2,489 1,170 1,483 1,669 Standard error   39 94 81 73 F, 51–70 y 2,065 2,506 1,120 1,451 1,646 Standard error   30 67 54 47 F, 71+ y 1,368 2,407 954 1,294 1,498 Standard error   42 65 58 53 F, Pregnant 346 2,905 1,245 1,617 1,843 Standard error   143 382 340 305 F, Lactating 99 3,636 1,304 1,984 2,355 Standard error   255 952 755 682 P/L 440 3,056 1,502 1,881 2,104 Standard error   131 511 416 352 All individuals 28,575 2,705 1,107 1,461 1,677 Standard error   19 33 29 29 All individuals (+P/L) 29,015 2,712 1,106 1,461 1,678 Standard error   19 33 30 30 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months and children 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small, so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 712 901 1,146 1,477 1,736 2,547 1,176 1,479 1,910 2,413 2,842 3,301 1,444 1,859 2,406 2,905 3,316 4,063 1,912 2,152 2,411 2,660 2,816 3,127 30 33 38 45 50 63 2,106 2,577 3,134 3,719 4,112 4,943 63 75 102 144 181 278 2,401 3,047 3,822 4,645 5,201 6,389 135 168 207 257 301 422 2,760 3,405 4,151 4,914 5,414 6,449 60 73 100 138 169 246 2,841 3,444 4,139 4,850 5,317 6,288 45 51 65 90 113 178 2,748 3,327 3,987 4,656 5,093 5,994 58 66 90 113 159 361 2,474 2,948 3,488 4,069 4,469 5,326 112 53 102 114 111 314 1,745 2,146 2,591 3,031 3,312 3,876 55 65 83 117 148 226 1,638 2,050 2,527 3,016 3,338 4,006 68 78 94 117 139 195 1,784 2,190 2,640 3,082 3,364 3,927 31 33 43 65 85 135 2,077 2,536 3,058 3,583 3,924 4,623 35 39 50 69 86 129 2,107 2,510 2,970 3,451 3,776 4,470 52 39 76 63 82 324 1,998 2,387 2,816 3,237 3,504 4,039 42 46 52 63 72 95 2,346 2,842 3,368 3,865 4,172 4,770 153 162 183 222 257 345 3,194 3,863 4,544 5,167 5,543 6,255 369 317 459 726 925 1,350 2,439 2,964 3,515 4,033 4,352 4,972 136 143 164 196 222 284 2,148 2,677 3,304 3,971 4,430 5,451 20 23 28 37 46 75 2,151 2,681 3,308 3,974 4,431 5,447 20 22 29 37 46 75 DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics (2003).

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate TABLE D-7 Mean and Selected Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Potassium (mg) by Non-Hispanic Blacks: United States, NHANES III, 1988–1994 Sex/Age Categorya n Mean Percentile 1st 5th 10th Both sexes, 2–6 mo 156 974 339 488 545 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 128 1,378 375 701 832 Both sexes, 1–3 y 980 1,862 371 713 921 Both sexes, 4–8 y 1,105 2,170 1,345 1,556 1,676 Standard error   28 24 22 22 M, 9–13 y 425 2,386 1,018 1,325 1,511 Standard error   59 47 48 49 M, 14–18 y 326 2,991 1,029 1,428 1,681 Standard error   103 70 74 76 M, 19–30 y 586 3,107 1,171 1,582 1,851 Standard error   137 98 144 146 M, 31–50 y 808 2,887 1,164 1,539 1,769 Standard error   59 59 53 72 M, 51–70 y 489 2,369 917 1,232 1,426 Standard error   78 57 53 52 M, 71+ y 191 2,183 838 1,118 1,293 Standard error   91 61 55 53 F, 9–13 y 431 2,114 892 1,186 1,360 Standard error   62 48 45 47 F, 14–18 y 333 2,062 843 1,123 1,292 Standard error   68 43 47 51 F, 19–30 y 652 2,063 801 1,075 1,244 Standard error   59 39 42 44 F, 31–50 y 1,003 2,063 866 1,131 1,294 Standard error   35 31 30 29 F, 51–70 y 530 2,063 863 1,136 1,301 Standard error   33 34 31 30 F, 71+ y 217 2,014 872 1,135 1,293 Standard error   76 43 49 54 Pregnant 111 2,816 1,236 1,579 1,789 Standard error   174 141 135 135 Lactating 11 3,437 1,525 1,525 1,562 P/L 120 2,874 1,262 1,612 1,827 Standard error   166 130 126 128 All individuals 8,360 2,334 888 1,206 1,375 Standard error   21 18 18 19 All individuals (+P/L) 8,480 2,343 891 1,211 1,382 Standard error   21 18 19 19 a M = male, F = female, P/L = female pregnant and/or lactating. NOTES: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months, children 1–3 years of age, and lactating females are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small, so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 694 929 1,173 1,568 1,698 2,030 983 1,312 1,668 2,117 2,406 2,619 1,307 1,793 2,331 2,865 3,314 4,317 1,890 2,146 2,424 2,693 2,863 3,200 24 28 33 41 47 60 1,861 2,310 2,828 3,358 3,706 4,425 54 60 69 84 100 143 2,176 2,841 3,642 4,493 5,068 6,293 80 93 130 202 265 428 2,383 3,036 3,686 4,386 4,936 6,269 199 341 134 291 291 614 2,206 2,778 3,450 4,148 4,611 5,578 68 66 121 102 132 500 1,795 2,278 2,844 3,430 3,819 4,629 56 69 95 132 162 233 1,632 2,083 2,625 3,201 3,588 4,416 57 75 117 188 247 398 1,678 2,069 2,501 2,923 3,192 3,728 53 64 74 86 95 122 1,607 2,004 2,454 2,905 3,197 3,790 60 70 81 97 112 155 1,566 1,986 2,476 2,980 3,313 4,008 50 58 70 89 106 155 1,599 1,994 2,451 2,920 3,228 3,870 30 33 44 65 85 134 1,610 2,003 2,451 2,902 3,195 3,797 30 32 42 62 80 127 1,587 1,958 2,381 2,806 3,082 3,644 64 77 92 112 129 174 2,188 2,712 3,331 3,979 4,413 5,327 144 168 205 254 293 395 1,869 2,985 5,268 5,268 5,454 5,454 2,234 2,768 3,398 4,057 4,496 5,422 138 161 196 240 275 364 1,734 2,230 2,808 3,433 3,810 4,779 19 22 33 68 61 69 1,744 2,238 2,823 3,429 3,816 4,808 18 19 29 42 44 70 DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics (2003).

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate TABLE D-8 Mean and Selected Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Sodium (mg): United States, NHANES III, 1988–1994 Sex/Age Categorya n Mean Percentile 1st 5th 10th Both sexes, 2–6 mo 793 282 78 117 137 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 827 846 150 198 239 Both sexes, 1–3 y 3,309 2,114 443 763 980 Both sexes, 4–8 y 3,448 2,864 1,680 1,980 2,150 Standard error   47 41 43 44 M, 9–13 y 1,219 3,809 2,123 2,533 2,771 Standard error   141 575 464 395 M, 14–18 y 909 4,598 2,332 2,873 3,193 Standard error   135 612 513 444 M, 19–30 y 1,902 4,746 3,464 3,802 3,991 Standard error   88 1,350 1,060 884 M, 31–50 y 2,533 4,418 1,928 2,498 2,830 Standard error   68 143 118 104 M, 51–70 y 1,942 3,781 1,851 2,323 2,595 Standard error   73 177 157 150 M, 71+ y 1,255 3,198 1,284 1,738 2,007 Standard error   63 143 106 92 F, 9–13 y 1,216 3,178 1,732 2,092 2,295 Standard error   79 65 63 64 F, 14–18 y 949 3,083 1,075 1,494 1,757 Standard error   114 145 137 130 F, 19–30 y 1,901 3,159 1,908 2,225 2,404 Standard error   66 388 319 275 F, 31–50 y 2,939 3,032 1,416 1,797 2,017 Standard error   50 126 103 91 F, 51–70 y 2,065 2,613 1,117 1,471 1,680 Standard error   33 87 75 66 F, 71+ y 1,368 2,395 827 1,177 1,392 Standard error   54 82 87 81 Pregnant 346 3,522 2,084 2,448 2,656 Standard error   129 1,070 848 706 Lactating 99 3,697 2,522 2,834 3,009 Standard error   300 1,590 1,200 971 P/L 440 3,581 2,095 2,478 2,695 Standard error   103 626 507 431 All individuals 28,575 3,415 1,174 1,672 1,956 Standard error   31 47 44 38 All individuals (+P/L) 29,015 3,418 1,177 1,675 1,959 Standard error   31 46 43 37 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months and children 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small, so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 178 234 303 418 595 1,398 341 645 1,202 1,746 2,095 2,899 1,410 1,953 2,617 3,403 4,141 5,374 2,452 2,818 3,225 3,636 3,906 4,471 45 48 52 59 65 80 3,198 3,724 4,325 4,950 5,373 6,277 268 146 243 508 718 1,220 3,777 4,504 5,317 6,127 6,648 7,707 306 153 246 504 689 1,100 4,323 4,717 5,137 5,539 5,791 6,289 548 132 433 969 1,330 2,080 3,452 4,271 5,220 6,187 6,841 8,283 95 72 108 167 225 373 3,079 3,672 4,359 5,100 5,612 6,721 120 72 104 203 277 455 2,496 3,103 3,793 4,508 4,983 5,979 70 59 103 161 221 424 2,654 3,097 3,610 4,160 4,542 5,396 71 81 93 117 137 189 2,266 2,941 3,746 4,592 5,156 6,345 117 116 156 237 304 469 2,721 3,107 3,538 3,978 4,271 4,888 188 84 123 294 425 723 2,425 2,946 3,540 4,146 4,558 5,478 73 56 57 96 140 263 2,062 2,535 3,077 3,644 4,024 4,828 50 35 41 77 110 193 1,794 2,294 2,863 3,504 3,978 5,064 64 53 72 114 176 366 3,028 3,478 3,968 4,443 4,744 5,343 435 143 393 804 1,080 1,640 3,315 3,674 4,054 4,414 4,637 5,076 581 301 667 1,190 1,540 2,230 3,081 3,543 4,039 4,516 4,816 5,407 283 120 219 459 624 969 2,494 3,219 4,123 5,121 5,815 7,413 33 30 41 66 94 161 2,499 3,223 4,126 5,120 5,813 7,405 32 30 40 65 91 153 DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics (2003).

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate TABLE D-9 Mean and Selected Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Sodium (mg) by Non-Hispanic Whites: United States, NHANES III, 1988–1994 Sex/Age Categorya n Mean Percentile 1st 5th 10th Both sexes, 2–6 mo 444 268 74 117 137 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 459 831 157 211 249 Both sexes, 1–3 y 1,012 2,097 495 791 1,030 Both sexes, 4–8 y 929 2,818 1,567 1,862 2,036 Standard error   56 44 45 47 M, 9–13 y 309 3,900 1,844 2,284 2,554 Standard error   184 110 113 117 M, 14–18 y 224 4,648 1,977 2,598 2,971 Standard error   194 142 146 152 M, 19–30 y 456 4,905 2,176 2,779 3,146 Standard error   120 100 95 96 M, 31–50 y 852 4,422 2,087 2,621 2,942 Standard error   79 68 61 61 M, 51–70 y 899 3,812 1,889 2,356 2,628 Standard error   74 64 82 110 M, 71+ y 870 3,382 1,564 2,004 2,261 Standard error   79 65 59 64 F, 9–13 y 315 3,148 1,547 1,897 2,110 Standard error   111 87 82 82 F, 14–18 y 273 3,018 1,220 1,622 1,867 Standard error   138 74 90 101 F, 19–30 y 541 3,090 1,389 1,782 2,015 Standard error   62 40 48 54 F, 31–50 y 1,008 3,005 1,385 1,765 1,991 Standard error   55 48 46 46 F, 51–70 y 949 2,676 1,248 1,601 1,806 Standard error   41 36 61 73 F, 71+ y 973 2,484 1,178 1,493 1,678 Standard error   60 51 50 51 Pregnant 83 3,544 1,667 2,132 2,403 Standard error   181 186 176 171 Lactating 19 3,741 2,113 2,460 2,671 Standard error   411 310 309 316 P/L 101 3,583 1,747 2,198 2,460 Standard error   141 184 165 157 All individuals 10,513 3,434 1,217 1,707 1,995 Standard error   36 20 23 24 All individuals (+P/L) 10,614 3,436 1,221 1,711 2,000 Standard error   36 20 23 24 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTES: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months and children 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so, their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 175 222 301 397 546 1,237 346 593 1,212 1,744 2,115 2,590 1,412 1,954 2,554 3,293 4,061 5,303 2,357 2,759 3,215 3,677 3,977 4,596 50 56 64 76 87 116 3,071 3,753 4,566 5,430 6,017 7,288 131 162 223 319 401 617 3,660 4,527 5,504 6,479 7,108 8,386 169 196 229 265 291 355 3,840 4,740 5,790 6,877 7,598 9,107 103 121 144 177 205 285 3,539 4,299 5,171 6,059 6,641 7,842 68 81 97 116 131 172 3,115 3,707 4,390 5,125 5,630 6,718 117 70 94 110 129 356 2,724 3,294 3,943 4,614 5,060 5,996 67 73 100 126 152 276 2,514 3,041 3,665 4,322 4,763 5,702 81 89 122 199 283 540 2,328 2,920 3,601 4,297 4,752 5,688 120 141 162 185 204 258 2,441 2,980 3,616 4,302 4,775 5,808 53 57 81 107 162 411 2,408 2,931 3,522 4,115 4,497 5,277 48 53 64 80 94 128 2,171 2,611 3,107 3,625 3,974 4,713 67 39 73 88 84 165 2,014 2,425 2,882 3,357 3,679 4,379 54 57 70 93 113 191 2,892 3,486 4,133 4,758 5,153 5,937 166 174 210 282 344 496 3,074 3,612 4,267 4,978 5,465 6,527 341 391 475 603 715 1,020 2,935 3,518 4,161 4,793 5,194 5,997 147 145 157 189 222 310 2,532 3,250 4,135 5,106 5,785 7,297 28 34 45 58 70 103 2,537 3,254 4,136 5,104 5,781 7,286 28 35 45 59 70 104 DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics (2003).

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate TABLE D-10 Mean and Selected Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Sodium (mg) by Non-Hispanic Blacks: United States, NHANES III, 1988–1994 Sex/Age Categorya n Mean Percentile 1st 5th 10th Both sexes, 2–6 mo 156 303 74 111 134 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 128 810 128 196 198 Both sexes, 1–3 y 980 2,370 490 865 1,069 Both sexes, 4–8 y 1,105 3,100 1,647 1,989 2,192 Standard error   51 44 40 40 M, 9–13 y 425 3,519 1,575 2,009 2,273 Standard error   125 100 177 233 M, 14–18 y 326 4,604 1,832 2,420 2,785 Standard error   174 123 134 141 M, 19–30 y 586 4,831 1,907 2,537 2,927 Standard error   179 86 98 108 M, 31–50 y 808 4,307 1,752 2,339 2,689 Standard error   116 66 71 76 M, 51–70 y 489 3,136 1,173 1,594 1,855 Standard error   140 78 196 264 M, 71+ y 191 2,517 954 1,302 1,515 Standard error   89 54 59 64 F, 9–13 y 431 3,277 1,451 1,879 2,134 Standard error   110 83 77 77 F, 14–18 y 333 3,220 1,295 1,728 1,991 Standard error   143 162 141 131 F, 19–30 y 652 3,359 1,346 1,766 2,029 Standard error   112 49 68 78 F, 31–50 y 1,003 2,971 1,285 1,689 1,926 Standard error   50 47 43 42 F, 51–70 y 530 2,447 1,021 1,351 1,550 Standard error   63 46 49 51 F, 71+ y 217 2,040 831 1,094 1,255 Standard error   91 65 68 71 Pregnant 111 3,845 1,631 2,164 2,479 Standard error   265 237 226 226 Lactating 11 3,960 1,087 1,087 1,264 P/L 120 3,836 1,609 2,139 2,453 Standard error   235 212 202 201 All individuals 8,360 3,376 1,043 1,561 1,858 Standard error   36 23 31 30 All individuals (+P/L) 8,480 3,384 1,047 1,566 1,864 Standard error   36 23 32 30 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTES: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months, children 1–3 years of age, and lactating females are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small, so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 166 244 312 417 530 2,486 295 512 1,166 1,816 2,025 2,997 1,569 2,195 2,901 3,899 4,615 5,807 2,564 3,032 3,562 4,096 4,444 5,157 42 49 61 79 95 135 2,768 3,406 4,147 4,911 5,415 6,464 242 126 181 238 234 494 3,486 4,412 5,513 6,671 7,447 9,089 154 173 211 283 349 526 3,670 4,644 5,788 6,976 7,766 9,421 131 165 220 303 372 550 3,332 4,145 5,100 6,127 6,832 8,358 89 110 144 188 223 309 2,351 3,004 3,779 4,588 5,125 6,246 277 137 185 226 207 608 1,917 2,432 3,025 3,627 4,020 4,827 76 91 110 133 152 203 2,604 3,194 3,861 4,528 4,958 5,829 86 107 137 172 198 260 2,485 3,117 3,844 4,583 5,065 6,056 122 130 157 201 240 344 2,536 3210 4,019 4,877 5,457 6,698 86 97 140 206 265 448 2,352 2878 3,485 4,131 4,572 5,515 42 47 62 86 107 162 1,918 2382 2,905 3,427 3,764 4,448 55 62 74 92 108 149 1,563 1964 2,434 2,922 3,246 3,924 77 88 107 141 172 255 3,054 3765 4,548 5,316 5,803 6,778 235 257 290 337 377 485 1,615 2724 4,993 8,362 8,362 8,362 3,031 3748 4,545 5,331 5,833 6,840 207 226 257 303 343 449 2,412 3,170 4,134 5,127 5,828 7,563 26 32 60 71 86 133 2,419 3179 4,144 5,138 5,838 7,564 26 32 59 72 86 133 DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics (2003).

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate TABLE D-11 Mean and Selected Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Sodium:Potassium (molar ratio): United States, NHANES III, 1988–1994 Sex/Age Categorya n Mean Percentile 1st 5th 10th Both sexes, 2–6 mo 793 0.49 0.20 0.27 0.31 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 827 0.93 0.22 0.31 0.36 Both sexes, 1–3 y 3,309 1.99 0.49 0.77 0.94 Both sexes, 4–8 y 3,448 2.39 1.54 1.74 1.86   Standard error   0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 M, 9–13 y 1,219 2.63 1.44 1.71 1.88 Standard error   0.06 0.04 0.04 0.04 M, 14–18 y 909 2.81 1.37 1.75 1.96 Standard error   0.05 0.06 0.05 0.05 M, 19–30 y 1,902 2.56 1.37 1.66 1.82 Standard error   0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 M, 31–50 y 2,533 2.35 1.24 1.50 1.65 Standard error   0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 M, 51–70 y 1,942 2.14 1.09 1.34 1.48 Standard error   0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 M, 71+ y 1,255 2.07 1.04 1.29 1.43 Standard error   0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 F, 9–13 y 1,216 2.74 1.48 1.77 1.94 Standard error   0.09 0.06 0.04 0.07 F, 14–18 y 949 2.70 1.43 1.71 1.88 Standard error   0.07 0.05 0.05 0.05 F, 19–30 y 1,901 2.61 1.36 1.65 1.82 Standard error   0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 F, 31–50 y 2,939 2.27 1.18 1.43 1.57 Standard error   0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 F, 51–70 y 2,065 1.96 1.02 1.24 1.37 Standard error   0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 F, 71+ y 1,368 1.89 0.99 1.20 1.32 Standard error   0.04 0.02 0.02 0.03 Pregnant 346 2.32 1.16 1.42 1.57 Standard error   0.14 0.07 0.11 0.12 Lactating 99 2.03 1.06 1.23 1.36 Standard error   0.25 0.09 0.11 0.13 P/L 440 2.27 1.14 1.39 1.55 Standard error   0.13 0.06 0.08 0.10 All individuals 28,575 2.32 1.20 1.46 1.61 Standard error   0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 All individuals (+P/L) 29,015 2.32 1.08 1.36 1.53 Standard error   0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTES: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months and children 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small, so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0.37 0.43 0.50 0.64 0.75 1.96 0.45 0.76 1.23 1.75 2.11 3.26 1.29 1.81 2.42 3.14 3.71 5.74 2.08 2.35 2.65 2.97 3.18 3.62 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.08 2.18 2.57 3.01 3.47 3.78 4.41 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.09 0.11 0.15 2.33 2.74 3.21 3.72 4.09 4.91 0.05 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.12 0.17 2.13 2.50 2.93 3.35 3.63 4.18 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.07 1.93 2.28 2.70 3.12 3.41 4.06 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.09 1.74 2.07 2.45 2.86 3.15 3.82 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.10 0.21 1.69 2.00 2.37 2.78 3.07 3.71 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.08 0.11 0.19 2.26 2.66 3.11 3.62 4.00 4.94 0.11 0.08 0.18 0.20 0.19 0.25 2.20 2.62 3.10 3.61 3.95 4.66 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.14 0.24 2.14 2.54 3.00 3.49 3.83 4.55 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.11 1.84 2.20 2.61 3.05 3.34 3.99 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.08 0.09 0.12 1.61 1.91 2.25 2.60 2.84 3.36 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.06 1.55 1.84 2.18 2.52 2.75 3.21 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.11 1.87 2.25 2.69 3.16 3.47 4.12 0.13 0.13 0.16 0.22 0.27 0.44 1.61 1.94 2.33 2.78 3.11 3.95 0.16 0.21 0.30 0.48 0.66 1.21 1.83 2.19 2.61 3.08 3.41 4.13 0.10 0.11 0.15 0.21 0.27 0.50 1.89 2.25 2.67 3.12 3.42 4.09 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.05 1.84 2.23 2.71 3.22 3.57 4.36 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.05 DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics (2003).